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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162554/sustained-administration-of-corticosterone-at-stress-like-levels-after-stroke-suppressed-glial-reactivity-at-sites-of-thalamic-secondary-neurodegeneration
#1
Katarzyna Zalewska, Giovanni Pietrogrande, Lin Kooi Ong, Mahmoud Abdolhoseini, Murielle Kluge, Sarah J Johnson, Frederick R Walker, Michael Nilsson
Secondary neurodegeneration (SND) is an insidious and progressive condition involving the death of neurons in regions of the brain that were connected to but undamaged by the initial stroke. Our group have published compelling evidence that exposure to psychological stress can significantly exacerbate the severity SND, a finding that has considerable clinical implications given that stroke-survivors often report experiencing high and unremitting levels of psychological stress. It may be possible to use one or more targeted pharmacological approaches to limit the negative effects of stress on the recovery process but in order to move forward with this approach the most critical stress signals have to be identified...
November 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152668/the-role-of-astrocytic-calcium-and-trpv4-channels-in-neurovascular-coupling
#2
Allanah Kenny, Michael J Plank, Tim David
Neuronal activity evokes a localised change in cerebral blood flow in a response known as neurovascular coupling (NVC). Although NVC has been widely studied the exact mechanisms that mediate this response remain unclear; in particular the role of astrocytic calcium is controversial. Mathematical modelling can be a useful tool for investigating the contribution of various signalling pathways towards NVC and for analysing the underlying cellular mechanisms. The lumped parameter model of a neurovascular unit with both potassium and nitric oxide (NO) signalling pathways and comprised of neurons, astrocytes, and vascular cells has been extended to include the glutamate induced astrocytic calcium pathway with epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) signalling and the stretch dependent TRPV4 calcium channel on the astrocytic endfoot...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133510/single-cell-immuno-laser-microdissection-coupled-to-label-free-proteomics-to-reveal-the-proteotypes-of-human-brain-cells-after-ischemia
#3
Teresa García-Berrocoso, Víctor Llombart, Laura Colàs-Campàs, Alexandre Hainard, Virginie Licker, Anna Penalba, Laura Ramiro, Alba Simats, Alejandro Bustamante, Elena Martínez-Saez, Francesc Canals, Jean-Charles Sanchez, Joan Montaner
Cerebral ischemia entails rapid tissue damage in the affected brain area causing devastating neurological dysfunction. How each component of the neurovascular unit contributes or responds to the ischemic insult in the context of the human brain has not been solved yet. Thus, the analysis of the proteome is a straightforward approach to unraveling these cell proteotypes.In this study, post-mortem brain slices from ischemic stroke patients were obtained corresponding to infarcted (IC) and contralateral (CL) areas...
November 13, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128308/oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-after-cerebral-ischemia-potential-therapeutic-targets-to-preserve-the-genome-and-improve-stroke-recovery
#4
REVIEW
Peiying Li, R Anne Stetler, Rehana K Leak, Yejie Shi, Yan Li, Weifeng Yu, Michael V L Bennett, Jun Chen
The past two decades have witnessed remarkable advances in oxidative stress research, particularly in the context of ischemic brain injury. Oxidative stress in ischemic tissues compromises the integrity of the genome, resulting in DNA lesions, cell death in neurons, glial cells, and vascular cells, and impairments in neurological recovery after stroke. As DNA is particularly vulnerable to oxidative attack, cells have evolved the ability to induce multiple DNA repair mechanisms, including base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER) and non-homogenous endpoint jointing (NHEJ)...
November 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124343/anatomical-landmarks-of-mandibular-interforaminal-region-related-to-dental-implant-placement-with-3d-cbct-comparison-between-edentulous-and-dental-mandibles
#5
Elif Sener, Erinc Onem, Gulcan Coskun Akar, Figen Govsa, Mehmet Asim Ozer, Yelda Pinar, Ali Mert, B Guniz Baksi Sen
BACKGROUND: Anterior mandibular (interforaminal) region is important in implant applications as it serves a basis for neurovascular bedding and holds the prosthesis for patients. Treatment planning for dental implant patients is often complicated by the unknown extent of the anterior loop of the neurovascular bundle. Anatomical structures including mandibular incisive canal (MIC) and lingual foramen (LF) should also be examined as part of the detailed analysis for their neurovascular structures...
November 9, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123083/identification-of-a-peptide-recognizing-cerebrovascular-changes-in-mouse-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Aman P Mann, Pablo Scodeller, Sazid Hussain, Gary B Braun, Tarmo Mölder, Kadri Toome, Rajesh Ambasudhan, Tambet Teesalu, Stuart A Lipton, Erkki Ruoslahti
Cerebrovascular changes occur in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using in vivo phage display, we searched for molecular markers of the neurovascular unit, including endothelial cells and astrocytes, in mouse models of AD. We identified a cyclic peptide, CDAGRKQKC (DAG), that accumulates in the hippocampus of hAPP-J20 mice at different ages. Intravenously injected DAG peptide homes to neurovascular unit endothelial cells and to reactive astrocytes in mouse models of AD. We identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a matricellular protein that is highly expressed in the brain of individuals with AD and in mouse models, as the target of the DAG peptide...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122627/glial-function-and-dysfunction-in-the-normal-ischemic-brain
#7
REVIEW
Shino D Magaki, Christopher K Williams, Harry V Vinters
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system (CNS). Once considered to be of fairly homogeneous phenotype throughout the brain and spinal cord, they are now understood to be heterogeneous in both structure and function. They are important in brain functions as diverse as ion and fluid balance in the interstitial space, contributing to integrity of the neurovascular unit (blood-brain barrier), neurotransmitter regulation, metabolism of energy substrates and possibly even axonal regeneration...
November 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119370/vasoconstriction-and-impairment-of-neurovascular-coupling-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-descriptive-analysis-of-retinal-changes
#8
Catharina Conzen, Walid Albanna, Miriam Weiss, David Kürten, Walthard Vilser, Konstantin Kotliar, Charlotte Zäske, Hans Clusmann, Gerrit Alexander Schubert
Impaired cerebral autoregulation and neurovascular coupling (NVC) contribute to delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Retinal vessel analysis (RVA) allows non-invasive assessment of vessel dimension and NVC hereby demonstrating a predictive value in the context of various neurovascular diseases. Using RVA as a translational approach, we aimed to assess the retinal vessels in patients with SAH. RVA was performed prospectively in 24 patients with acute SAH (group A: day 5-14), in 11 patients 3 months after ictus (group B: day 90 ± 35), and in 35 age-matched healthy controls (group C)...
November 8, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118209/in-vivo-imaging-of-cns-injury-and-disease
#9
Katerina Akassoglou, Mario Merlini, Victoria A Rafalski, Raquel Real, Liang Liang, Yunju Jin, Sarah E Dougherty, Vincenzo De Paola, David J Linden, Thomas Misgeld, Binhai Zheng
In vivo optical imaging has emerged as a powerful tool with which to study cellular responses to injury and disease in the mammalian CNS. Important new insights have emerged regarding axonal degeneration and regeneration, glial responses and neuroinflammation, changes in the neurovascular unit, and, more recently, neural transplantations. Accompanying a 2017 SfN Mini-Symposium, here, we discuss selected recent advances in understanding the neuronal, glial, and other cellular responses to CNS injury and disease with in vivo imaging of the rodent brain or spinal cord...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106322/neurovascular-unit-crosstalk-pericytes-and-astrocytes-modify-cytokine-secretion-patterns-of-brain-endothelial-cells
#10
William A Banks, Andrej Kovac, Yoichi Morofuji
Crosstalk among brain endothelial cells (BECs), pericytes, and astrocytes occurs by way of soluble factors, including cytokines. Here, we studied cytokine secretion from both mouse BEC monocultures and tri-cultured with pericytes and astrocytes. Four cytokines were constitutively secreted by BEC monolayers, 12 by LPS-stimulated BECs, 10 by tri-cultures, and 14 by LPS-stimulated tri-cultures. Cytokine levels were generally higher with either LPS stimulation or tri-culture when compared to monocultures and highest in tri-cultures stimulated by LPS...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081082/epoxyeicosatrienoic-acid-inhibits-the-apoptosis-of-cerebral-microvascular-smooth-muscle-cells-by-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-via-targeting-the-jnk-c-jun-and-mtor-signaling-pathways
#11
Youyang Qu, Yu Liu, Yanmei Zhu, Li Chen, Wei Sun, Yulan Zhu
As a component of the neurovascular unit, cerebral smooth muscle cells (CSMCs) are an important mediator in the development of cerebral vascular diseases such as stroke. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are the products of arachidonic acid catalyzed by cytochrome P450 epoxygenase. EETs are shown to exert neuroprotective effects. In this article, the role of EET in the growth and apoptosis of CSMCs and the underlying mechanisms under oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions were addressed. The viability of CMSCs was decreased significantly in the OGD group, while different subtypes of EETs, especially 14,15-EET, could increase the viability of CSMCs under OGD conditions...
October 27, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057172/cerebral-and-retinal-neurovascular-changes-a-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Karru Venkata Ravi Teja, Tjm Tos Berendschot, Harry Steinbusch, A B Carroll Webers, R Praveen Murthy, P S Mathuranath
OBJECTIVES: Biomarker quest for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has gone a long way by studying various anatomical, physiological and biochemical parameters for detecting disease onset and predicting prognosis. Almost all the studies converge on the single hypothesis of the amyloid and Tau pathway. Recently, vascular hypothesis has evolved drawing attention towards a complex dynamic anatomical and physiological entity, neuro-vascular (NV) unit. Pathological changes at this level, altering the normal physiology such as auto-regulation and dynamics of blood brain barrier have been hypothesized as a probable basis for AD...
August 2017: Journal of Gerontology & Geriatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046311/activity-of-muscle-sympathetic-neurons-during-normotensive-pregnancy
#13
Sydney M L Schmidt, Charlotte W Usselman, Eric Martinek, Michael K Stickland, Colleen Glyde Julian, Radha S Chari, Rshmi Khurana, Sandra T Davidge, Margie H Davenport, Craig D Steinback
In pathological populations, elevated sympathetic activity is associated with increased activity of individual sympathetic neurons. We used custom action potential detection software to analyze multi-unit sympathetic activity in 18 normotensive pregnant women (third trimester; 33 ± 5 weeks) and 19 non-pregnant women at rest and a subset (10 and 13 respectively) during a cold pressor challenge. Although the number of action potentials per burst, and number of active amplitude based "clusters" were not different between groups the total number of sympathetic action potentials per minute was higher in pregnant women at rest...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040222/neurovascular-response-during-exercise-and-mental-stress-in-anabolic-steroid-users
#14
Rafael Armani Porello, Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos, Francis Ribeiro de Souza, Guilherme Wesley Peixoto da Fonseca, Ana Luiza Carrari Sayegh, Tiago Franco de Oliveira, César Abreu Akiho, Maurício Yonamine, Rosa Maria Rodrigues Pereira, Carlos Eduardo Negrão, Maria-Janieire de Nazaré Nunes Alves
PURPOSE: Increased resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and lower forearm blood flow (FBF) were observed in young men who use anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). However, the response of MSNA and FBF in AAS users triggered by muscle mechanoreflex and central command has never been tested. Additionally, we evaluated the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses during these maneuvers. METHODS: Nineteen AAS users (AASU) aged 31±6 yr and 18 AAS nonusers (AASNU) aged 29±4 yr were recruited...
October 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034608/nanoparticle-based-therapeutics-for-brain-injury
#15
REVIEW
Vimala N Bharadwaj, Duong T Nguyen, Vikram D Kodibagkar, Sarah E Stabenfeldt
Brain injuries affect a large patient population with major physical and emotional suffering for patients and their relatives; at a significant cost to the society. Effective diagnostic and therapeutic options available for brain injuries are limited by the complex brain injury pathology involving blood-brain barrier (BBB). Brain injuries, including ischemic stroke and brain trauma, initiate BBB opening for a short period of time, which is followed by a second reopening for an extended time. The leaky BBB and/or the alterations in the receptor expression on BBB may provide opportunities for therapeutic delivery via nanoparticles (NPs)...
October 16, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032144/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-ppar%C3%AE-a-master-gatekeeper-in-cns-injury-and-repair
#16
REVIEW
Wei Cai, Tuo Yang, Huan Liu, Lijuan Han, Kai Zhang, Xiaoming Hu, Xuejing Zhang, Ke-Jie Yin, Yanqin Gao, Michael V L Bennett, Rehana K Leak, Jun Chen
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a widely expressed ligand-modulated transcription factor that governs the expression of genes involved in inflammation, redox equilibrium, trophic factor production, insulin sensitivity, and the metabolism of lipids and glucose. Synthetic PPARγ agonists (e.g. thiazolidinediones) are used to treat Type II diabetes and have the potential to limit the risk of developing brain injury by mitigating the influence of comorbidities. If brain injury develops, PPARγ serves as a master gatekeeper of cytoprotective stress responses, improving the chances of survival and recovery of homeostatic equilibrium...
October 11, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990533/blood-brain-barrier-disruption-leads-to-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction
#17
Bin Wang, Siyuan Li, Xipeng Cao, Xinghui Dou, Jingzhu Li, Ling Wang, Mingshan Wang, Yanlin Bi
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) has received considerable attention as one of the main postoperative complications. The underlying mechanism of POCD in elderly subjects has not been fully elucidated to date. The central nervous system (CNS) is isolated from the bloodstream by the blood brain barrier (BBB) that consists of endothelial cells, capillary blood vessels and the tight junctions. The tight junctions carry out significant biological functions that are associated with the CNS and the blood circulation...
October 9, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987927/blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-and-recovery-after-ischemic-stroke
#18
REVIEW
Xiaoyan Jiang, Anuska V Andjelkovic, Ling Zhu, Tuo Yang, Michael V L Bennett, Jun Chen, Richard F Keep, Yejie Shi
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a vital role in regulating the trafficking of fluid, solutes and cells at the blood-brain interface and maintaining the homeostatic microenvironment of the CNS. Under pathological conditions, such as ischemic stroke, the BBB can be disrupted, followed by the extravasation of blood components into the brain and compromise of normal neuronal function. This article reviews recent advances in our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying BBB dysfunction and recovery after ischemic stroke...
October 5, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986948/the-role-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-hypertension
#19
Anthony Setiadi, Willian S Korim, Khalid Elsaafien, Song T Yao
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical barrier that provides both metabolic and physical protection to an immune-privileged central nervous system. The BBB has been shown to be disrupted in hypertension. This review addresses the importance of the BBB in maintaining homeostasis in the context of diseases related to autonomic dysfunction such as hypertension. We highlight the potentially important roles of the immune system and neurovascular unit in the maintenance of the BBB, whereby dysregulation may lead to autonomic dysfunction in diseases such as heart failure and hypertension...
October 6, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974740/anserine-beta-alanyl-3-methyl-l-histidine-improves-neurovascular-unit-dysfunction-and-spatial-memory-in-aged-a%C3%AE-ppswe-psen1de9-alzheimer-s-model-mice
#20
Jun Kaneko, Akiko Enya, Kota Enomoto, Qiong Ding, Tatsuhiro Hisatsune
Anserine/carnosine supplementation improves cerebral blood flow and verbal episodic memory in elderly people, as we previously reported. Anserine's buffering activity is superior to that of carnosine at neutral pH. In human sera, carnosine but not anserine is rapidly cleaved by carnosinase, limiting its effectiveness. This study examined the effects of anserine on AβPPswe/PSEN1dE9 Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice over 18-months old, an age at which these mice exhibit detectable memory deficits. We found that 8 weeks of anserine treatment completely recovered the memory deficits, improved pericyte coverage on endothelial cells in the brain, and diminished chronic glial neuroinflammatory reactions in these mice...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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