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Neurovascular unit

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920514/foe-or-friend-janus-faces-of-the-neurovascular-unit-in-the-formation-of-brain-metastases
#1
Imola Wilhelm, Csilla Fazakas, Kinga Molnár, Attila G Végh, János Haskó, István A Krizbai
Despite the potential obstacle represented by the blood-brain barrier for extravasating malignant cells, metastases are more frequent than primary tumors in the central nervous system. Not only tightly interconnected endothelial cells can hinder metastasis formation, other cells of the brain microenvironment (like astrocytes and microglia) can also be very hostile, destroying the large majority of metastatic cells. However, malignant cells that are able to overcome these harmful mechanisms may benefit from the shielding and even support provided by cerebral endothelial cells, astrocytes and microglia, rendering the brain a sanctuary site against anti-tumor strategies...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902142/blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-and-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Yu Yamazaki, Takahisa Kanekiyo
Brain capillary endothelial cells form the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is covered with basement membranes and is also surrounded by pericytes and astrocyte end-feet in the neurovascular unit. The BBB tightly regulates the molecular exchange between the blood flow and brain parenchyma, thereby regulating the homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, dysfunction of the BBB is likely involved in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). While amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and neurofibrillary tangle formation in the brain are central pathological hallmarks in AD, cerebrovascular lesions and BBB alteration have also been shown to frequently coexist...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900446/endothelial-progenitor-cells-for-ischemic-stroke-update-on-basic-research-and-application
#3
REVIEW
Shaohua Liao, Chunxia Luo, Bingzhen Cao, Huaiqiang Hu, Suxia Wang, Huili Yue, Lin Chen, Zhenhua Zhou
Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of human death and disability worldwide. So far, ultra-early thrombolytic therapy is the most effective treatment. However, most patients still live with varying degrees of neurological dysfunction due to its narrow therapeutic time window. It has been confirmed in many studies that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), as a kind of adult stem cells, can protect the neurovascular unit by repairing the vascular endothelium and its secretory function, which contribute to the recovery of neurological function after an ischemic stroke...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860977/damaged-neocortical-perineuronal-nets-due-to-experimental-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-mice-rats-and-sheep
#4
Wolfgang Härtig, Bianca Mages, Susanne Aleithe, Björn Nitzsche, Stephan Altmann, Henryk Barthel, Martin Krueger, Dominik Michalski
As part of the extracellular matrix (ECM), perineuronal nets (PNs) are polyanionic, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG)-rich coatings of certain neurons, known to be affected in various neural diseases. Although these structures are considered as important parts of the neurovascular unit (NVU), their role during evolution of acute ischemic stroke and subsequent tissue damage is poorly understood and only a few preclinical studies analyzed PNs after acute ischemic stroke. By employing three models of experimental focal cerebral ischemia, this study was focused on histopathological alterations of PNs and concomitant vascular, glial and neuronal changes according to the NVU concept...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842826/environmental-enrichment-reverses-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-mediated-impairment-through-bdnf-trkb-pathway
#5
Harkaitz Bengoetxea, Irantzu Rico-Barrio, Naiara Ortuzar, Ane Murueta-Goyena, José V Lafuente
Exposure to an enriched environment (EE) has neuroprotective benefits and improves recovery from brain injury due to, among other, increased neurotrophic factor expression. Through these neurotrophins, important cortical and hippocampal changes occur. Vandetanib acts as a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of cell receptors, among others, the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of EE counteracting cognitive and cellular effects after tyrosine kinase receptor blockade...
August 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842440/age-related-impairment-of-metabo-vascular-coupling-during-cortical-spreading-depolarization
#6
Stéphane Marinesco, Zoltán Ungvári, Veronica Galvan
Cortical spreading depolarizations (SDs) may lead to long-lasting alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF), which contribute to neuronal dysfunction and hypoxic tissue injury. There is growing evidence to suggest that age-related structural and functional alterations of the neurovascular unit significantly increase both the incidence of SDs and aggravate their functional consequences. Recent studies suggest that metabolic signaling plays a major role in modulating cerebral blood flow responses evoked by SDs and provide critical evidence that aging considerably weakens metabovascular coupling with SD...
August 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840477/a-working-module-for-the-neurovascular-unit-in-the-sexually-dimorphic-nucleus-of-the-preoptic-area
#7
Zhen He, Li Cui, Sherry A Ferguson, Merle G Paule
The neurovascular unit (NVU) can be conceptualized as a functional entity consisting of neurons, astrocytes, pericytes, and endothelial and smooth muscle cells that operate in concert to affect blood flow to a very circumscribed area. Although we are currently in a "golden era" of bioengineering, there are, as yet, no living NVUs-on-a-chip modules available and the development of a neural chip that would mimic NVUs is a seemingly lofty goal. The sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) is a tiny brain structure (between 0...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826541/is-the-cannabinoid-cb2-receptor-a-major-regulator-of-the-neuroinflammatory-axis-of-the-neurovascular-unit-in-humans
#8
Dan T Kho, Michelle Glass, Euan S Graham
The central nervous system (CNS) is an immune privileged site where the neurovascular unit (NVU) and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) act as a selectively permeable interface to control the passage of nutrients and inflammatory cells into the brain parenchyma. However, in response to injury, infection, or disease, CNS cells become activated, and release inflammatory mediators to recruit immune cells to the site of inflammation. Increasing evidence suggests that cannabinoids may have a neuroprotective role in CNS inflammatory conditions...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816361/msel-1l-deficiency-affects-vasculogenesis-and-neural-stem-cell-lineage-commitment
#9
Marina Cardano, Giuseppe R Diaferia, Luciano Conti, Simona Baronchelli, Alessandro Sessa, Vania Broccoli, Andrea Barbieri, Pasquale De Blasio, Ida Biunno
mSEL-1L is a highly conserved ER-resident type I protein, involved in the degradation of misfolded peptides through the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), a pathway known to control the plasticity of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) phenotype and survival. In this article, we demonstrate that mSEL-1L deficiency interferes with the murine embryonic vascular network, showing particular irregularities in the intracranic and intersomitic neurovascular units and in the cerebral capillary microcirculation...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801521/role-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-of-the-neurovascular-unit-in-inflamm-aging
#10
Imola Wilhelm, Ádám Nyúl-Tóth, Mihaly Kozma, Attila E Farkas, Istvan A Krizbai
Aging is associated with chronic inflammation (inflamm-aging) partly mediated by increased levels of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) which activate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system. Furthermore, many aging-related disorders are associated with inflammation. PRRs, like Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are not only expressed in cells of the innate immune system, but other cells as well, including cells of the neurovascular unit (NVU) and cerebral vasculature forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797721/intact-blood-brain-barrier-transport-of-small-molecular-drugs-in-animal-models-of-amyloid-beta-and-alpha-synuclein-pathology
#11
Sofia Gustafsson, Veronica Lindström, Martin Ingelsson, Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes, Stina Syvänen
Pathophysiological impairment of the neurovascular unit, including the integrity and dynamics of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), has been denoted both a cause and consequence of neurodegenerative diseases. Pathological impact on BBB drug delivery has also been debated. The aim of the present study was to investigate BBB drug transport, by determining the unbound brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (Kp,uu,brain), in aged AβPP-transgenic mice, α-synuclein transgenic mice, and wild type mice. Mice were dosed with a cassette of five compounds, including digoxin, levofloxacin (1 mg/kg, s...
August 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789711/does-growth-restriction-increase-the-vulnerability-to-acute-ventilation-induced-brain-injury-in-newborn-lambs-implications-for-future-health-and-disease
#12
B J Allison, S B Hooper, E Coia, G Jenkin, A Malhotra, V Zahra, A Sehgal, M Kluckow, A W Gill, T Yawno, G R Polglase, M Castillo-Melendez, S L Miller
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preterm birth are frequent co-morbidities, both are independent risks for brain injury. However, few studies have examined the mechanisms by which preterm FGR increases the risk of adverse neurological outcomes. We aimed to determine the effects of prematurity and mechanical ventilation (VENT) on the brain of FGR and appropriately grown (AG, control) lambs. We hypothesized that FGR preterm lambs are more vulnerable to ventilation-induced acute brain injury. FGR was surgically induced in fetal sheep (0...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751515/concordance-of-time-of-flight-mra-and-digital-subtraction-angiography-in-adult-primary-central-nervous-system-vasculitis
#13
H de Boysson, G Boulouis, J-J Parienti, E Touzé, M Zuber, C Arquizan, N Dequatre, O Detante, B Bienvenu, A Aouba, L Guillevin, C Pagnoux, O Naggara
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA are 2 available tools to demonstrate neurovascular involvement in primary central nervous system vasculitis. We aimed to compare the diagnostic concordance of vessel imaging using 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA in patients with primary central nervous system vasculitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified all patients included in the French primary central nervous system vasculitis cohort of 85 patients who underwent, at baseline, both intracranial 3D-TOF-MRA and DSA in an interval of no more than 2 weeks and before treatment initiation...
July 27, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735438/adenosine-assisted-neurovascular-surgery-initial-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#14
REVIEW
Alaa Al-Mousa, Gahan Bose, Katharine Hunt, Ahmed K Toma
Cerebral aneurysms in complex anatomical locations and intraoperative rupture of aneurysms are challenging for neurosurgeons and anaesthetists alike. Mechanical and non-mechanical methods to reduce blood flow into aneurysms are well-recognised techniques to facilitate aneurysm exclusion from the circulation. Mechanical methods like temporary clipping of parent arteries, carotid artery ligation and endovascular balloon occlusion are commonly used in clinical practice. However, non-mechanical techniques such as rapid ventricular pacing and adenosine-induced cardiac standstill with hypotension are still emerging strategies...
July 22, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729449/disease-highlights-the-cellular-diversity-of-neurovascular-units-sign-in-stranger
#15
EDITORIAL
Frank M Faraci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725968/microglial-mediated-pdgf-cc-activation-increases-cerebrovascular-permeability-during-ischemic-stroke
#16
Enming Joseph Su, Chunzhang Cao, Linda Fredriksson, Ingrid Nilsson, Christina Stefanitsch, Tamara K Stevenson, Juanjuan Zhao, Margret Ragsdale, Yu-Yo Sun, Manuel Yepes, Chia-Yi Kuan, Ulf Eriksson, Dudley K Strickland, Daniel A Lawrence, Li Zhang
Treatment of acute ischemic stroke with the thrombolytic tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) can significantly improve neurological outcomes; however, thrombolytic therapy is associated with an increased risk of intra-cerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Previously, we demonstrated that during stroke tPA acting on the parenchymal side of the neurovascular unit (NVU) can increase blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and ICH through activation of latent platelet-derived growth factor-CC (PDGF-CC) and signaling by the PDGF receptor-α (PDGFRα)...
July 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724805/diabetic-retinopathy-current-understanding-mechanisms-and-treatment-strategies
#17
REVIEW
Elia J Duh, Jennifer K Sun, Alan W Stitt
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) causes significant visual loss on a global scale. Treatments for the vision-threatening complications of diabetic macular edema (DME) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) have greatly improved over the past decade. However, additional therapeutic options are needed that take into account pathology associated with vascular, glial, and neuronal components of the diabetic retina. Recent work indicates that diabetes markedly impacts the retinal neurovascular unit and its interdependent vascular, neuronal, glial, and immune cells...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699024/transcriptome-sequencing-reveals-astrocytes-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-heat-stroke
#18
Bing Niu, Tao Zhang, Huaiqiang Hu, Bingzhen Cao
Heat-stroke is a serious form of hyperthermia with high mortality, and can induce severe central nervous system disorders. The neurovascular unit (NVU), which consists of vascular cells, glial cells, and neurons, controls blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and cerebral blood flow, and maintains the proper functioning of neuronal circuits. However, the detailed function of each BBB component in heat-stroke remains unknown. In order to interpret alterations caused by heat stress, we performed transcriptome comparison of neuron and astrocyte primary cultures after heat treatment...
July 11, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688998/targeted-temperature-management-in-the-icu-guidelines-from-a-french-expert-panel
#19
Alain Cariou, Jean-Francois Payen, Karim Asehnoune, Gérard Audibert, Astrid Botte, Olivier Brissaud, Guillaume Debaty, Sandrine Deltour, Nicolas Deye, Nicolas Engrand, Gilles Francony, Stéphane Legriel, Bruno Levy, Philippe Meyer, Jean-Christophe Orban, Sylvain Renolleau, Bernard Vigué, Laure de Saint Blanquat, Cyrille Mathien, Lionel Velly
Over the recent period, the use of induced hypothermia has gained an increasing interest for critically ill patients, in particular in brain-injured patients. The term "targeted temperature management" (TTM) has now emerged as the most appropriate when referring to interventions used to reach and maintain a specific level temperature for each individual. TTM may be used to prevent fever, to maintain normothermia, or to lower core temperature. This treatment is widely used in intensive care units, mostly as a primary neuroprotective method...
July 5, 2017: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676848/neuroinflammation-and-infection-molecular-mechanisms-associated-with-dysfunction-of-neurovascular-unit
#20
REVIEW
Abolghasem Tohidpour, Andrey V Morgun, Elizaveta B Boitsova, Natalia A Malinovskaya, Galina P Martynova, Elena D Khilazheva, Natalia V Kopylevich, Galina E Gertsog, Alla B Salmina
Neuroinflammation is a complex inflammatory process in the central nervous system, which is sought to play an important defensive role against various pathogens, toxins or factors that induce neurodegeneration. The onset of neurodegenerative diseases and various microbial infections are counted as stimuli that can challenge the host immune system and trigger the development of neuroinflammation. The homeostatic nature of neuroinflammation is essential to maintain the neuroplasticity. Neuroinflammation is regulated by the activity of neuronal, glial, and endothelial cells within the neurovascular unit, which serves as a "platform" for the coordinated action of pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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