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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684518/long-term-outcomes-after-encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis-in-adult-patients-with-moyamoya-disease-presenting-with-ischemia
#1
Xiang-Yang Bao, Yong Zhang, Qian-Nan Wang, Qian Zhang, Hui-Wang, Zheng-Shan Zhang, De-Sheng Li, Lian Duan
BACKGROUND: In adult Moyamoya disease(MMD), there remains controversy about the effectiveness of revascularization surgeries because randomized studies have not been performed to compare the efficacy of surgical techniques. OBJECT: There is an ongoing controversy regarding the most appropriate surgical treatment for adult patients with MMD. METHODS: Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) was performed on 247 hemispheres in 145 patients. The clinical and demographic characteristics of patients were obtained via retrospective chart review...
April 20, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684474/environmental-enrichment-cognitive-neuroprotection-in-an-experimental-model-of-cerebral-ischemia-biochemical-and-molecular-aspects
#2
Lara Vezula Gonçalves, Alice Laschuk Herlinger, Tamara Andrea Alarcon Ferreira, Juliana Barbosa Coitinho, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires, Cristina Martins-Silva
Stroke is considered a major cause of global morbidity. Currently, there are no effective treatments for post-stroke cognitive impairment. Enriched environment (EE) has been brought forward as a preconditioning method to induce cerebral tolerance in an ischemic event. However, the subjacent mechanisms involved in this tolerance are not yet clear. Herein we aimed to identify the mechanisms of neuroprotection triggered by EE preconditioning in a murine model of ischemic stroke. In order to do so, C57Bl/6 mice were kept for five weeks either in EE or in standard environment (SC) prior to ischemic injury through bilateral carotid occlusion (BCCAo) or sham surgery...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683870/isosteviol-sodium-injection-improves-outcomes-by-modulating-tlrs-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-inflammatory-responses-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#3
Jie Zan, Hao Zhang, Min-Yi Lu, Hui-Min Beng, Kai-Lun Zhong, Xiao-Ou Sun, Wen Tan
Previous studies have shown that isosteviol sodium (STVNa) protects against permanent cerebral ischemia injury by inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory responses. Overwhelming evidence shows that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the upstream regulators of NF-κB. On the basis of the similarity of the pathology caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, we speculated that STVNa may have a therapeutic effect against TBI through regulation of the TLRs/NF-κB signaling-mediated inflammatory response...
April 20, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683098/untargeted-metabolomics-in-the-discovery-of-novel-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets-for-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-diseases
#4
Vi T Dang, Aric Huang, Geoff H Werstuck
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Four out of five CVD deaths are due to myocardial infarction or stroke. Despite many initiatives that have been established for CVD prevention and risk management, and new therapies to treat existing CVD, patients continue to die from cardiac events. Clearly, we need to identify new therapeutic targets and strategies. Early diagnosis of CVDs and identification of patients at high risk of developing adverse events would allow for timely intervention that prevents serious consequences or death...
April 20, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682469/conservative-management-versus-endovascular-or-open-surgery-in-the-spectrum-of-type-b-aortic-dissection
#5
Xun Yuan, Andreas Mitsis, Mohammed Ghonem, Ilias Iakovakis, Christoph A Nienaber
Background: Type B aortic dissection is a life-threatening acute aortic condition often with acute ischemic signs or symptoms. With initial management focusing on alleviating malperfusion and pain, and avoiding propagation of dissection or rupture both systolic blood and pulse pressure should be reduced initially by an aggressive medical approach. In the setting of persistent signs of complications endovascular strategies have replaced open surgery and led to a fourfold increase in early survival and better long-term outcomes...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681850/-tnfrsf12a-mediated-atherosclerosis-signaling-and-inflammatory-response-as-a-common-protection-mechanism-of-shuxuening-injection-against-both-myocardial-and-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injuries
#6
Ming Lyu, Ying Cui, Tiechan Zhao, Zhaochen Ning, Jie Ren, Xingpiao Jin, Guanwei Fan, Yan Zhu
Shuxuening injection (SXNI) is a widely prescribed herbal medicine of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGB) for cerebral and cardiovascular diseases in China. However, its curative effects on ischemic stroke and heart diseases and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Taking an integrated approach of RNA-seq and network pharmacology analysis, we compared transcriptome profiles of brain and heart ischemia reperfusion injury in C57BL/6J mice to identify common and differential target genes by SXNI. Models for myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) by ligating left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) for 30 min ischemia and 24 h reperfusion and cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (CIRI) by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min ischemia and 24 h reperfusion were employed to identify the common mechanisms of SXNI on both cerebral and myocardial ischemia reperfusion...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680773/changes-in-the-hippocampal-and-peripheral-phospholipid-profiles-are-associated-with-neurodegeneration-hallmarks-in-a-long-term-global-cerebral-ischemia-model-attenuation-by-linalool
#7
Angélica Maria Sabogal-Guáqueta, Rafael Posada-Duque, Natalie Charlotte Cortes, Julian D Arias-Londoño, Gloria Patricia Cardona-Gómez
Phospholipid alterations in the brain are associated with progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment after acute and chronic injuries. Various types of treatments have been evaluated for their abilities to block the progression of the impairment, but effective treatments targeting long-term post-stroke alterations are not available. In this study, we analyzed changes in the central and peripheral phospholipid profiles in ischemic rats and determined whether a protective monoterpene, Linalool, could modify them...
April 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679638/inhibition-of-immunoproteasome-promotes-angiogenesis-via-enhancing-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-abundance-in-rats-following-focal-cerebral-ischaemia
#8
Xingyong Chen, Xu Zhang, Ting Chen, Xiulong Jiang, Xiaosong Wang, Huixin Lei, Yinzhou Wang
Angiogenesis after ischemic stroke contributes to the restoration of blood supply in the ischemic zone. Strategies to improve angiogenesis may facilitate the function recovery after stroke. Growing evidence shows that proteasome inhibitors enhance angioneurogenesis and induces a long-term neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia in rodents' models. We have previously reported that inhibition of the immunoproteasome subunit low molecular mass peptide 2 (LMP2) offers a strong neuroprotection in ischemic stroke rats...
April 18, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673933/lysophosphatidic-acid-induces-neuronal-cell-death-via-activation-of-asparagine-endopeptidase-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#9
Chao Wang, Jie Zhang, Junchun Tang, Yi-Yi Li, YanXia Gu, Ying Yu, Jing Xiong, Xueqing Zhao, Zheng Zhang, Ting-Ting Li, Jutao Chen, Qi Wan, Zhaohui Zhang
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), an extracellular signaling molecule, influences diverse biological events, including the pathophysiological process induced after ischemic brain injury. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the pathological change after ischemic stroke remain elusive. Here we report that asparagine endopeptidase (AEP), a lysosomal cysteine proteinase, is regulated by LPA during stroke. AEP proteolytically cleaves tau and generates tauN368 fragments, triggering neuronal death. Inhibiting the generation of LPA reduces the expression of AEP and tauN368, and alleviates neuronal cell death...
April 16, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673627/transient-monocular-blindness-vascular-causes-and-differential-diagnoses
#10
REVIEW
S Bidot, D Biotti
Transient monocular blindness is an acute episode of ischemic origin in which one eye has profound visual loss, followed by full recovery within one hour. Transient monocular blindness most often occurs in the setting of retinal ischemia secondary to carotid embolism, but other mechanisms have been reported, including thrombosis (most often in the setting of giant cell arteritis), hemodynamic disorders (secondary to severe carotid stenosis), or vasospasm. Transient monocular blindness is considered a transient ischemic attack originating in the carotid arteries, and must be managed the same as transient ischemic attack involving the brain, in order to prevent a subsequent stroke...
April 16, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673616/nxy-059-a-failed-stroke-neuroprotectant-offers-no-protection-to-stem-cell-derived-human-neurons
#11
Ana Antonic, Mirella Dottori, Malcolm R Macleod, Geoffrey A Donnan, David W Howells
BACKGROUND: Developing new medicines is a complex process where understanding the reasons for both failure and success takes us forward. One gap in our understanding of most candidate stroke drugs before clinical trial is whether they have a protective effect on human tissues. NXY-059 is a spin-trap reagent hypothesized to have activity against the damaging oxidative biology which accompanies ischemic stroke. Re-examination of the preclinical in vivo dataset for this agent in the wake of the failed SAINT-II RCT highlighted the presence of a range of biases leading to overestimation of the magnitude of NXY-059's effects in laboratory animals...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673298/initial-clinical-experience-using-the-low-profile-altura-endograft-system-with-double-d-shaped-proximal-stents-for-endovascular-aneurysm-repair
#12
Dainis Krievins, Albrecht Krämer, Janis Savlovskis, Georgij Oszkinis, E Sebastian Debus, Alexander Oberhuber, Christopher K Zarins
PURPOSE: To report the initial clinical results of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) using the low-profile (14-F) Altura Endograft System, which features a double "D-shaped" stent design with suprarenal fixation and modular iliac components that are deployed from distal to proximal. METHODS: From 2011 to 2015, 90 patients (mean age 72.8±8.3 years; 79 men) with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA; mean diameter 53.8±5.7 mm) were treated at 10 clinical sites in 2 prospective, controlled clinical studies using the Altura endograft...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673284/reducing-myeloperoxidase-activity-decreases-inflammation-and-increases-cellular-protection-in-ischemic-stroke
#13
Hyeon J Kim, Ying Wei, Gregory R Wojtkiewicz, Ji Y Lee, Michael A Moskowitz, John W Chen
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a pro-inflammatory enzyme abundantly secreted by activated myeloid cells after stroke. We show that when MPO activity is either blocked by the specific inhibitor 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (ABAH) in wildtype (WT) mice or congenitally absent (MPO-/- ), there was decreased cell loss, including degenerating neurons and oligodendrocytes, in the ischemic brains compared to vehicle-treated WT mice after stroke. MPO inhibition also reduced the number of activated myeloid cells after ischemia...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671419/trpm2-a-candidate-therapeutic-target-for-treating-neurological-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Jillian Corinne Belrose, Michael Frederick Jackson
Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a calcium (Ca2+ )-permeable non-selective cation channel belonging to the TRP ion channel family. Oxidative stress-induced TRPM2 activation provokes aberrant intracellular Ca2+ accumulation and cell death in a variety of cell types, including neurons. Aberrant TRPM2 function has been implicated in several neurological disorders including ischemia/stroke, Alzheimer's disease, neuropathic pain, Parkinson's disease and bipolar disorder. In addition to research identifying a role for TRPM2 in disease, progress has been made in the identification of physiological functions of TRPM2 in the brain, including recent evidence that TRPM2 is necessary for the induction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent long-term depression, an important form of synaptic plasticity at glutamate synapses...
April 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671418/the-role-of-k-atp-channels-in-cerebral-ischemic-stroke-and-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Vivian Szeto, Nai-Hong Chen, Hong-Shuo Sun, Zhong-Ping Feng
ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP ) channels are ubiquitously expressed on the plasma membrane of cells in multiple organs, including the heart, pancreas and brain. KATP channels play important roles in controlling and regulating cellular functions in response to metabolic state, which are inhibited by ATP and activated by Mg-ADP, allowing the cell to couple cellular metabolic state (ATP/ADP ratio) to electrical activity of the cell membrane. KATP channels mediate insulin secretion in pancreatic islet beta cells, and controlling vascular tone...
April 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671416/pharmacological-approaches-promoting-stem-cell-based-therapy-following-ischemic-stroke-insults
#16
REVIEW
Shu-Zhen Zhu, Vivian Szeto, Mei-Hua Bao, Hong-Shuo Sun, Zhong-Ping Feng
Stroke can lead to long-term neurological deficits. Adult neurogenesis, the continuous generation of newborn neurons in distinct regions of the brain throughout life, has been considered as one of the appoaches to restore the neurological function following ischemic stroke. However, ischemia-induced spontaneous neurogenesis is not suffcient, thus cell-based therapy, including infusing exogenous stem cells or stimulating endogenous stem cells to help repair of injured brain, has been studied in numerous animal experiments and some pilot clinical trials...
April 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671210/indian-ginseng-withania-somnifera-supplementation-ameliorates-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunctions-in-experimental-model-of-stroke
#17
Abhilasha Sood, Arpit Mehrotra, Devinder K Dhawan, Rajat Sandhir
Stroke is an increasingly prevalent clinical condition and second leading cause of death globally. The present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of Indian Ginseng, also known as Withania somnifera (WS), supplementation on middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induced mitochondrial dysfunctions in experimental model of ischemic stroke. Stroke was induced in animals by occluding the middle cerebral artery, followed by reperfusion injury. Ischemia reperfusion injury resulted in increased oxidative stress indicated by increased reactive oxygen species and protein carbonyl levels; compromised antioxidant system; in terms of reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, along with reduction in GSH levels and the redox ratio, impaired mitochondrial functions and enhanced expression of apoptosis markers...
April 18, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671019/lixisenatide-a-novel-glp-1-analog-protects-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-diabetic-rats
#18
Rania G Abdel-Latif, Gehan H Heeba, Ashraf Taye, Mohamed M A Khalifa
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke accompanied by vascular dysfunction and poor cerebrovascular outcome. Lixisenatide is a glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog that is recently used for T2DM treatment with established neuroprotective properties. This study investigated and compared the neuroprotective effect of lixisenatide against glimepiride on diabetic rats subjected to global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. T2DM-induced adult male Wistar rats were administered lixisenatide or glimepiride prior to induction of global cerebral I/R-induced injury...
April 18, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670627/sex-differences-in-adipose-tissue-cd8-t-cells-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-middle-aged-mice
#19
Hilda Ahnstedt, Meaghan Roy-O'Reilly, Monica S Spychala, Alexis S Mobley, Javiera Bravo-Alegria, Anjali Chauhan, Jaroslaw Aronowski, Sean P Marrelli, Louise D McCullough
The prevalence of cardiovascular disease has increased among middle-aged women in the United States, yet has declined in middle-aged men. In experimental stroke, middle-aged females have larger strokes and greater inflammation than age-matched males or younger females. The mechanism underlying this shift from an "ischemia-protected" to an "ischemia-sensitive" phenotype in aging females is unknown. One potential factor is an age-related increase in systemic factors that induce inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666071/b-type-natriuretic-peptide-assessment-in-patients-undergoing-revascularization-for-left-main-coronary-artery-disease-analysis-from-the-excel-trial
#20
Björn Redfors, Shmuel Chen, Aaron Crowley, Ori Ben-Yehuda, Bernard J Gersh, Nicholas J Lembo, W Morris Brown, Adrian P Banning, David P Taggart, Patrick W Serruys, Arie Pieter Kappetein, Joseph F Sabik, Gregg W Stone
Background -Elevated B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is reflective of impaired cardiac function and is associated with worse prognosis among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We sought to assess the association between baseline BNP, adverse outcomes, and the relative efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with left main (LM) CAD. Methods -The EXCEL trial randomized patients with LMCAD and low or intermediate SYNTAX scores to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents versus CABG...
April 17, 2018: Circulation
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