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Neurovascular unit

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782001/a-simple-and-reproducible-method-to-prepare-membrane-samples-from-freshly-isolated-rat-brain-microvessels
#1
Hrvoje Brzica, Wazir Abdullahi, Bianca G Reilly, Patrick T Ronaldson
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic barrier tissue that responds to various pathophysiological and pharmacological stimuli. Such changes resulting from these stimuli can greatly modulate drug delivery to the brain and, by extension, cause considerable challenges in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Many BBB changes that affect pharmacotherapy, involve proteins that are localized and expressed at the level of endothelial cells. Indeed, such knowledge on BBB physiology in health and disease has sparked considerable interest in the study of these membrane proteins...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765820/a-comparative-analysis-of-endoscopic-assisted-transoral-and-transnasal-approaches-to-parapharyngeal-space-a-cadaveric-study
#2
Xicai Sun, Bo Yan, Huy Q Truong, Hamid Borghei-Razavi, Carl H Snyderman, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda
Background  Surgical resection of parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumors is very challenging. An endoscopic-assisted surgical approach to this region requires detailed and precise anatomic knowledge. The main purpose of this study is to describe and compare the detailed anatomy of the PPS via transnasal transpterygoid (TP) and endoscopic-assisted transoral (TO) approaches. Materials and Methods  Six fresh injected cadaver heads (12 sides) were prepared for dissection of the PPS via TP and TO approaches. Computed tomography (CT) with image-based navigation (Navigation System II; Stryker, Kalamazoo, Michigan, United States) was used to identify bony structures around the PPS...
June 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763986/early-iv-injected-human-dermis-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-after-transient-global-cerebral-ischemia-do-not-pass-through-damaged-blood-brain-barrier
#3
Ji Hyeon Ahn, Bai Hui Chen, Joon Ha Park, Bich Na Shin, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jeong Hwi Cho, Jae Chul Lee, Jeong-Ran Park, Se-Ran Yang, Sungwoo Ryoo, Myoung Cheol Shin, Jun Hwi Cho, Il Jun Kang, Choong Hyun Lee, In Koo Hwang, Young-Myeong Kim, Moo-Ho Won
There is lack of researches on effects of intravenously injected mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) against transient cerebral ischemia (TCI). We investigated the disruption of the neurovascular unit (NVU), which comprises the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and examined entry of human dermis-derived MSCs (hDMSCs) into the damaged hippocampal CA1 area in a gerbil model of TCI, and their subsequent effects on neuroprotection and cognitive function. Impairments of neurons, and BBB were examined by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and Evans blue and immunoglobulin G (IgG) leakage...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762759/measuring-the-impact-of-delayed-cerebral-ischemia-on-neuropsychological-outcome-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-protocol-of-a-swiss-nationwide-observational-study-moca-dci-study
#4
Martin N Stienen, Christian Fung, Philippe Bijlenga, Daniel W Zumofen, Rodolfo Maduri, Thomas Robert, Martin A Seule, Serge Marbacher, Olivia Geisseler, Peter Brugger, Klemens Gutbrod, Christian Chicherio, Andreas U Monsch, Valérie Beaud, Stefania Rossi, Severin Früh, Nicole Schmid, Nicolas R Smoll, Emanuela Keller, Luca Regli
BACKGROUND: The exact relationship between delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and neuropsychological impairment remains unknown, as previous studies lacked a baseline examination after aneurysm occlusion but before the DCI-period. Neuropsychological evaluation of acutely ill patients is often applied in a busy intensive care unit (ICU), where distraction represents a bias to the obtained results. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between DCI and neuropsychological outcome after aSAH by comparing the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) results in aSAH patients with and without DCI at 3 mo with a baseline examination before the DCI-period (part 1)...
May 11, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758323/why-do-vascular-surgeons-get-sued-analysis-of-claims-and-outcomes-in-malpractice-litigation
#5
John Phair, Eric B Trestman, Eddie Skripochnik, Evan C Lipsitz, Issam Koleilat, Larry A Scher
OBJECTIVE: To analyze causes and outcomes of malpractice claims against vascular surgeons in the United States. METHODS: Cases entered into the Westlaw database from January 1st 1999 to December 31st 2014 were reviewed. Search terms "vascular" and "surgeon" were used. Data was compiled on the allegation, subject matter and outcome of each case. Additional data including demographics of the defendant was obtained from U.S. News Health Reports on practicing physicians...
May 11, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728011/the-protective-roles-of-l-borneolum-d-borneolum-and-synthetic-borneol-in-cerebral-ischaemia-via-modulation-of-the-neurovascular-unit
#6
Taiwei Dong, Nian Chen, Xiao Ma, Jian Wang, Jing Wen, Qian Xie, Rong Ma
OBJECTIVE: Borneol has been used to treat stroke in China since ancient times. In our previous research, we demonstrated the effect of borneol on cerebral ischaemia injury via meta-analysis. The neurovascular unit (NVU) is the structural basis of the preservation of the brain microenvironment and is believed to be a promising target in treating stroke. In this research, we explored the roles of three kinds of borneol, namely, L-borneolum (B1), D-borneolum (B2) and synthetic borneol (B3), in the NVU with permanent middle cerebral artery occluded (pMCAO) rats...
June 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706868/the-blood-brain-barrier-and-the-ephr-ephrin-system-perspectives-on-a-link-between-neurovascular-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Victoria A Malik, Barbara Di Benedetto
Interactions among endothelial cells (EC) forming blood vessels and their surrounding cell types are essential to establish the blood-brain barrier (BBB), an integral part of the neurovascular unit (NVU). Research on the NVU has recently seen a renaissance to especially understand the neurobiology of vascular and brain pathologies and their frequently occurring comorbidities. Diverse signaling molecules activated in the near proximity of blood vessels trigger paracellular pathways which regulate the formation and stabilization of tight junctions (TJ) between EC and thereby influence BBB permeability...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694884/topographic-reorganization-of-cerebrovascular-mural-cells-under-seizure-conditions
#8
Margarita Arango-Lievano, Badreddine Boussadia, Lucile Du Trieu De Terdonck, Camille Gault, Pierre Fontanaud, Chrystel Lafont, Patrice Mollard, Nicola Marchi, Freddy Jeanneteau
Reorganization of the neurovascular unit has been suggested in the epileptic brain, although the dynamics and functional significance remain unclear. Here, we tracked the in vivo dynamics of perivascular mural cells as a function of electroencephalogram (EEG) activity following status epilepticus. We segmented the cortical vascular bed to provide a size- and type-specific analysis of mural cell plasticity topologically. We find that mural cells are added and removed from veins, arterioles, and capillaries after seizure induction...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688865/brain-vascular-heterogeneity-implications-for-disease-pathogenesis-and-design-of-in-vitro-blood-brain-barrier-models
#9
REVIEW
Midrelle E Noumbissi, Bianca Galasso, Monique F Stins
The vertebrate blood-brain barrier (BBB) is composed of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CEC). The BBB acts as a semi-permeable cellular interface that tightly regulates bidirectional molecular transport between blood and the brain parenchyma in order to maintain cerebral homeostasis. The CEC phenotype is regulated by a variety of factors, including cells in its immediate environment and within functional neurovascular units. The cellular composition of the brain parenchyma surrounding the CEC varies between different brain regions; this difference is clearly visible in grey versus white matter...
April 23, 2018: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687906/regulation-of-cerebral-blood-flow-response-to-cytochrome-p450-lipid-metabolites
#10
David R Harder, Kevin R Rarick, Debebe Gebremedhin, Susan S Cohen
There have been numerous reviews related to the cerebral circulation. Most of these reviews are similar in many ways. In the present review, we thought it important to provide an overview of function with specific attention to details of cerebral arterial control related to brain homeostasis, maintenance of neuronal energy demands, and a unique perspective related to the role of astrocytes. A coming review in this series will discuss cerebral vascular development and unique properties of the neonatal circulation and developing brain, thus, many aspects of development are missing here...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678665/the-impact-of-pericytes-on-the-brain-and-approaches-for-their-morphological-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Yaroslav Kolinko, Milena Kralickova, Zbynek Tonar
The interest in investigating brain pericytes is growing due to their diverse influences on neuronal function. While numerous studies have investigated the particular properties and functions of pericytes, complex insight into their functional histology is often lacking. In this work, we review and combine the current knowledge regarding brain pericyte function in normal physiology and its role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and tumorigenesis. Special attention is paid to the interaction between the components of the neurovascular unit...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623199/the-physiological-functions-of-central-nervous-system-pericytes-and-a-potential-role-in-pain
#12
REVIEW
Nicholas Beazley-Long, Alexandra M Durrant, Matthew N Swift, Lucy F Donaldson
Central nervous system (CNS) pericytes regulate critical functions of the neurovascular unit in health and disease. CNS pericytes are an attractive pharmacological target for their position within the neurovasculature and for their role in neuroinflammation. Whether the function of CNS pericytes also affects pain states and nociceptive mechanisms is currently not understood. Could it be that pericytes hold the key to pain associated with CNS blood vessel dysfunction? This article reviews recent findings on the important physiological functions of CNS pericytes and highlights how these neurovascular functions could be linked to pain states...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618365/apolipoprotein-e4-impairs-spontaneous-blood-brain-barrier-repair-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Bevan S Main, Sonia Villapol, Stephanie S Sloley, David J Barton, Maia Parsadanian, Chinyere Agbaegbu, Kathryn Stefos, Mondona S McCann, Patricia M Washington, Olga C Rodriguez, Mark P Burns
BACKGROUND: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability and mortality, to which there is currently no comprehensive treatment. Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) dysfunction is well documented in human TBI patients, yet the molecular mechanisms that underlie this neurovascular unit (NVU) pathology remains unclear. The apolipoprotein-E (apoE) protein has been implicated in controlling BBB integrity in an isoform dependent manner, via suppression of Cyclophilin A (CypA)-Matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) signaling cascades, however the contribution of this pathway in TBI-induced BBB permeability is not fully investigated...
April 4, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615467/late-neuroprogenitors-contribute-to-normal-retinal-vascular-development-in-a-hif2a-dependent-manner
#14
Enrico Cristante, Sidath E Liyanage, Robert D Sampson, Aikaterini Kalargyrou, Giulia De Rossi, Matteo Rizzi, Justin Hoke, Joana Ribeiro, Ryea N Maswood, Yanai Duran, Takaaki Matsuki, Nozie Aghaizu, Ulrich F Luhmann, Alexander J Smith, Robin R Ali, James W B Bainbridge
In the adult central nervous system, endothelial and neuronal cells engage in tight cross-talk as key components of the so-called neurovascular unit. Impairment of their critical relationship adversely affects tissue homeostasis, as observed in neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. In development, the influence of neuroprogenitor cells on angiogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we show that these cells interact intimately with the growing retinal vascular network, and we identify a novel regulatory mechanism of vasculature development mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 2a ( Hif2a )...
April 3, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593549/functional-polarity-of-microvascular-brain-endothelial-cells-supported-by-neurovascular-unit-computational-model-of-large-neutral-amino-acid-homeostasis
#15
Mehdi Taslimifar, Stefano Buoso, Francois Verrey, Vartan Kurtcuoglu
The homeostatic regulation of large neutral amino acid (LNAA) concentration in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) is essential for proper brain function. LNAA passage into the brain is primarily mediated by the complex and dynamic interactions between various solute carrier (SLC) transporters expressed in the neurovascular unit (NVU), among which SLC7A5/LAT1 is considered to be the major contributor in microvascular brain endothelial cells (MBEC). The LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs, however, could not be characterized precisely by available in vitro and in vivo standard methods so far...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589502/comparison-between-a-multicentre-collaborative-closed-loop-audit-assessing-management-of-supracondylar-fractures-and-the-british-orthopaedic-association-standard-for-trauma-11-boast-11-guidelines
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
R Goodall, H Claireaux, J Hill, E Wilson, F Monsell, Boast Collaborative, P Tarassoli
Aims Supracondylar fractures are the most frequently occurring paediatric fractures about the elbow and may be associated with a neurovascular injury. The British Orthopaedic Association Standards for Trauma 11 (BOAST 11) guidelines describe best practice for supracondylar fracture management. This study aimed to assess whether emergency departments in the United Kingdom adhere to BOAST 11 standard 1: a documented assessment, performed on presentation, must include the status of the radial pulse, digital capillary refill time, and the individual function of the radial, median (including the anterior interosseous), and ulnar nerves...
March 1, 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587223/hallmarks-of-alzheimer-disease-are-evolving-relentlessly-in-metropolitan-mexico-city-infants-children-and-young-adults-apoe4-carriers-have-higher-suicide-risk-and-higher-odds-of-reaching-nft-stage-v-at-%C3%A2-40-years-of-age
#17
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Angélica Gónzalez-Maciel, Rafael Reynoso-Robles, Ricardo Delgado-Chávez, Partha S Mukherjee, Randy J Kulesza, Ricardo Torres-Jardón, José Ávila-Ramírez, Rodolfo Villarreal-Ríos
Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and ozone (O3 ) above USEPA standards are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Metropolitan Mexico City (MMC) residents have life time exposures to PM2.5 and O3 above USEPA standards. We investigated AD intra and extracellular protein aggregates and ultrastructural neurovascular pathology in 203 MMC residents age 25.36 ± 9.23 y. Immunohistochemical methods were used to identify AT8 hyperphosphorilated tau (Htau) and 4G8 (amyloid β 17-24). Primary outcomes: staging of Htau and amyloid, per decade and cumulative PM2...
July 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571873/transplantation-of-in-vitro-cultured-endothelial-progenitor-cells-repairs-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-improves-cognitive-function-of-app-ps1-transgenic-ad-mice
#18
Shishuang Zhang, Yongle Zhi, Fei Li, Shan Huang, Huabin Gao, Zhaoli Han, Xintong Ge, Dai Li, Fanglian Chen, Xiaodong Kong, Ping Lei
To date, the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. It is well-known that excessive deposition of Aβ in the brain is a crucial part of the pathogenesis of AD. In recent years, the AD neurovascular unit hypothesis has attracted much attention. Impairment of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) leads to abnormal amyloid-β (Aβ) transport, and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion causes Aβ deposition throughout the onset and progression of AD. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are the universal cells for repairing blood vessels...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570780/effects-of-ischemic-postconditioning-on-neuronal-vegf-regulation-and-microglial-polarization-in-a-rat-model-of-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#19
Elga Esposito, Kazuhide Hayakawa, Bum Ju Ahn, Su Jing Chan, Changhong Xing, Anna C Liang, Kyu-Won Kim, Ken Arai, Eng H Lo
Ischemic postconditioning is increasingly being investigated as a therapeutic approach for cerebral ischemia. However, the majority of studies are focused on the acute protection of neurons per se. Whether and how postconditioning affects multiple cells in the recovering neurovascular unit remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we asked whether postconditioning may modulate help-me signaling between injured neurons and reactive microglia. Rats were subjected to 100 min of focal cerebral ischemia, then randomized into a control versus postconditioning group...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564811/recovery-of-neurovascular-unit-integrity-by-cdk5-kd-astrocyte-transplantation-in-a-global-cerebral-ischemia-model
#20
Andrea Becerra-Calixto, Rafael Posada-Duque, Gloria Patricia Cardona-Gómez
Astrocytes play metabolic and structural support roles and contribute to the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), linking communication between neurons and the endothelium. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) likely exerts a dual effect on the endothelium and astrocytes due to its involvement in migration and angiogenesis; the overactivation of CDK5 is associated with dysfunction in glutamate recapture and hypoxia. Recently, we proposed that CDK5-targeted astrocytes facilitate the recovery of neurological and motor function in transplanted ischemic rats...
March 22, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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