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Ischemic tolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326416/strategies-to-restore-adenosine-triphosphate-atp-level-after-more-than-20-hours-of-cold-ischemia-time-in-human-marginal-kidney-grafts
#1
Matteo Ravaioli, Maurizio Baldassare, Francesco Vasuri, Gianandrea Pasquinelli, Maristella Laggetta, Sabrina Valente, Vanessa De Pace, Flavia Neri, Antonio Siniscalchi, Chiara Zanfi, Valentina R Bertuzzo, Paolo Caraceni, Davide Trerè, Pasquale Longobardi, Antonio D Pinna
BACKGROUND The persisting organ shortage in the field of transplantation recommends the use of marginal kidneys which poorly tolerate ischemic damage. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion during cold ischemia time (CIT) is considered crucial for graft function. We tested different strategies of kidney perfusion before transplantation in the attempt to improve the technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty human discarded kidneys from donors after brain death and with at least 20 hours of CIT were randomized to the following experimental groups (treatment time three-hours at 4°C): a) static cold storage (CS); b) static cold hyperbaric oxygenation (Hyp); c) hypothermic perfusion (PE); d) hypothermic perfusion in hyperbaric oxygenation (PE-Hyp); and e) hypothermic oxygenated perfusion (PE-O2)...
January 12, 2018: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325933/sestrin2-prevents-age-related-intolerance-to-post-myocardial-infarction-via-ampk-pgc-1%C3%AE-pathway
#2
Nanhu Quan, Lin Wang, Xu Chen, Chelsea Luckett, Courtney Cates, Thomas Rousselle, Yang Zheng, Ji Li
We have revealed that a novel stress-inducible protein, Sestrin2, declines in the heart with aging. Moreover, there is an interaction between Sestrin2 and energy sensor AMPK in the heart in response to ischemic stress. The objective of this study is to determine whether Sestrin2-AMPK complex modulates PGC-1α in the heart and protects the heart from ischemic insults. In order to characterize the role of cardiac Sestrin2-AMPK signaling cascade in aging, C57BL/6 wild type young mice (3-4months), aged mice (24-26months) and young Sestrin2 KO mice were subjected to left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion for in vivo regional ischemia...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325338/-supplementation-with-high-dose-l-carnitine-on-hemodialysis-tolerance-in-uremic-patients-with-severe-heart-diseases
#3
Y J Pan, F P Lu
Objective: To investigate the effect of intravenous supplementation with high-dose L-carnitinen on hemodialysis tolerance in uremic patients with severe heart disease (ischemic heart disease, congestive heart disease and arrhythmia). Methods: Between March 2012 and March 2017, 5 gram L-carnitine was given after the completion of each hemodialysis treatment (3-4 times a week) over a period of two weeks in 29 maintenance hemodialysis patients with severe heart diseases manifested by frequently symptomatic hypotension, chest tightness, wheezing, palpitation, chest pain and other symptoms during hemodialysis...
December 26, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316895/daily-repetitive-sensory-stimulation-of-the-paretic-hand-for-the-treatment-of-sensorimotor-deficits-in-patients-with-subacute-stroke-reset-a-randomized-sham-controlled-trial
#4
Jan C Kattenstroth, Tobias Kalisch, Matthias Sczesny-Kaiser, Wolfgang Greulich, Martin Tegenthoff, Hubert R Dinse
BACKGROUND: Repetitive sensory stimulation (RSS) adapts the timing of stimulation protocols used in cellular studies to induce synaptic plasticity. In healthy subjects, RSS leads to widespread sensorimotor cortical reorganization paralleled by improved sensorimotor behavior. Here, we investigated whether RSS reduces sensorimotor upper limb impairment in patients with subacute stroke more effectively than conventional therapy. METHODS: A single-blinded sham-controlled clinical trial assessed the effectiveness of RSS in treating sensorimotor deficits of the upper limbs...
January 9, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302205/endogenous-agmatine-induced-by-ischemic-preconditioning-regulates-ischemic-tolerance-following-cerebral-ischemia
#5
Jae Hwan Kim, Jae Young Kim, Jin Young Jung, Yong Woo Lee, Won Taek Lee, Seung Kon Huh, Jong Eun Lee
Ischemic preconditioning (IP) is one of the most important endogenous mechanisms that protect the cells against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the exact molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we showed that changes in the level of agmatine were correlated with ischemic tolerance. Changes in brain edema, infarct volume, level of agmatine, and expression of arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and nitric oxide synthases (NOS; inducible NOS [iNOS] and neural NOS [nNOS]) were analyzed during I/R injury with or without IP in the rat brain...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274872/-proton-pump-inhibitors-and-kidney
#6
Geoffroy Desbuissons, Gilbert Deray, Lucile Mercadal
Assumed for a long time to be very well tolerated, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely prescribed for inpatients and outpatients; often beyond their validated indications. Nevertheless, many very varied side effects (pneumopathy, ischemic heart disease, dementia) have been associated with the PPIs during the last decade. Renal toxicity is mainly the occurrence of acute interstitial nephritis (AIN), related to a drug-class effect, involving cellular immunity. AINs, which occur especially in elderly patients, can be difficult to diagnose, with frequently isolated acute kidney injury, appearing with variable delay after the introduction of PPIs...
December 20, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262429/blood-pressure-management-for-acute-ischemic-and-hemorrhagic-stroke-the-evidence
#7
Sang-Bae Ko, Byung-Woo Yoon
Hypertension is the most common modifiable risk factor for stroke (both ischemic and hemorrhagic types). In the hyperacute phase, a majority of patients shows an elevated blood pressure (BP) at the time of presentation because of sympathetic hyperactivity or a physiological response to tissue ischemia. Therefore, BP may decrease spontaneously in a few hours and may drop further when complete recanalization is achieved. In stroke guidelines, an elevated BP is usually left untreated up to a systolic BP (SBP) of 220 mm Hg and a diastolic BP of 120 mm Hg...
December 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250714/age-related-upregulation-of-carboxyl-terminal-modulator-protein-contributes-to-the-decreased-brain-ischemic-tolerance-in-older-rats
#8
Jun Li, Weiran Shan, Zhiyi Zuo
Stroke remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The underlying neuropathology for stroke is ischemic brain injury. Carboxyl terminal modulator protein (CTMP), an endogenous inhibitor of the prosurvival Akt, may increase brain ischemic injury in young animals. Aging decreases brain ischemic tolerance. We hypothesize that CTMP is increased with aging and that this increase contributes to the decreased brain ischemic tolerance. To address these hypotheses, we determined the expression of CTMP and its downstream proteins in the brain of various ages of rats (Fischer 344 and Sprague-Dawley rats)...
December 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249422/sacubitril-valsartan-and-short-term-changes-in-the-6-minute-walk-test-a-pilot-study
#9
Paola Beltrán, Patricia Palau, Eloy Domínguez, Mercedes Faraudo, Eduardo Núñez, Olga Guri, Anna Mollar, Juan Sanchis, Antoni Bayés-Genís, Julio Núñez
BACKGROUND: Impaired exercise capacity is the most disabling symptom in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Despite sacubitril/valsartan showing reduced long-term morbidity and mortality over enalapril in HFrEF, its effects on short-term functional capacity remain uncertain. We sought to evaluate the effects of sacubitril/valsartan on a 30-day six-minute walk test in eligible patients with HFrEF. METHODS AND RESULTS: From November 1, 2016 to February 1, 2017, a total of 58 stable symptomatic patients with HFrEF were eligible for sacubitril/valsartan and underwent 6-MWT before and 30days after initiation of sacubitril/valsartan therapy...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225139/astrocytes-and-ischemic-tolerance
#10
REVIEW
Yuri Hirayama, Schuichi Koizumi
A mild non-lethal ischemic episode can induce resistance to a subsequent severe ischemic injury in the brain. This phenomenon is termed ischemic tolerance or ischemic preconditioning, and is an endogenous mechanism that can provide robust neuroprotection. Because of its neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia or stroke, ischemic tolerance has been widely studied. However, almost all studies have been performed from the viewpoint of neurons. Accumulating evidence suggests that glial cells have various roles in regulation of brain function, including modulation of synaptic transmission, neuronal excitation, and neuronal structure...
December 7, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202762/myocyte-membrane-and-microdomain-modifications-in-diabetes-determinants-of-ischemic-tolerance-and-cardioprotection
#11
REVIEW
Jake Russell, Eugene F Du Toit, Jason N Peart, Hemal H Patel, John P Headrick
Cardiovascular disease, predominantly ischemic heart disease (IHD), is the leading cause of death in diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition to eliciting cardiomyopathy, DM induces a 'wicked triumvirate': (i) increasing the risk and incidence of IHD and myocardial ischemia; (ii) decreasing myocardial tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury; and (iii) inhibiting or eliminating responses to cardioprotective stimuli. Changes in ischemic tolerance and cardioprotective signaling may contribute to substantially higher mortality and morbidity following ischemic insult in DM patients...
December 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148315/sumoylation-in-brain-ischemia-patterns-targets-and-translational-implications
#12
Joshua D Bernstock, Wei Yang, Daniel G Ye, Yuntian Shen, Stefano Pluchino, Yang-Ja Lee, John M Hallenbeck, Wulf Paschen
Post-translational protein modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) regulates a myriad of homeostatic and stress responses. The SUMOylation pathway has been extensively studied in brain ischemia. Convincing evidence is now at hand to support the notion that a major increase in levels of SUMOylated proteins is capable of inducing tolerance to ischemic stress. Therefore, the SUMOylation pathway has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for neuroprotection in the face of brain ischemia. Despite this, it is prudent to acknowledge that there are many key questions still to be addressed in brain ischemia related to SUMOylation...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148291/effectiveness-and-safety-of-anti-ischemic-trimetazidine-in-patients-with-stable-angina-pectoris-and-type-2-diabetes
#13
Zsófia Meiszterics, Attila Kónyi, Gábor Hild, Zsolt Sárszegi, Balázs Gaszner
Aim & methods: This 6-month prospective, observational, noninterventional, open-label clinical study assessed the effectiveness/safety of trimetazidine in 737 patients with stable angina pectoris and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (OGYI/51534-1/2014). RESULTS: Trimetazidine-based therapy was effective in stable coronary artery disease, with significant improvements from baseline (p < 0.05) in: number of angina attacks/week (2.9 ± 2.4 vs 1.1 ± 1.6), angina severity (Canadian Cardiovascular Society Classification 1...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136611/gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease
#14
Yuichiro Yamashiro
Intestinal regulatory T (Treg) cells are critical to maintaining immune tolerance to dietary antigens and gut microbiota. This paper reviews several papers on this topic that were recently published by Japanese researchers. Specifically, Prof. K. Honda and his group have found that commensal microbiota capable of metabolizing butyrate induces the differentiation of colonic Treg cells. In a separate work, Prof. Y. Yokoyama and his group used a novel, culture-independent analytical method (the Yakult Intestinal Flora-Scan) for detection of bacteria in the bloodstream...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135158/-the-role-of-pharmacological-preconditioning-in-renal-ischemic-and-reperfusion-injury
#15
D A Kostina, T G Pokrovskaya, Yu V Olefir, A N Yavorskii, V V Elagin
Renal ischemic and reperfusion injury resulting in acute renal failure is a multidisciplinary problem at the junction of pathophysiology, transplantology, urology, nephrology, cardiac surgery and pharmacology. One of renal protection strategies is using the phenomenon of preconditioning. Preconditioning is one of the ways to adopt a tissue to repeated short-term effects of damaging factors to induce an enhanced tolerance to the long period of hypoxia and/or ischemia. There are multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms of the renal protective effects of preconditioning stimuli, but the key effectors and signaling molecules are ATP-dependent potassium channels, nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, and mitochondrial pore...
October 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127072/no-effect-of-a-pulsed-magnetic-field-on-induced-ischemic-muscle-pain-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#16
Renáta Szemerszky, Zsuzsanna Szabolcs, Tamás Bogdány, Gábor Jánossy, György Thuróczy, Ferenc Köteles
Empirical evidence supporting the effectiveness of pulsed (electro)magnetic field (PEMF) therapy on chronic and acute pain is equivocal. In the current randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment, impact of a commercially available whole-body PEMF mat on acute ischemic muscle pain induced in the forearm was studied with the participation of 70 healthy volunteers. The device emitted a pulsed magnetic field with a repetition frequency of 2.05Hz and a maximum flux density of 25.3μT (rms). The highest dB/dt was 48mT/s...
November 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121919/effects-of-hypoglycemia-on-myocardial-susceptibility-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-preconditioning-in-hearts-from-rats-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes
#17
Kim B Pælestik, Nichlas R Jespersen, Rebekka V Jensen, Jacob Johnsen, Hans Erik Bøtker, Steen B Kristiansen
BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is associated with increased mortality rate in patients with diabetes. The underlying mechanisms may involve reduced myocardial tolerance to ischemia and reperfusion (IR) or reduced capacity for ischemic preconditioning (IPC). As IPC is associated with increased myocardial glucose uptake (MGU) during reperfusion, cardioprotection is linked to glucose metabolism possibly by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). We aimed to investigate the impact of hypoglycemia in hearts from animals with diabetes on myocardial IR tolerance, on the efficacy of IPC and whether modulations of MGU and O-GlcNAc levels are involved in the underlying mechanisms...
November 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120921/pregnancy-and-ischemic-stroke-a-practical-guide-to-management
#18
Mayte E van Alebeek, Roel de Heus, Anil M Tuladhar, Frank-Erik de Leeuw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ischemic stroke during pregnancy or the puerperium is a devastating disease during a crucial period in life and warrants a specific approach. To date, current practice is mainly based on expert opinion because of a lack of randomized controlled trials and high-quality observational studies. The present review is intended as a practical guide to (acute) management of ischemic stroke during pregnancy and puerperium. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings showed that the incidence of stroke during pregnancy is rising...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115389/renoprotective-effect-of-erythropoietin-via-modulation-of-the-stat6-mapk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-after-renal-transplantation
#19
Jinhua Zhang, Daqiang Zhao, Ning Na, Heng Li, Bin Miao, Liangqing Hong, Zhengyu Huang
Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) commonly occurs in renal transplantation. Erythropoietin (EPO) exerts a protective effect in IRI. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanism, rat models of renal IRI were established and treated with EPO and/or lentivirus‑mediated EPO-siRNA, the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) inhibitor AS1517499, the JNK inhibitor SP600125, the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB203580, and the nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibitor lactacystin...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110213/correction-to-neuroimmune-response-in-ischemic-preconditioning
#20
Ashley McDonough, Jonathan R Weinstein
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a robust neuroprotective phenomenon in which a brief period of cerebral ischemia confers transient tolerance to subsequent ischemic challenge. Research on IPC has implicated cellular, molecular, and systemic elements of the immune response in this phenomenon. Potent molecular mediators of IPC include innate immune signaling pathways such as Toll-like receptors and type 1 interferons. Brain ischemia results in release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that orchestrate the neuroinflammatory response, resolution of inflammation, and transition to neurological recovery and regeneration...
November 6, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
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