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Neurovascular unit

Mariana Moreira Coutinho Arroja, Emma Reid, Christopher McCabe
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) consists of the systemic hormone system, critically involved in regulation and homeostasis of normal physiological functions [i.e. blood pressure (BP), blood volume regulation], and an independent brain RAS, which is involved in the regulation of many functions such as memory, central control of BP and metabolic functions. In general terms, the RAS consists of two opposing axes; the 'classical axis' mediated primarily by Angiotensin II (Ang II), and the 'alternative axis' mediated mainly by Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7))...
2016: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine
Andrea Becerra-Calixto, Gloria Patricia Cardona-Gómez
Cerebral ischemia is a cerebrovascular episode that generates a high incidence of death and physical and mental disabilities worldwide. Excitotoxicity, release of free radicals, and exacerbated immune response cause serious complications in motor and cognitive areas during both short and long time frames post-ischemia. CDK5 is a kinase that is widely involved in the functions of neurons and astrocytes, and its over-activation is implicated in neurodegenerative processes. In this study, we evaluated the brain parenchymal response to the transplantation of CDK5-knockdown astrocytes into the somatosensory cortex after ischemia in rats...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Therese S Salameh, Gul N Shah, Tulin O Price, Melvin R Hayden, William A Banks
All forms of diabetes mellitus are characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting in the development of a number of microvascular and macrovascular pathologies. Diabetes is also associated with changes in brain microvasculature, leading to dysfunctions and ultimately disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). These changes are correlated with a decline in cognitive function. In diabetes, BBB damage is associated with increased oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This occurs because of the increased oxidative metabolism of glucose caused by hyperglycemia...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Wei Cai, Kai Zhang, Peiying Li, Ling Zhu, Jing Xu, Boyu Yang, Xiaoming Hu, Zhengqi Lu, Jun Chen
Current understanding on the mechanisms of brain injury and neurodegeneration highlights an appreciation of multicellular interactions within the neurovascular unit (NVU), which include the evolution of blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage, neuronal cell death or degeneration, glial reaction, and immune cell infiltration. Aging is an important factor that influences the integrity of the NVU. The age-related physiological or pathological changes in the cellular components of the NVU have been shown to increase the vulnerability of the NVU to ischemia/reperfusion injury or neurodegeneration, and to result in deteriorated brain damage...
September 30, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
Akihiro Watanabe, Tsutomu Sasaki, Toshiro Yukami, Hideaki Kanki, Manabu Sakaguchi, Takemori Hiroshi, Kazuo Kitagawa, Hideki Mochizuki
There are no effective neuroprotectant drugs for acute cerebral ischemia. Serine racemase (SR) synthesizes d-serine, which is involved in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-induced neurotoxicity. Recently, SR deletion was reported to protect against focal cerebral ischemia. However, regulatory mechanisms controlling SR-activity in the neurovascular unit (NVU) during cerebral ischemia remain to be clarified. We investigated the effects of SR inhibition on neurovascular protection after ischemia. The SR inhibitor phenazine methosulfate (PMS) alleviated neuronal damage in an ex vivo ischemic model (oxygen glucose deprivation [OGD]) using primary neuronal cultures, and in an in vivo mouse model of ischemia (middle cerebral artery occlusion [MCAO])...
September 28, 2016: Neuroscience
Linda Fredriksson, Daniel A Lawrence, Robert L Medcalf
The plasminogen activation (PA) system is best known for its role in fibrinolysis. However, it has also been shown to regulate many nonfibrinolytic functions in the central nervous system (CNS). In particular, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is reported to have pleiotropic activities in the CNS, regulating events such as neuronal plasticity, excitotoxicity, and cerebrovascular barrier integrity, whereas urokinase-type plasminogen activator is mainly associated with tissue remodeling and cell migration...
September 27, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Bertrand Glize, Manon Mauclere, Pierre-Alain Joseph, Igor Sibon, Patrick Dehail
OBJECTIVE: Access to a specialized rehabilitation is limited for most of post stroke patients who are often transferred in non-specialized rehabilitation hospitals. We have set up a multidisciplinary mobile team working in these hospitals. The aim of this pilot study was to describe the contribution of our mobile team specialized in post acute care of stroke. MATERIALS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: We collected the changes in the management of rehabilitation for 31 patients hospitalized in non-specialized rehabilitation hospital referred to our mobile team...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Evelyn M R Lake, Paolo Bazzigaluppi, James Mester, Lynsie A M Thomason, Rafal Janik, Mary Brown, JoAnne McLaurin, Peter L Carlen, Dale Corbett, Greg J Stanisz, Bojana Stefanovic
Brain plasticity following focal cerebral ischemia has been observed in both stroke survivors and in preclinical models of stroke. Endogenous neurovascular adaptation is at present incompletely understood yet its potentiation may improve long-term functional outcome. We employed longitudinal MRI, intracranial array electrophysiology, Montoya Staircase testing, and immunofluorescence to examine function of brain vessels, neurons, and glia in addition to forelimb skilled reaching during the subacute stage of ischemic injury progression...
September 21, 2016: NeuroImage
Raghav Gupta, Justin M Moore, Christoph J Griessenauer, Nimer Adeeb, Apar S Patel, Roy Youn, Karen Poliskey, Ajith J Thomas, Christopher S Ogilvy
INTRODUCTION: Flow diversion with the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) is currently adopted for treatment of a variety of intracranial aneurysms. The elevated risk of thromboembolic complications associated with the device necessitates the need for administration of antiplatelet agents. We sought to assess current dual antiplatelet therapy practices patterns and their associated costs, following PED placement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An online questionnaire assessing dual antiplatelet regimens following flow diversion for treatment of intracranial aneurysms was developed and disseminated to 80 neurosurgeons at major academic cerebrovascular centers...
September 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Manuel M Buitrago Blanco, Giyarpuram N Prashant, Paul M Vespa
This article reviews key concepts of cerebral glucose metabolism, neurologic outcomes in clinical trials, the biology of the neurovascular unit and its involvement in secondary brain injury after traumatic brain insults, and current scientific and clinical data that demonstrate a better understanding of the biology of metabolic dysfunction in the brain, a concept now known as cerebral metabolic energy crisis. The use of neuromonitoring techniques to better understand the pathophysiology of the metabolic crisis is reviewed and a model that summarizes the triphasic view of cerebral metabolic disturbance supported by existing scientific data is outlined...
October 2016: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
Trevor Hardigan, Rebecca Ward, Adviye Ergul
The incidence of diabetes has more than doubled in the United States in the last 30 years and the global disease rate is projected to double by 2030. Cognitive impairment has been associated with diabetes, worsening quality of life in patients. The structural and functional interaction of neurons with the surrounding vasculature is critical for proper function of the central nervous system including domains involved in learning and memory. Thus, in this review we explore cognitive impairment in patients and experimental models, focusing on links to vascular dysfunction and structural changes...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Wolfgang Härtig, Simon Appel, Anne Suttkus, Jens Grosche, Dominik Michalski
Treatment strategies for ischemic stroke are still limited, since numerous attempts were successful only in preclinical research but failed under clinical condition. To overcome this translational roadblock, clinical relevant stroke models should consider co-morbidities, age-related effects and the complex neurovascular unit (NVU) concept. The NVU includes neurons, vessels and glial cells with astrocytic endfeet in close relation to the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the role of the ECM after stroke-related tissue damage is poorly understood and mostly neglected for treatment strategies...
September 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Vijay K Singh, Patricia L P Romaine, Victoria L Newman, Thomas M Seed
INTRODUCTION: The global threat of a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) disaster is an important priority for all government agencies involved in domestic security and public health preparedness. Radiological/nuclear (RN) attacks or accidents have become a larger focus of the United States Food and Drug administration (US FDA) over time because of their increased likeliness. Clinical signs and symptoms of a developing acute radiation syndrome (ARS) are grouped into three sub-syndromes named for the dominant organ system affected, namely the hematopoietic (H-ARS), gastrointestinal (GI-ARS), and neurovascular systems...
September 9, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Anuradha Kalani, Pankaj Chaturvedi, Pradip K Kamat, Claudio Maldonado, Philip Bauer, Irving G Joshua, Suresh C Tyagi, Neetu Tyagi
We tested whether the combined nano-formulation, prepared with curcumin (anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective molecule) and embryonic stem cell exosomes (MESC-exo(cur)), restored neurovascular loss following an ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury in mice. IR-injury was created in 8-10 weeks old mice and divided into two groups. Out of two IR-injured groups, one group received intranasal administration of MESC-exo(cur) for 7days. Similarly, two sham groups were made and one group received MESC-exo(cur) treatment...
October 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Chuyi Huang, Chuanfu Dai, Kai Gong, Huancong Zuo, Heling Chu
Apelin-13 has protective effects on many neurological diseases, including cerebral ischemia. Here, we aimed to test Apelin-13's effects on ischemic neurovascular unit (NVU) injuries and investigate whether the effects were dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We detected the expression of VEGF and its receptors (VEGFRs) induced by Apelin-13 injection at 1d, 3d, 7d and 14d after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Meanwhile, we examined the effects of Apelin-13 on NVU in both in vivo and in vitro experiments as well as whether the effects were VEGF dependent by using VEGF antibody...
August 16, 2016: Neuropeptides
V K Rana, S Rudin, D R Bednarek
PURPOSE: Neurovascular interventional procedures using biplane fluoroscopic imaging systems can lead to increased risk of radiation-induced skin injuries. The authors developed a biplane dose tracking system (Biplane-DTS) to calculate the cumulative skin dose distribution from the frontal and lateral x-ray tubes and display it in real-time as a color-coded map on a 3D graphic of the patient for immediate feedback to the physician. The agreement of the calculated values with the dose measured on phantoms was evaluated...
September 2016: Medical Physics
Claudia C Aguirre
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in our understanding of the impact sleep disturbances have on our health, with particular focus on the brain. The present review considers the influence of sleep disturbance on the neurovascular unit; the role of sleep disturbance in neurodegenerative diseases; and relevant strategies of neuro-immuno-endocrine interactions that likely contribute to the restorative power of sleep. Given the latest discoveries about the brain's waste clearance system and its relationship to neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease, this review gives a brief overview on the molecular mechanisms behind sleep loss-related impairments...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Hyoung-Keun Oh, Suk Kyu Choo, Jung-Jae Kim, Mark Lee
BACKGROUND: The Stoppa (intrapelvic) approach has been introduced for the treatment of pelvic-acetabular fractures; it allows easy exposure of the pelvic brim, where the bone quality is optimal for screw fixation. The purpose of our study was to investigate the surgical outcomes of unstable pelvic ring injuries treated using the Stoppa approach for stable anterior ring fixation. METHODS: We analyzed 22 cases of unstable pelvic ring injury treated with plate fixation of the anterior ring with the Stoppa approach...
September 2016: Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
Bowornsilp Chowchuen
BACKGROUND: Reconstruction of extensive lower lip defects is challenging, and functional outcomes are difficult to achieve. METHODS: A modified bilateral neurovascular cheek (MBNC) flap has been described. The data of patients with cancer of the lower lip treated with wide excision and reconstructed with the MBNC flap in the Plastic Surgery Unit, Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University, from 1966 to 2012 were reviewed. RESULTS: Of the total of 143 patients included, 90...
May 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Tapan Kavi, Megan Esch, Brenda Rinsky, Axel Rosengart, Shouri Lahiri, Patrick D Lyden
BACKGROUND: Transcranial Doppler (TCD) has significant implications for neurovascular assessment in patients being treated with venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). However, there have been no studies demonstrating the changes in pulsatility indices (PIs) seen in these patients. Nonpulsatile waveforms are seen during on-pump coronary artery bypass graft, but low or low-normal PIs have never been reported. It is important to be aware of these changes, as they can be misinterpreted as cerebral vasodilation, vasoconstriction, increased intracranial pressures (ICPs), or cerebral circulatory arrest...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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