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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323038/electroacupuncture-improves-neurovascular-unit-reconstruction-by-promoting-collateral-circulation-and-angiogenesis
#1
Lei Shi, Hong-Mei Cao, Ying Li, Shi-Xin Xu, Yan Zhang, Yang Zhang, Zhe-Feng Jin
Acupuncture at Shuigou (GV26) shows good clinical efficacy for treating stroke, but its mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, a cerebral infarction model of ischemia/reperfusion injury received electroacupuncture at GV26 (15 Hz and 1 mA, continuous wave [biphasic pulses], for 5 minutes). Electroacupuncture effectively promoted regional cerebral blood flow on the infarct and non-infarct sides, increased infarct lesions, lectin, and number of blood vessels, upregulated von Willebrand factor and cell proliferation marker Ki67 expression, and diminished neurological severity score...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313511/motor-deficit-outcome-in-patients-with-stroke-in-the-neurology-unit-of-the-befelatanana-university-hospital-in-antananarivo
#2
R S Razafindrasata, N F Rasaholiarison, J Razafimahefa, A D Tehindrazanarivelo
A stroke is the sudden onset of focal neurological deficits presumed to have mecanism vascular and is the leading cause of acquired motor disability in adults. To improve stroke management, we examined the motor disability of patients presenting with stroke, their course, and its determinant factors. This retrospective descriptive study reviewed case records from the neurology unit of the Befelatanana University Hospital from january to december 2015. We included all patients who had a stroke with motor impairment of any upper or lower limbs, with or without computed tomography of the brain, that is, 227 (36...
November 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306978/vascular-pattern-of-the-dentate-gyrus-is-regulated-by-neural-progenitors
#3
Ana Pombero, Raquel Garcia-Lopez, Alicia Estirado, Salvador Martinez
Neurogenesis is a vital process that begins during early embryonic development and continues until adulthood, though in the latter case, it is restricted to the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG). In particular, the DG's neurogenic properties are structurally and functionally unique, which may be related to its singular vascular pattern. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis share molecular signals and act synergistically, supporting the concept of a neurogenic niche as a functional unit between neural precursors cells and their environment, in which the blood vessels play an important role...
January 6, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306934/gliotransmitters-and-cytokines-in-the-control-of-blood-brain-barrier-permeability
#4
REVIEW
Elena D Osipova, Oxana V Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Andrey V Morgun, Natalia V Pisareva, Natalia A Malinovskaya, Elizaveta B Boitsova, Elena A Pozhilenkova, Olga A Belova, Vladimir V Salmin, Tatiana E Taranushenko, Mami Noda, Alla B Salmina
The contribution of astrocytes and microglia to the regulation of neuroplasticity or neurovascular unit (NVU) is based on the coordinated secretion of gliotransmitters and cytokines and the release and uptake of metabolites. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and angiogenesis are influenced by perivascular cells contacting with the abluminal side of brain microvessel endothelial cells (pericytes, astrocytes) or by immune cells existing (microglia) or invading the NVU (macrophages) under pathologic conditions...
January 8, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251840/blood-brain-barrier-development-systems-modeling-and-predictive-toxicology
#5
REVIEW
Katerine S Saili, Todd J Zurlinden, Andrew J Schwab, Aymeric Silvin, Nancy C Baker, E Sidney Hunter, Florent Ginhoux, Thomas B Knudsen
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) serves as a gateway for passage of drugs, chemicals, nutrients, metabolites, and hormones between vascular and neural compartments in the brain. Here, we review BBB development with regard to the microphysiology of the neurovascular unit (NVU) and the impact of BBB disruption on brain development. Our focus is on modeling these complex systems. Extant in silico models are available as tools to predict the probability of drug/chemical passage across the BBB; in vitro platforms for high-throughput screening and high-content imaging provide novel data streams for profiling chemical-biological interactions; and engineered human cell-based microphysiological systems provide empirical models with which to investigate the dynamics of NVU function...
December 1, 2017: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242803/as-a-definitive-choice-of-treatment-joint-and-defect-spanning-multiplanar-tubular-external-fixation-in-the-management-of-pediatric-open-defective-supracondylar-humerus-fracture-a-case-report
#6
Mehmet Demirel, Onur Tunali, Ismail Turkmen, Yavuz Saglam
Introduction: Although supracondylar fractures of the humerus are common in children, open fractures of are extremely rare injuries. Gustilo- Anderson Type-III fractures in the upper extremity are primarily associated with considerable bone loss resulting from high energy trauma. In this study, a case of open pediatric supracondylar humerus fracture treated by a joint and defect spanning multiplanar tubular external fixation is presented. Case Report: A boy aged 3 years suffered from a Gustilo-Anderson Type-IIIA supracondylar humerus fractures...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229920/integration-of-neurogenesis-and-angiogenesis-models-for-constructing-a-neurovascular-tissue
#7
Hiroyuki Uwamori, Takuya Higuchi, Ken Arai, Ryo Sudo
Neurovascular unit (NVU) is a basic unit in the brain, including neurons, glial cells, blood vessels and extracellular matrix. This concept implies the importance of a three-dimensional (3D) culture model including these cell types for investigating brain functions. However, little is known about the construction of an in vitro 3D NVU model. In the present study, we aimed at constructing 3D neurovascular tissues by combining in vitro neurogenesis and angiogenesis models using a microfluidic platform, which is a critical step toward the NVU construction in vitro...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223144/role-of-carbon-monoxide-in-neurovascular-repair-processing
#8
REVIEW
Yoon Kyung Choi
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO). Endogenous CO production occurring at low concentrations is thought to have several useful biological roles. In mammals, especially humans, a proper neurovascular unit comprising endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, microglia, and neurons is essential for the homeostasis and survival of the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, the regeneration of neurovascular systems from neural stem cells and endothelial precursor cells after CNS diseases is responsible for functional repair...
December 8, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214101/cell-junction-protein-armadillo-repeat-gene-deleted-in-velo-cardio-facial-syndrome-is-expressed-in-the-skin-and-colocalizes-with-autoantibodies-of-patients-affected-by-a-new-variant-of-endemic-pemphigus-foliaceus-in-colombia
#9
Ana Maria Abreu-Velez, Hong Yi, Michael S Howard
Background: We previously described a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia, South America (El Bagre-EPF, or pemphigus Abreu-Manu). El Bagre-EPF differs from other types of EPF clinically, epidemiologically, immunologically and in its target antigens. We reported the presence of patient autoantibodies colocalizing with armadillo repeat gene deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (ARVCF), a catenin cell junction protein colocalizing with El Bagre-EPF autoantibodies in the heart and within pilosebaceous units along their neurovascular supply routes...
October 2017: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206838/implementation-of-stroke-teams-and-simulation-training-shortened-process-times-in-a-regional-stroke-network-a-network-wide-prospective-trial
#10
Damla Tahtali, Ferdinand Bohmann, Natalia Kurka, Peter Rostek, Anelia Todorova-Rudolph, Martin Buchkremer, Mario Abruscato, Ann-Kathrin Hartmetz, Andrea Kuhlmann, Christian Henke, André Stegemann, Sanjay Menon, Björn Misselwitz, Anke Reihs, Stefan Weidauer, Sven Thonke, Uta Meyding-Lamadé, Oliver Singer, Helmuth Steinmetz, Waltraud Pfeilschifter
BACKGROUND: To meet the requirements imposed by the time-dependency of acute stroke therapies, it is necessary 1) to initiate structural and cultural changes in the breadth of stroke-ready hospitals and 2) to find new ways to train the personnel treating patients with acute stroke. We aimed to implement and validate a composite intervention of a stroke team algorithm and simulation-based stroke team training as an effective quality initiative in our regional interdisciplinary neurovascular network consisting of 7 stroke units...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203132/deaths-in-france-characteristics-place-of-death-hospitalisations-and-use-of-palliative-care-during-the-year-before-death
#11
C Poulalhon, L Rotelli-Bihet, C Raso, R Aubry, A Fagot-Campagna, P Tuppin
AIM: Only limited data are available concerning the diseases managed and the hospital pathway before death. The aim of this study was to describe diseases, hospitalisations, and use of palliative care one year before death as well as place of death in France. METHODS: French health insurance general scheme beneficiaries who died in 2013 were identified in the National Health Insurance Information System (SNIIRAM) with a selection of information concerning their various hospital stays, including hospital palliative care (HPC) and nursing home care...
December 2, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186956/how-viruses-infiltrate-the-central-nervous-system
#12
A Michalicová, K Bhide, M Bhide, A Kováč
Central nervous system is protected by the blood-brain barrier, which represents a physical, metabolic and transport barrier and is considered to be a part of a highly dynamic system termed neurovascular unit. Several pathogens, among them viruses, are able to invade the brain. Traversal of viruses across the blood-brain barrier is an essential step for the invasion of the central nervous system and can occur by different mechanisms - by paracellular, transcellular and/or by "Trojan horse" pathway. Penetration of viruses to brain can lead to the blood-brain barrier dysfunction, including increased permeability, pleocytosis and encephalopathy...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180303/effects-of-erythropoietin-on-astrocytes-and-brain-endothelial-cells-in-primary-culture-during-anoxia-depend-on-simultaneous-signaling-by-other-cytokines-and-on-duration-of-anoxia
#13
Hameed Al-Sarraf, Slava Malatiali, Mariam Al-Awadi, Zoran Redzic
Studies on animals revealed neuroprotective effects of exogenously applied erythropoietin (EPO) during cerebral ischemia/hypoxia. Yet, application of exogenous EPO in stroke patients often lead to haemorrhagic transformation. To clarify potential mechanism of this adverse effect we explored effects of EPO on viabilities of astrocytes and brain endothelial cells (BECs) in primary culture during anoxia of various durations, in the presence or absence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), which are cytokines that are also released from the neurovascular unit during hypoxia...
November 24, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173174/autophagy-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-can-cell-death-be-good
#14
Wing-Mann Ho, Onat Akyol, Haley Reis, Cesar Reis, Devin McBride, Claudius Thome, John Zhang
Autophagy is a prosurvival, reparative process that maintains cellular homeostasis through lysosomal degradation of selected cytoplasmic components and programmed death of old, dysfunctional, or unnecessary cytoplasmic entities. According to growing evidence, autophagy shows beneficial effects following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH is considered one of the most devastating forms of stroke. Though autophagy is prosurvival and aids in repair, deregulated or excessive autophagy results in increased cell death, more brain injury, and worse outcome...
November 23, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169241/gut-reactions-how-the-blood-brain-barrier-connects-the-microbiome-and-the-brain
#15
Aric F Logsdon, Michelle A Erickson, Elizabeth M Rhea, Therese S Salameh, William A Banks
A growing body of evidence indicates that the microbiome interacts with the central nervous system (CNS) and can regulate many of its functions. One mechanism for this interaction is at the level of the blood-brain barriers (BBBs). In this minireview, we examine the several ways the microbiome is known to interact with the CNS barriers. Bacteria can directly release factors into the systemic circulation or can translocate into blood. Once in the blood, the microbiome and its factors can alter peripheral immune cells to promote interactions with the BBB and ultimately with other elements of the neurovascular unit...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162554/sustained-administration-of-corticosterone-at-stress-like-levels-after-stroke-suppressed-glial-reactivity-at-sites-of-thalamic-secondary-neurodegeneration
#16
Katarzyna Zalewska, Giovanni Pietrogrande, Lin Kooi Ong, Mahmoud Abdolhoseini, Murielle Kluge, Sarah J Johnson, Frederick R Walker, Michael Nilsson
Secondary neurodegeneration (SND) is an insidious and progressive condition involving the death of neurons in regions of the brain that were connected to but undamaged by the initial stroke. Our group have published compelling evidence that exposure to psychological stress can significantly exacerbate the severity SND, a finding that has considerable clinical implications given that stroke-survivors often report experiencing high and unremitting levels of psychological stress. It may be possible to use one or more targeted pharmacological approaches to limit the negative effects of stress on the recovery process but in order to move forward with this approach the most critical stress signals have to be identified...
November 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152668/the-role-of-astrocytic-calcium-and-trpv4-channels-in-neurovascular-coupling
#17
Allanah Kenny, Michael J Plank, Tim David
Neuronal activity evokes a localised change in cerebral blood flow in a response known as neurovascular coupling (NVC). Although NVC has been widely studied the exact mechanisms that mediate this response remain unclear; in particular the role of astrocytic calcium is controversial. Mathematical modelling can be a useful tool for investigating the contribution of various signalling pathways towards NVC and for analysing the underlying cellular mechanisms. The lumped parameter model of a neurovascular unit with both potassium and nitric oxide (NO) signalling pathways and comprised of neurons, astrocytes, and vascular cells has been extended to include the glutamate induced astrocytic calcium pathway with epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) signalling and the stretch dependent TRPV4 calcium channel on the astrocytic endfoot...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133510/single-cell-immuno-laser-microdissection-coupled-to-label-free-proteomics-to-reveal-the-proteotypes-of-human-brain-cells-after-ischemia
#18
Teresa García-Berrocoso, Víctor Llombart, Laura Colàs-Campàs, Alexandre Hainard, Virginie Licker, Anna Penalba, Laura Ramiro, Alba Simats, Alejandro Bustamante, Elena Martínez-Saez, Francesc Canals, Jean-Charles Sanchez, Joan Montaner
Cerebral ischemia entails rapid tissue damage in the affected brain area causing devastating neurological dysfunction. How each component of the neurovascular unit contributes or responds to the ischemic insult in the context of the human brain has not been solved yet. Thus, the analysis of the proteome is a straightforward approach to unraveling these cell proteotypes.In this study, post-mortem brain slices from ischemic stroke patients were obtained corresponding to infarcted (IC) and contralateral (CL) areas...
November 13, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128308/oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-after-cerebral-ischemia-potential-therapeutic-targets-to-repair-the-genome-and-improve-stroke-recovery
#19
REVIEW
Peiying Li, R Anne Stetler, Rehana K Leak, Yejie Shi, Yan Li, Weifeng Yu, Michael V L Bennett, Jun Chen
The past two decades have witnessed remarkable advances in oxidative stress research, particularly in the context of ischemic brain injury. Oxidative stress in ischemic tissues compromises the integrity of the genome, resulting in DNA lesions, cell death in neurons, glial cells, and vascular cells, and impairments in neurological recovery after stroke. As DNA is particularly vulnerable to oxidative attack, cells have evolved the ability to induce multiple DNA repair mechanisms, including base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER) and non-homogenous endpoint jointing (NHEJ)...
November 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124343/anatomical-landmarks-of-mandibular-interforaminal-region-related-to-dental-implant-placement-with-3d-cbct-comparison-between-edentulous-and-dental-mandibles
#20
Elif Sener, Erinc Onem, Gulcan Coskun Akar, Figen Govsa, Mehmet Asim Ozer, Yelda Pinar, Ali Mert, B Guniz Baksi Sen
BACKGROUND: Anterior mandibular (interforaminal) region is important in implant applications as it serves a basis for neurovascular bedding and holds the prosthesis for patients. Treatment planning for dental implant patients is often complicated by the unknown extent of the anterior loop of the neurovascular bundle. Anatomical structures including mandibular incisive canal (MIC) and lingual foramen (LF) should also be examined as part of the detailed analysis for their neurovascular structures...
November 9, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
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