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Ischemic tolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063215/hypoxia-independent-mechanisms-of-hif-1%C3%AE-expression-in-astrocytes-after-ischemic-preconditioning
#1
Yuri Hirayama, Schuichi Koizumi
We recently demonstrated that ischemic tolerance was dependent on astrocytes, for which HIF-1α had an essential role. The mild ischemia (preconditioning; PC) increased HIF-1α in a biphasic pattern, that is, a quick and transient increase in neurons, followed by a slow and sustained increase in astrocytes. However, mechanisms underlying such temporal difference in HIF-1α increase remain totally unknown. Here, we show that unlike a hypoxia-dependent mechanism in neurons, astrocytes increase HIF-1α via a novel hypoxia-independent but P2X7-dependent mechanism...
January 7, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035432/chemoembolization-of-neuroendocrine-liver-metastases-using-streptozocin-and-tris-acryl-microspheres-embozar-embosphere%C3%A2-%C3%A2-zanosar-study
#2
Jean-Pierre Pelage, Audrey Fohlen, Emmanuel Mitry, Christine Lagrange, Alain Beauchet, Philippe Rougier
PURPOSE: The purpose of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for neuroendocrine liver metastases using a combination of streptozocin, Lipiodol, and tris-acryl microspheres. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 16 men and 9 women aged 59.6 ± 11.3 years, all with predominant liver disease, underwent 54 courses of TACE using an emulsion of 1.5 g of streptozocin and 10 ml of Lipiodol...
December 29, 2016: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008694/a-narrow-qrs-tachycardia-and-cannon-a-waves-what-is-the-mechanism
#3
Hussam Ali, Gianluca Epicoco, Guido De Ambroggi, Pierpaolo Lupo, Sara Foresti, Riccardo Cappato
Regular narrow QRS tachycardia, particularly if well-tolerated, is usually considered a "benign" arrhythmia of a supraventricular origin. This case concerns an 82-year-old male with ischemic heart disease who presented with recurrent episodes of a narrow QRS tachycardia that was initially diagnosed and treated as atrial tachyarrhythmia. However, careful physical examination and ECG analysis established the correct diagnosis, and the patient was managed appropriately. Remarkably, the observation of irregular cannon A waves, and Lewis lead recording, confirmed atrioventricular dissociation during tachycardia and indicated its underlying mechanism...
December 23, 2016: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000971/safety-and-tolerability-of-sonovue%C3%A2-in-patients-with-large-artery-anterior-circulation-acute-stroke
#4
Claudio Baracchini, Federica Viaro, Silvia Favaretto, Anna Palmieri, Caterina Kulyk, Francesco Causin, Filippo Farina, Enzo Ballotta
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are routinely used to improve the visualization of intracranial arteries. Since a higher rate of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) has been observed in patients undergoing sonothrombolysis in combination with UCAs, we conducted this study with the aim of assessing safety and tolerability of SonoVue® in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to anterior circulation large artery occlusion (LAO) and eligible to intravenous thrombolysis and/or mechanical thrombectomy...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999137/cystatin-c-is-a-crucial-endogenous-protective-determinant-against-stroke
#5
Zongping Fang, Jiao Deng, Zhixin Wu, Beibei Dong, Shiquan Wang, Xiaodan Chen, Huang Nie, Hailong Dong, Lize Xiong
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSERESULTS: Endogenous neuroprotection can be induced by ischemic and nonischemic preconditioning. However, not all subjects that undergo preconditioning exhibit similar favorable outcome. This study is to explore the molecules responsible for this phenomenon and find new therapeutic targets for stroke. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. High-throughput proteomic technique, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification, was used to screen differentially expressed proteins in the rats that developed ischemic tolerance from hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) preconditioning...
December 20, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989659/-skeletal-muscle-ischemia-reperfusion-and-ischemic-conditioning-pathophysiology-clinical-applications-for-the-vascular-surgeon
#6
C Delay, S Paradis, A L Charles, F Thaveau, B Chenesseau, J Zoll, N Chakfe, B Geny, A Lejay
Ischemia-reperfusion, which is characterized by deficient oxygen supply and subsequent restoration of blood flow, can cause irreversible damage to tissue. The vascular surgeon is daily faced with ischemia-reperfusion situations. Indeed, arterial clamping induces ischemia, followed by reperfusion when declamping. Mechanisms underlying ischemia-reperfusion injury are complex and multifactorial. Increases in cellular calcium and reactive oxygen species, initiated during ischemia and then amplified upon reperfusion are thought to be the main mediators of reperfusion injury...
December 15, 2016: Journal des Maladies Vasculaires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987215/cortical-spreading-depression-csd-preconditioning-mediates-neuroprotection-against-ischemic-stroke-by-inducing-amp-activated-protein-kinase-dependent-autophagy-in-a-rat-cerebral-ischemic-reperfusion-injury-model
#7
P P Shen, S Hou, M Q Zhu, M M Zhao, Yibing Ouyang, J C Feng
Cortical spreading depression (CSD), based on its similarities with peri-infarct depolarization (PID), is an ideal model for investigating transformation from the ischemic penumbra to infarct core. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) injury model to determine whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent autophagy contributes to the neuroprotection of CSD preconditioning in rat cortex...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981192/forced-treadmill-exercise-can-induce-stress-and-increase-neuronal-damage-in-a-mouse-model-of-global-cerebral-ischemia
#8
Martina Svensson, Philip Rosvall, Antonio Boza-Serrano, Emelie Andersson, Jan Lexell, Tomas Deierborg
Physical exercise is known to be a beneficial factor by increasing the cellular stress tolerance. In ischemic stroke, physical exercise is suggested to both limit the brain injury and facilitate behavioral recovery. In this study we investigated the effect of physical exercise on brain damage following global cerebral ischemia in mice. We aimed to study the effects of 4.5 weeks of forced treadmill running prior to ischemia on neuronal damage, neuroinflammation and its effect on general stress by measuring corticosterone in feces...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965534/inhibition-of-histone-deacetylase-3-hdac3-mediates-ischemic-preconditioning-and-protects-cortical-neurons-against-ischemia-in-rats
#9
Xiaoyu Yang, Qimei Wu, Lei Zhang, Linyin Feng
Brain ischemic preconditioning (PC) provides vital insights into the endogenous protection against stroke. Genomic and epigenetic responses to PC condition the brain into a state of ischemic tolerance. Notably, PC induces the elevation of histone acetylation, consistent with evidence that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors protect the brain from ischemic injury. However, less is known about the specific roles of HDACs in this process. HDAC3 has been implicated in several neurodegenerative conditions. Deletion of HDAC3 confers protection against neurotoxicity and neuronal injury...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959577/hyperosmotic-environment-blunts-effectivity-of-ischemic-preconditioning-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-improves-ischemic-tolerance-in-non-preconditioned-isolated-rat-hearts
#10
M Zálešák, P BlaŽíček, D Pancza, I Gablovský, V Štrbák, T Ravingerová
Several studies have shown that diabetes mellitus modulates heart resistance to ischemia and abrogates effectivity of cardioprotective interventions, such as ischemic preconditioning (IP). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of hyperglycemic conditions on the severity of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in preconditioned and non-preconditioned hearts (controls, C) is related to changes in osmotic activity of glucose. Experiments were performed in isolated rat hearts perfused according to Langendorff exposed to 30-min coronary occlusion/120-min reperfusion...
December 13, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936516/neuroprotection-of-hypoxic-postconditioning-against-global-cerebral-ischemia-through-influencing-posttranslational-regulations-of-heat-shock-protein-27-in-adult-rats
#11
Lixuan Zhan, Liu Liu, Kongping Li, Baoxing Wu, Dandan Liu, Donghai Liang, Haixia Wen, Yanmei Wang, Weiwen Sun, Weiping Liao, En Xu
We previously reported that hypoxic postconditioning (HPC) ameliorated hippocampal neuronal death induced by transient global cerebral ischemia (tGCI) in adult rats. However, the mechanism of HPC-induced neuroprotection is still elusive. Notably, heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) has recently emerged as a potent neuroprotectant in cerebral ischemia. Although its robust protective effect on stroke has been recognized, the mechanism of Hsp27-mediated neuroprotection is largely unknown. Here, we investigated the potential molecular mechanism by which HPC modulates the posttranslational regulations of Hsp27 after tGCI...
December 9, 2016: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933093/long-term-consumption-of-an-obesogenic-high-fat-diet-prior-to-ischemia-reperfusion-mediates-cardioprotection-via-epac1-dependent-signaling
#12
F Edland, A Wergeland, R Kopperud, K S Åsrud, E A Hoivik, S L Witsø, R Æsøy, L Madsen, K Kristiansen, M Bakke, S O Døskeland, A K Jonassen
BACKGROUND: Obesity is still considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, although more recent knowledge also suggests obesity to be associated with reduced morbidity and mortality - the "obesity paradox". This study explores if long-term feeding of an obesogenic high fat diet renders the myocardium less susceptible to ischemic-reperfusion induced injury via Epac-dependent signaling. METHODS: Wild type (wt), Epac1 (Epac1(-/-)) and Epac2 (Epac2(-/-)) deficient mice were fed a high fat (HFD) or normal chow diet (ND) for 33 ± 1 weeks...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932944/role-of-homocysteine-in-the-ischemic-stroke-and-development-of-ischemic-tolerance
#13
REVIEW
Ján Lehotský, Barbara Tothová, Maria Kovalská, Dušan Dobrota, Anna Beňová, Dagmar Kalenská, Peter Kaplán
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a toxic, sulfur-containing intermediate of methionine metabolism. Hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcy), as a consequence of impaired Hcy metabolism or defects in crucial co-factors that participate in its recycling, is assumed as an independent human stroke risk factor. Neural cells are sensitive to prolonged hHcy treatment, because Hcy cannot be metabolized either by the transsulfuration pathway or by the folate/vitamin B12 independent remethylation pathway. Its detrimental effect after ischemia-induced damage includes accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and posttranslational modifications of proteins via homocysteinylation and thiolation...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930695/coordinated-activation-of-vegf-vegfr-2-and-ppar%C3%AE-pathways-by-a-multi-component-chinese-medicine-dhi-accelerated-recovery-from-peripheral-arterial-disease-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#14
Shuang He, Tiechan Zhao, Hao Guo, Yanzhi Meng, Gangjian Qin, David A Goukassian, Jihong Han, Xuimei Gao, Yan Zhu
Diabetic mellitus (DM) patients are at an increased risk of developing peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Danhong injection (DHI) is a Chinese patent medicine widely used for several cardiovascular indications but the mechanism of action is not well-understood. We investigated the therapeutic potential of DHI on experimental PAD in mice with chemically induced as well as genetic (KKAy) type 2 DM and the overlapping signaling pathways regulating both therapeutic angiogenesis and glucose homeostasis. Compared with normal genetic background wild type (WT) mice, both DM mice showed impaired perfusion recovery in hind-limb ischemia (HLI) model...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913766/myocardial-cytochrome-oxidase-activity-increases-with-age-and-hypoxemia-in-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease
#15
Michael Onwugbufor, Richard J Levy, David Zurakowski, Richard A Jonas, Pranava Sinha
BACKGROUND: Myocardial tolerance to ischemia is influenced by age and preoperative cyanosis through unknown mechanisms and significantly affects postoperative outcomes. Cytochrome c oxidase (CcOx), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, may play a role in the susceptibility to ischemic-reperfusion (IR) injury. Our study aimed at investigating changes in human myocardial CcOx activity based on age and preoperative oxygen saturation to understand its role in transition from neonatal to mature myocardium and hypoxic conditions...
December 1, 2016: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899277/protective-role-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-dependent-cd39-and-cd73-in-fulminant-acute-liver-failure
#16
Eunyoung Tak, Dong-Hwan Jung, Seok-Hwan Kim, Gil-Chun Park, Dae Young Jun, Jooyoung Lee, Bo-Hyun Jung, Varvara A Kirchner, Shin Hwang, Gi-Won Song, Sung-Gyu Lee
Acute liver failure (ALF) is a severe life-threatening disease which usually arises in patients with-irreversible liver illnesses. Although human ectonucleotide triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1, E-NTPDase1 (CD39) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase, Ecto5'NTase (CD73) are known to protect tissues from ALF, the expression and function of CD39 and CD73 during ALF are currently not fully investigated. We tested whether CD39 and CD73 are upregulated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, and improve ischemic tolerance to ALF...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894810/na-ca-2-exchanger-1-inhibition-abolishes-ischemic-tolerance-induced-by-ischemic-preconditioning-in-different-cardiac-models
#17
Pasqualina Castaldo, Maria Loredana Macrì, Vincenzo Lariccia, Alessandra Matteucci, Marta Maiolino, Santo Gratteri, Salvatore Amoroso, Simona Magi
Ca(2+)-handling disturbances play an important role in the genesis of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a powerful strategy to induce tolerance against subsequent ischemic episodes. IPC signaling pathways may be triggered by Ca(2+) ion. Since Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1) participates in modulating intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, here we further defined its role in I/R and investigated its potential involvement in IPC-induced cardioprotection. In isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes, perfused rat heart and H9c2 cardiomyoblasts, I/R produced a significant cell injury, assessed by measuring extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and, for the whole heart, also by estimating myocardial infarct size area...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888904/-anti-pcsk9-antibodies-in-type-2-diabetes-and-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#18
José López-Miranda, Xavier Pintó
Patients with type 2 diabetes are considered to have the same cardiovascular risk as patients with ischemia. However, the degree of lipid control in diabetic and ischemic patients remains highly deficient. The availability of new agents, such as anti-PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies, could represent a notable advance in meeting this unmet need. Alirocumab and evolucumab, followed by bococizumab, are currently under the advanced phase of research. A growing database has demonstrated a relationship between glucose metabolism, body weight and PCSK9 function, but the clinical implications of this relationship have not been well defined...
May 2016: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881559/safety-and-tolerability-of-csl112-a-reconstituted-infusible-plasma-derived-apolipoprotein-a-i-after-acute-myocardial-infarction-the-aegis-i-trial-apoa-i-event-reducing-in-ischemic-syndromes-i
#19
C Michael Gibson, Serge Korjian, Pierluigi Tricoci, Yazan Daaboul, Megan Yee, Purva Jain, John H Alexander, P Gabriel Steg, A Michael Lincoff, John J P Kastelein, Roxana Mehran, Denise M D'Andrea, Lawrence I Deckelbaum, Bela Merkely, Maciej Zarebinski, Ton Oude Ophuis, Robert A Harrington
BACKGROUND: Human or recombinant apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has been shown to increase high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity and to regress atherosclerotic disease in animal and clinical studies. CSL112 is an infusible, plasma-derived apoA-I that has been studied in normal subjects or those with stable coronary artery disease. This study aimed to characterize the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of CSL112 in patients with a recent acute myocardial infarction...
December 13, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857725/blood-micrornas-as-potential-diagnostic-and-prognostic-markers-in-cerebral-ischemic-injury
#20
REVIEW
Bridget Martinez, Philip V Peplow
MicroRNAs are a family of small, genome-encoded endogenous RNAs that are transcribed but are not translated into proteins. They serve essential roles in virtually every aspect of brain function, including neurogenesis, neural development, and cellular responses leading to changes in synaptic plasticity. They are also implicated in neurodegeneration and neurological disorders, in responses to hypoxia and ischemia, and in ischemic tolerance induced by ischemic preconditioning. In recent developments, miRNA expression profiling has been examined in stroke, and these studies indicate that miRNAs have emerged as key mediators in ischemic stroke biology...
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
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