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Neurovascular unit

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217813/-vegf-enhances-reconstruction-of-neurovascular-units-in-the-brain-after-injury
#1
Zhi-Guang Pan, Ying Mao, Feng-Yan Sun
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was originally recognized as a substance predominantly with vascular permeability and angiogenesis. Recently, more and more evidence indicated that VEGF is expressed in the neurons of the developing and adult brains. Functional investigation demonstrated that VEGF shows several important effects on the neuronal development and physiological function. For example, VEGF accelerates the development of neurons and neural dendritic and axon growth. Besides, VEGF directly and acutely regulates the functions of multiple ion channels of the neuron membrane and changes neural excitability...
February 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193453/energy-and-the-alzheimer-brain
#2
REVIEW
Mortimer Mamelak
The high energy demands of the poorly myelinated long axon hippocampal and cortical neurons render these neurons selectively vulnerable to degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. However, pathology engages all of the major elements of the neurovascular unit of the mature Alzheimer brain, the neurons, glia and blood vessels. Neurons present with retrograde degeneration of the axodendritic tree, capillaries with string vessels and markedly reduced densities and glia with signs of inflammatory activation. The neurons, capillaries and astrocytes of the mature Alzheimer brain harbor structurally defective mitochondria...
February 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190439/neurologic-complications-of-polytrauma
#3
R M Jha, L Shutter
Neurologic complications in polytrauma can be classified by etiology and clinical manifestations: neurovascular, delirium, and spinal or neuromuscular problems. Neurovascular complications include ischemic strokes, intracranial hemorrhage, or the development of traumatic arteriovenous fistulae. Delirium and encephalopathy have a reported incidence of 67-92% in mechanically ventilated polytrauma patients. Causes include sedation, analgesia/pain, medications, sleep deprivation, postoperative state, toxic ingestions, withdrawal syndromes, organ system dysfunction, electrolyte/metabolic abnormalities, and infections...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178960/ultrasound-and-dynamic-functional-imaging-in-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Branko Malojcic, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Farzaneh A Sorond, Elsa Azevedo, Marina Diomedi, Janja Pretnar Oblak, Nicola Carraro, Marina Boban, Laszlo Olah, Stephan J Schreiber, Aleksandra Pavlovic, Zsolt Garami, Nantan M Bornstein, Bernhard Rosengarten
BACKGROUND: The vascular contributions to neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation may be assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US). This review summarises the methodology for these widely available, safe and relatively low cost tools and analyses recent work highlighting their potential utility as biomarkers for differentiating subtypes of cognitive impairment and dementia, tracking disease progression and evaluating response to treatment in various neurocognitive disorders...
February 9, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169020/description-of-stroke-mimics-after-complete-neurovascular-assessment
#5
C Avellaneda-Gómez, A Rodríguez Campello, E Giralt Steinhauer, A Gómez González, M Serra Martínez, P de Ceballos Cerrajería, A Zabalza de Torres, E Cuadrado-Godia, A Ois Santiago, J Jiménez-Conde, J Roquer
INTRODUCTION: A considerable percentage of events initially diagnosed as ischaemic stroke have non-cerebrovascular causes; these are called stroke mimics (SM). Currently available evidence about these events is heterogeneous and comes from studies with small samples. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study is to identify conditions that may present as SM, define their epidemiological and clinical characteristics, and determine the percentage of cases of SM treated with intravenous fibrinolysis...
February 4, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164774/tauopathies-focus-on-changes-at-the-neurovascular-unit
#6
Alena Michalicova, William A Banks, Jaroslav Legath, Andrej Kovac
In the past, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) had been characterized mainly as a layer of endothelial cells forming the vessel/capillary wall of the brain. More recently, the BBB is considered to be a part of a highly dynamic and interactive system called the neurovascular unit (NVU), consisting of vascular cells, glial cells, and neurons. The list of central nervous system (CNS) pathologies involving BBB dysfunction is rapidly growing. The opening of the BBB and subsequent infiltration of serum components to the brain can lead to host of processes resulting in progressive synaptic and neuronal dysfunction and loss...
February 3, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161339/amyloid-%C3%AE-related-angiitis-a-report-of-two-cases-with-unusual-presentations
#7
Denise W Ng, Shino Magaki, Kevin H Terashima, Adrienne M Keener, Noriko Salamon, Stellios Karnezis, Luke Macyszyn, Harry V Vinters
Amyloid-β related angiitis (ABRA) is a rare complication of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in which amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the leptomeningeal and cortical vessels is associated with vasculitis characterized by transmural lymphohistiocytic, often granulomatous, inflammation. Patients usually present with acute to subacute cognitive dysfunction, headaches, and focal neurologic deficits. We report two cases of ABRA with unusual clinical presentations, including one case with fatal cerebral edema leading to herniation and Duret hemorrhages, and another associated with both lobar and deep parenchymal hemorrhages with intraventricular extension as well as hypercoagulability...
February 1, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137866/endothelium-targeted-overexpression-of-heat-shock-protein-27-ameliorates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-after-ischemic-brain-injury
#8
Yejie Shi, Xiaoyan Jiang, Lili Zhang, Hongjian Pu, Xiaoming Hu, Wenting Zhang, Wei Cai, Yanqin Gao, Rehana K Leak, Richard F Keep, Michael V L Bennett, Jun Chen
The damage borne by the endothelial cells (ECs) forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during ischemic stroke and other neurological conditions disrupts the structure and function of the neurovascular unit and contributes to poor patient outcomes. We recently reported that structural aberrations in brain microvascular ECs-namely, uncontrolled actin polymerization and subsequent disassembly of junctional proteins, are a possible cause of the early onset BBB breach that arises within 30-60 min of reperfusion after transient focal ischemia...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135240/pericyte-degeneration-leads-to-neurovascular-uncoupling-and-limits-oxygen-supply-to-brain
#9
Kassandra Kisler, Amy R Nelson, Sanket V Rege, Anita Ramanathan, Yaoming Wang, Ashim Ahuja, Divna Lazic, Philbert S Tsai, Zhen Zhao, Yi Zhou, David A Boas, Sava Sakadžić, Berislav V Zlokovic
Pericytes are perivascular mural cells of brain capillaries. They are positioned centrally in the neurovascular unit between endothelial cells, astrocytes and neurons. This position allows them to regulate key neurovascular functions of the brain. The role of pericytes in the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neurovascular coupling remains, however, under debate. Using loss-of-function pericyte-deficient mice, here we show that pericyte degeneration diminishes global and individual capillary CBF responses to neuronal stimuli, resulting in neurovascular uncoupling, reduced oxygen supply to the brain and metabolic stress...
January 30, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134675/firearm-related-musculoskeletal-injuries-in-children-and-adolescents
#10
Cordelia W Carter, Melinda S Sharkey, Felicity Fishman
Firearm injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children and adolescents in the United States and take financial and emotional tolls on the affected children, their families, and society as a whole. Musculoskeletal injuries resulting from firearms are common and may involve bones, joints, and neurovascular structures and other soft tissues. Child-specific factors that must be considered in the setting of gunshot injuries include physeal arrest and lead toxicity. Understanding the ballistics associated with various types of weaponry is useful for guiding orthopaedic surgical treatment...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091411/protective-effects-of-calpain-inhibition-on-neurovascular-unit-injury-through-downregulating-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-related-inflammation-during-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#11
Xiao-Gang Tao, Jing-Hua Shi, Shu-Yu Hao, Xue-Tao Chen, Bai-Yun Liu
BACKGROUND: In addition to neurons, all components of the neurovascular unit (NVU), such as glial, endothelial, and basal membranes, are destroyed during traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous studies have shown that excessive stimulation of calpain is crucial for cerebral injury after traumatic insult. The objective of this study was to investigate whether calpain activation participated in NVU disruption and edema formation in a mouse model of controlled cortical impact (CCI). METHODS: One hundred and eight mice were divided into three groups: the sham group, the control group, and the MDL28170 group...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088914/diverse-functions-and-mechanisms-of-pericytes-in-ischemic-stroke
#12
Shuai Yang, Huijuan Jin, Yiyi Zhu, Yan Wan, Lingqiang Zhu, Bo Hu
Pericytes are mural cells embedded in the basement membrane of microvessels. Because of such a unique position in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and neurovascular unit (NVU), they receive, orchestrate and process signals from their neighboring cells to generate diverse neurovascular functions, including regulation of capillary hemodynamics, BBB permeability, clearance of toxic metabolites, angiogenesis, neuroinflammation and stem cell activity. During the different stages of ischemic stroke, pericytes play different roles: 1) On the hyperacute phase of stroke, pericytes constriction and death may be a cause of the no-reflow phenomenon in brain capillaries; 2) During the acute phase, pericytes detach from microvessels and participate in inflammatory-immunological response, resulting in the BBB damage and brain edema...
January 12, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087295/postconditioning-induced-neuroprotection-mechanisms-and-applications-in-cerebral-ischemia
#13
REVIEW
Yan-Ying Fan, Wei-Wei Hu, Fang Nan, Zhong Chen
Ischemic postconditioning (PostC) is defined as a series of rapid intermittent interruptions of blood flow at the phase of reperfusion, which produces neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via mobilizing the brain's own endogenous adaptive mechanisms. Now the concept of conventional ischemic PostC has been extended to limb remote ischemic PostC and chemical PostC with hypoxia, volatile anesthetic, CO2, etc. According to the different temporal profile of PostC, it is divided into rapid and delayed PostC...
January 10, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077357/triglyceride-rich-lipoprotein-lipolysis-products-increase-blood-brain-barrier-transfer-coefficient-and-induce-astrocyte-lipid-droplets-and-cell-stress
#14
Linda L Lee, Hnin Hnin Aung, Dennis W Wilson, Steven E Anderson, John C Rutledge, Jennifer M Rutkowsky
Elevation of blood triglycerides, primarily as triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL), has been linked to cerebrovascular inflammation, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes, two cell components of the neurovascular unit, participate in controlling blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and regulating neurovascular unit homeostasis. Our studies showed that infusion of high physiological concentrations of TGRL lipolysis products (TGRL + lipoprotein lipase) activate and injure brain endothelial cells and transiently increases the BBB transfer coefficient (Ki=permeability x surface area/volume) in vivo...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056515/race-ethnicity-as-a-predictor-for-location-of-death-in-patients-with-acute-neurovascular-events
#15
Say Salomon, Elizabeth Chuang, Deepa Bhupali, Daniel Labovitz
BACKGROUND: Site of death is an important quality indicator for patients with terminal illness. Racial and ethnic disparities exist in the quality of end-of-life care. This study explores the site of death of patients admitted for and dying of complications of acute neurovascular events in a hospital network in an urban, low-income, predominantly minority community. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to 1 of 3 general hospitals that are part of an academic medical center in Bronx, New York, with the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, or subarachnoid hemorrhage who died during the index admission or were discharged with hospice services...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053109/matrix-metalloproteinase-activity-in-infections-by-an-encephalitic-virus-mouse-adenovirus-type-1
#16
Shanna L Ashley, Carla D Pretto, Matthew T Stier, Padma Kadiyala, Luiza Castro-Jorge, Tien-Huei Hsu, Robert Doherty, Kelly E Carnahan, Maria G Castro, Pedro R Lowenstein, Katherine R Spindler
: Mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) infection causes encephalitis in susceptible strains of mice and alters the permeability of infected brains to small molecules, which indicates disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In pathologic conditions, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can disrupt the BBB through their proteolytic activity on basement membrane and tight junction proteins. We examined whether MAV-1 infection alters MMP activity in vivo and in vitro. Infected MAV-1-susceptible SJL mice had higher MMP2 and MMP9 activity in brains, measured by gelatin zymography, than mock infected mice...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053036/pericytes-as-inducers-of-rapid-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-dependent-capillary-damage-during-ischemia
#17
Robert G Underly, Manuel Levy, David A Hartmann, Roger I Grant, Ashley N Watson, Andy Y Shih
: Blood-brain barrier disruption (BBB) and release of toxic blood molecules into the brain contributes to neuronal injury during stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases. While pericytes are builders and custodians of the BBB in the normal brain, their impact on BBB integrity during ischemia remains unclear. We imaged pericyte-labeled transgenic mice with in vivo two-photon microscopy to examine the relationship between pericytes and blood plasma leakage during photothrombotic occlusion of cortical capillaries...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042026/dexamethasone-prevents-motor-deficits-and-neurovascular-damage-produced-by-shiga-toxin-2-and-lipopolysaccharide-in-the-mouse-striatum
#18
Alipio Pinto, Adriana Cangelosi, Patricia A Geoghegan, Jorge Goldstein
Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) causes bloody diarrhea and Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) that may derive to fatal neurological outcomes. Neurological abnormalities in the striatum are frequently observed in affected patients and in studies with animal models while motor disorders are usually associated with pyramidal and extra pyramidal systems. A translational murine model of encephalopathy was employed to demonstrate that systemic administration of a sublethal dose of Stx2 damaged the striatal microvasculature and astrocytes, increase the blood brain barrier permeability and caused neuronal degeneration...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040512/extracellular-vesicles-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-role-in-the-hiv-1-associated-amyloid-beta-pathology
#19
Ibolya E András, Ana Leda, Marta Garcia Contreras, Luc Bertrand, Minseon Park, Marta Skowronska, Michal Toborek
HIV-infected brains are characterized by increased amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition. It is believed that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical for Aβ homeostasis and contributes to Aβ accumulation in the brain. Extracellular vesicles (ECV), like exosomes, recently gained a lot of attention as potentially playing a significant role in Aβ pathology. In addition, HIV-1 hijacks the exosomal pathway for budding and release. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of BBB-derived ECV in the HIV-1-induced Aβ pathology in the brain...
March 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039950/ageing-causes-prominent-neurovascular-dysfunction-associated-with-loss-of-astrocytic-contacts-and-gliosis
#20
Jessica Duncombe, Ross J Lennen, Maurits A Jansen, Ian Marshall, Joanna M Wardlaw, Karen Horsburgh
AIMS: Normal neurovascular coupling, mediated by the fine interplay and communication of cells within the neurovascular unit, is critical for maintaining normal brain activity and cognitive function. This study investigated whether, with advancing age there is disruption of neurovascular coupling and specific cellular components of the neurovascular unit, and whether the effects of increasing amyloid (a key feature of Alzheimer's disease) would exacerbate these changes. METHODS: Wild-type mice, in which amyloid deposition is absent, were compared to transgenic APP littermates (TgSwDI) which develop age-dependent increases in amyloid...
December 31, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
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