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Ischemic tolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148315/sumoylation-in-brain-ischemia-patterns-targets-and-translational-implications
#1
Joshua D Bernstock, Wei Yang, Daniel G Ye, Yuntian Shen, Stefano Pluchino, Yang-Ja Lee, John M Hallenbeck, Wulf Paschen
Post-translational protein modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) regulates a myriad of homeostatic and stress responses. The SUMOylation pathway has been extensively studied in brain ischemia. Convincing evidence is now at hand to support the notion that a major increase in levels of SUMOylated proteins is capable of inducing tolerance to ischemic stress. Therefore, the SUMOylation pathway has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for neuroprotection in the face of brain ischemia. Despite this, it is prudent to acknowledge that there are many key questions still to be addressed in brain ischemia related to SUMOylation...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148291/effectiveness-and-safety-of-anti-ischemic-trimetazidine-in-patients-with-stable-angina-pectoris-and-type-2-diabetes
#2
Zsófia Meiszterics, Attila Kónyi, Gábor Hild, Zsolt Sárszegi, Balázs Gaszner
Aim & methods: This 6-month prospective, observational, noninterventional, open-label clinical study assessed the effectiveness/safety of trimetazidine in 737 patients with stable angina pectoris and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (OGYI/51534-1/2014). RESULTS: Trimetazidine-based therapy was effective in stable coronary artery disease, with significant improvements from baseline (p < 0.05) in: number of angina attacks/week (2.9 ± 2.4 vs 1.1 ± 1.6), angina severity (Canadian Cardiovascular Society Classification 1...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136611/gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease
#3
Yuichiro Yamashiro
Intestinal regulatory T (Treg) cells are critical to maintaining immune tolerance to dietary antigens and gut microbiota. This paper reviews several papers on this topic that were recently published by Japanese researchers. Specifically, Prof. K. Honda and his group have found that commensal microbiota capable of metabolizing butyrate induces the differentiation of colonic Treg cells. In a separate work, Prof. Y. Yokoyama and his group used a novel, culture-independent analytical method (the Yakult Intestinal Flora-Scan) for detection of bacteria in the bloodstream...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135158/-the-role-of-pharmacological-preconditioning-in-renal-ischemic-and-reperfusion-injury
#4
D A Kostina, T G Pokrovskaya, Yu V Olefir, A N Yavorskii, V V Elagin
Renal ischemic and reperfusion injury resulting in acute renal failure is a multidisciplinary problem at the junction of pathophysiology, transplantology, urology, nephrology, cardiac surgery and pharmacology. One of renal protection strategies is using the phenomenon of preconditioning. Preconditioning is one of the ways to adopt a tissue to repeated short-term effects of damaging factors to induce an enhanced tolerance to the long period of hypoxia and/or ischemia. There are multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms of the renal protective effects of preconditioning stimuli, but the key effectors and signaling molecules are ATP-dependent potassium channels, nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, and mitochondrial pore...
October 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127072/no-effect-of-a-pulsed-magnetic-field-on-induced-ischemic-muscle-pain-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#5
Renáta Szemerszky, Zsuzsanna Szabolcs, Tamás Bogdány, Gábor Jánossy, György Thuróczy, Ferenc Köteles
Empirical evidence supporting the effectiveness of pulsed (electro)magnetic field (PEMF) therapy on chronic and acute pain is equivocal. In the current randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment, impact of a commercially available whole-body PEMF mat on acute ischemic muscle pain induced in the forearm was studied with the participation of 70 healthy volunteers. The device emitted a pulsed magnetic field with a repetition frequency of 2.05Hz and a maximum flux density of 25.3μT (rms). The highest dB/dt was 48mT/s...
November 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121919/effects-of-hypoglycemia-on-myocardial-susceptibility-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-preconditioning-in-hearts-from-rats-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes
#6
Kim B Pælestik, Nichlas R Jespersen, Rebekka V Jensen, Jacob Johnsen, Hans Erik Bøtker, Steen B Kristiansen
BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is associated with increased mortality rate in patients with diabetes. The underlying mechanisms may involve reduced myocardial tolerance to ischemia and reperfusion (IR) or reduced capacity for ischemic preconditioning (IPC). As IPC is associated with increased myocardial glucose uptake (MGU) during reperfusion, cardioprotection is linked to glucose metabolism possibly by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). We aimed to investigate the impact of hypoglycemia in hearts from animals with diabetes on myocardial IR tolerance, on the efficacy of IPC and whether modulations of MGU and O-GlcNAc levels are involved in the underlying mechanisms...
November 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120921/pregnancy-and-ischemic-stroke-a-practical-guide-to-management
#7
Mayte E van Alebeek, Roel de Heus, Anil M Tuladhar, Frank-Erik de Leeuw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ischemic stroke during pregnancy or the puerperium is a devastating disease during a crucial period in life and warrants a specific approach. To date, current practice is mainly based on expert opinion because of a lack of randomized controlled trials and high-quality observational studies. The present review is intended as a practical guide to (acute) management of ischemic stroke during pregnancy and puerperium. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings showed that the incidence of stroke during pregnancy is rising...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115389/renoprotective-effect-of-erythropoietin-via-modulation-of-the-stat6-mapk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-after-renal-transplantation
#8
Jinhua Zhang, Daqiang Zhao, Ning Na, Heng Li, Bin Miao, Liangqing Hong, Zhengyu Huang
Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) commonly occurs in renal transplantation. Erythropoietin (EPO) exerts a protective effect in IRI. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanism, rat models of renal IRI were established and treated with EPO and/or lentivirus‑mediated EPO-siRNA, the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) inhibitor AS1517499, the JNK inhibitor SP600125, the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB203580, and the nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibitor lactacystin...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110213/correction-to-neuroimmune-response-in-ischemic-preconditioning
#9
Ashley McDonough, Jonathan R Weinstein
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a robust neuroprotective phenomenon in which a brief period of cerebral ischemia confers transient tolerance to subsequent ischemic challenge. Research on IPC has implicated cellular, molecular, and systemic elements of the immune response in this phenomenon. Potent molecular mediators of IPC include innate immune signaling pathways such as Toll-like receptors and type 1 interferons. Brain ischemia results in release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that orchestrate the neuroinflammatory response, resolution of inflammation, and transition to neurological recovery and regeneration...
November 6, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108501/occult-massive-visceral-fat-necrosis-following-therapeutic-hypothermia-for-neonatal-encephalopathy
#10
Salwa Khedr, Anna Piskorski, Adrienne R Bingham, Justin Goldstein, Abbot R Laptook, Monique E De Paepe
Therapeutic hypothermia (head or whole-body cooling) improves survival and neurodevelopmental outcome in term newborns with moderate-to-severe encephalopathy. Hypothermia treatment is well tolerated; the most common side effect is thrombocytopenia. In about 1% of infants, focal subcutaneous fat necrosis has been reported. We describe a case of clinically unsuspected massive visceral fat necrosis in a term infant with Apgar score 0 at 1 min ("resuscitated apparently stillborn" infant) who was treated with therapeutic hypothermia for 72 h and expired on the 25th day of life following a neonatal course complicated by severe encephalopathy, pulmonary artery hypertension, persistent thrombocytopenia, hypoglycemia, and severe basal ganglia-thalamic abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103862/impact-of-additional-lipid-lowering-therapy-on-new-ischemic-lesions-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging-in-carotid-artery-stenting
#11
Takashi Mizobe, Mitsugu Nakamura, Yasuhiko Motooka, Noriaki Ashida, Masahiro Sugihara
BACKGROUND: New ischemic lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) are frequently found after carotid artery stenting (CAS) and sometimes cause neurologic deficit. We investigated the rate and the potential factor of new DWI lesions during the perioperative period of CAS in symptomatic patients at our institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 187 consecutive patients who underwent CAS (April 2013-August 2016), we investigated 60 symptomatic patients with artery-to-artery embolism from carotid plaque...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103101/ischemic-preconditioning-protects-astrocytes-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-via-the-nuclear-erythroid-2-related-factor-2-pathway
#12
Srinivasan V Narayanan, Kunjan R Dave, Miguel A Perez-Pinzon
Induction of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) represents a potential therapy against cerebral ischemia by activation of adaptive pathways and modulation of mitochondria to induce ischemic tolerance to various cells and tissues. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been ascribed to contribute to numerous neurodegenerative conditions and cerebral ischemia. Nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that has traditionally been involved in upregulating cellular antioxidant systems to combat oxidative stress in the brain; however, the association of Nrf2 with mitochondria in the brain remains unclear...
November 4, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101173/ph-recovery-from-a-proton-load-in-rat-cardiomyocytes-effects-of-chronic-exercise
#13
Vennetia R Danes, Josephine Anthony, Kaveh Rayani, Kenneth W Spitzer, Glen F Tibbits
The ability of cardiomyocytes to recover from a proton load was examined in the hearts of exercise-trained (T) and sedentary control (C) rats in CO2/HCO3--free media. Acidosis was created by the NH4Cl pre-pulse technique and pHi was determined using fluorescence microscopy on carboxy-SNARF-1 AM loaded isolated cardiomyocytes. CO2-independent intracellular pH buffering capacity (βi) was measured by incrementally reducing the [NH4Cl]o in steps of 50% from 20 to 1.25 mM. βi increased as pHi decreased in both T and C groups...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099705/coronary-disease-risk-assessment-in-asymptomatic-patients
#14
S Zeikidze
- to assess the risk of coronary disease in patients with asymptomatic ischemia. The work was based on the results of 185 patients' investigation, aged 35-55, among them 159 men and 26 women. All of them underwent selective coronarography. The patients were distributed according to the coronarography data - the first group consisted of individuals who had any coronary stenosis. The second group consisted of patients with intact coronaries. Statistical analysis was performed using the program packet SPSS v. 22...
October 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096829/ldl-apheresis-improves-coronary-flow-reserve-on-the-left-anterior-descending-artery-in-patients-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia-and-chronic-ischemic-heart-disease
#15
Tiziana Sampietro, Francesco Sbrana, Emilio Maria Pasanisi, Federico Bigazzi, Christina Petersen, Michele Coceani, Beatrice Dal Pino, Andrea Ripoli, Mascia Pianelli, Roberta Luciani
BACKGROUND: LDL apheresis (LA) influences the microcirculation, endothelial function and cardiovascular homeostasis. The aim of our study was to analyze temporal variations of coronary flow reserve (CFR) on the left anterior descending artery, obtained during dipyridamole stress echocardiography (DSE), in patients with severe familial hypercholesterolemia on LA (LA group) or not (not LA group) and ischemic heart disease (IHD). METHODS: The LA group consisted in 10 patients (mean age 65 ± 7 years, male 70%) with Familial Hypercholesterolemia and chronic IHD on maximally tolerated lipid lowering therapy and chronic LA treatment (median 7 years, interquartile range 6-14 years)...
November 2017: Atherosclerosis. Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094912/recurrent-ischemic-stroke-strategies-for-prevention
#16
Rupal Oza, Kristen Rundell, Miriam Garcellano
Recurrent strokes make up almost 25% of the nearly 800,000 strokes that occur annually in the United States. Risk factors for ischemic stroke include hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, sleep apnea, and obesity. Lifestyle modifications, including tobacco cessation, decreased alcohol use, and increased physical activity, are also important in the management of patients with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Antiplatelet therapy is recommended to reduce the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke...
October 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084062/antiplatelet-therapy-after-stroke-should-it-differ-in-the-acute-and-chronic-phase-after-stroke
#17
Xinyi Leng, Thomas W Leung, K S Lawrence Wong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Reviewing existing evidence regarding well tolerated and effective antiplatelet treatment in patients with acute or chronic, noncardioembolic ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). RECENT FINDINGS: For patients with high-risk stroke or TIA, for instance, minor stroke or high-risk TIA, or stroke of atherosclerotic origin with evidence suggesting risk of artery-to-artery embolism or with high-grade, symptomatic arterial stenosis, early initiated, short-term dual antiplatelet (e...
October 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076972/users-guide-to-pitfalls-and-lessons-learned-about-hboc-201-during-clinical-trials-expanded-access-and-clinical-use-in-1-701-patients
#18
Colin F Mackenzie, Gregory P Dubé, Arkaidy Pitman, Melissa Zafirelis
Lessons learned during 1,701 clinical uses of HBOC-201, a polymerized bovine hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC), were identified to provide management lessons and training material for future clinical trials and use. HBOC-201 contains 13 g/dL hemoglobin (Hb), is iso-oncotic, stable at 2°C to 30°C with shelf-life of 3 years, requires no cross-matching with half-life of 19 h, and plasma volume distribution. Adverse effects include increased blood pressure, oliguria, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, yellow skin and scleral discoloration, decreased pulse oximetry measurements, and transient increases in methemoglobin, hepatic, and pancreatic enzymes...
October 25, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075343/efficacy-and-safety-of-cerebrolysin-treatment-in-early-recovery-after-acute-ischemic-stroke-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blinded-multicenter-clinical-trial
#19
K Gharagozli, A A Harandi, S Houshmand, N Akbari, D F Muresanu, J Vester, S Winter, H Moessler
Background and Purpose : The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of cerebrolysin in the early recovery phase after acute ischemic stroke. Methods. This prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multicenter, parallel-group study enrolled a total of 100 patients within 18 h after the onset of stroke. The patients were treated with Cerebrolysin (30 mL over seven days followed by 10 mL until day 30) or placebo once daily over a period of four weeks. Efficacy was primarily assessed by the NIH Stroke Scale at day 30, and additional parameters included the modified Rankin Scale, the Clinical Global Impression, the Patient Global Satisfaction (PGS) and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)...
July 2017: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059648/determine-the-effectiveness-of-lipid-lowering-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-combined-with-coronary-heart-disease
#20
Vyacheslav Zhdan, Galina Khaymenova, Lyudmila Shilkina, Daria Martynyuk, Marina Babanina, Tatyana Mamontova
INTRODUCTION: In complex treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) combined with ischemic heart disease (IHD) more and more attention is drawn to pleiotropic effect of statins. The aim of our researches became determining the effectivity of utilization of rosuvastatin (CRESTOR®, IPR PHARMACEUTICALS, Inc.) in complex treatment of COPD combined with IHD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Basing on pulmonology department of Poltava regional clinical hospital, 30 patients with COPD combined with IHD have been examined (stable effort angina FC II) aged from 51 to 67 y...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
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