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Hepatocyte transplantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535778/exosomes-from-mesenchymal-stem-cells-induce-the-conversion-of-hepatocytes-into-progenitor-oval-cells
#1
Hao-Hsiang Wu, Oscar K Lee
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess therapeutic effects in a murine model of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver failure. In the study, we observed that the majority of repopulated hepatocytes were of recipient origin and were adjacent to transplanted MSCs; only a low percentage of repopulated hepatocytes were from transplanted MSCs. The findings indicate that MSCs guided the formation of new hepatocytes. Exosomes are important messengers for paracrine signaling delivery...
May 23, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518148/hepatocyte-polyploidization-and-its-association-with-pathophysiological-processes
#2
REVIEW
Min-Jun Wang, Fei Chen, Joseph T Y Lau, Yi-Ping Hu
A characteristic cellular feature of the mammalian liver is the progressive polyploidization of the hepatocytes, where individual cells acquire more than two sets of chromosomes. Polyploidization results from cytokinesis failure that takes place progressively during the course of postnatal development. The proportion of polyploidy also increases with the aging process or with cellular stress such as surgical resection, toxic stimulation, metabolic overload, or oxidative damage, to involve as much as 90% of the hepatocytes in mice and 40% in humans...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517024/treatment-of-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-past-present-and-future
#3
REVIEW
Nicolas Lanthier, Peter Stärkel
Alcoholic hepatitis manifests as a clinical syndrome characterized by recent jaundice and liver function deterioration in an actively drinking patient. The principal cause of alcoholic hepatitis is alcoholic steatohepatitis defined histologically by the coexistence of steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning and satellitosis. While non-severe alcoholic hepatitis usually responds to alcohol abstinence, severe alcoholic hepatitis, identified by Maddrey scoring ≥ 32, has a bad prognosis and is traditionally treated by a 28-day course of prednisone therapy...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511345/ros-homeostasis-a-key-determinant-in-liver-ischemic-preconditioning
#4
Ignacio Prieto, María Monsalve
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are key mediators of ischemia-reperfusion injury but also required for the induction of the stress response that limits tissue injury and underlies the protection provided by ischemic-preconditioning protocols. Liver steatosis is an important risk factor for liver transplant failure. Liver steatosis is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive mitochondrial ROS production. Studies aiming at decreasing the sensibility of the steatotic liver to ischemia-reperfusion injury using pre-conditioning protocols, have shown that the steatotic liver has a reduced capacity to respond to these protocols...
May 4, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502921/umbilical-cord-mscs-reverse-d-galactose-induced-hepatic-mitochondrial-dysfunction-via-activation-of-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#5
Weihong Yan, Dong Li, Tong Chen, Guiying Tian, Panpan Zhou, Xiuli Ju
Mitochondria are the central hubs for cellular bioenergetics and are crucial to cell survival. It is well accepted that compromised mitochondrial function is linked with hepatocytes injury and contribute to progression of liver diseases. Despite the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation on hepatic disorders have been extensively investigated, the effects of MSCs on mitochondrial function in liver injury models remain unknown. Here we investigated the effects of treatment with umbilical cord (UC) MSC in a rat model of D-Gal induced liver injury, characterized by organ damage, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction...
May 13, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501125/direct-orthotopic-implantation-of-hepatic-organoids
#6
Vivian X Zhou, Macarena Lolas, Tammy T Chang
BACKGROUND: Liver organoids show potential for development as a tissue replacement therapy for patients with end-stage liver disease, but efficient methods for introducing organoids into host livers have not been established. In this study, we aimed to develop a surgical technique to implant hepatic organoids into the liver and assess their engraftment. METHODS: Donor hepatocytes were isolated from ROSA26 C57BL/6 mice, so that engrafted cells, when implanted into wild-type mice, could be easily identified by X-gal staining...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501004/adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-slow-disease-progression-of-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#7
Carlos Gilsanz, Maria-Angeles Aller, Sherezade Fuentes-Julian, Isabel Prieto, Alejandro Blázquez-Martinez, Salvador Argudo, Jorge Fernández-Delgado, Jose Beleña, Jaime Arias, María P De Miguel
A serious complication of chronic hepatic insufficiency is acute-on-chronic liver failure, a recognized syndrome characterized by acute decompensation of cirrhosis and organ/system failure. We investigated the use of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) in an experimental model of acute-on-chronic liver failure, developed by microsurgical extrahepatic cholestasis in rats. Rats undergoing microsurgical extrahepatic cholestasis were treated by intraparenchymal liver injection of human or rat AD-MSCs, undifferentiated or previously differentiated in vitro toward the hepatocyte lineage...
May 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491877/nodular-regenerative-hyperplasia-a-case-of-rare-prognosis
#8
Mindy Lee, Manhal Izzy, Ashwin Akki, Kathryn Tanaka, Harmit Kalia
Introduction: Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) is a known etiology of noncirrhotic portal hypertension. Cases of biopsy-proven NRH in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients have been described. While these patients often have normal synthetic liver function, several reports described disease progression to liver failure. Case: We here present a 26-year-old woman with history of congenital HIV on antiretroviral therapy complicated by Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia at age 14. CD4 counts have been >300 with undetectable viral load...
January 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490706/-progress-of-the-application-of-stem-cell-therapy-for-end-stage-liver-disease
#9
Xingxiang Duan, Yang Wang, Jingjing He, Yingying Peng, Juan Yu, Yi Sun
Many risk factors lead to hypohepatia and hepatic failure, causing people suffering from end-stage liver disease. The conventional treatment for end-stage liver disease is not good enough. Orthotopic liver transplantation is effective. However, the high cost, lack of liver source, immune rejection and other factors limit the large-scale clinical application. Thus, cell therapy is a good option. Studies on common cell sources for the treatment of liver disease and the induction of hepatocytes by embryonic stem cells or pluripotent stem cells have made progress...
April 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477171/wisteria-floribunda-agglutinin-positive-mac-2-binding-protein-level-increases-in-patients-with-acute-liver-injury
#10
Kei Morio, Michio Imamura, Kana Daijo, Yuji Teraoka, Fumi Honda, Yuki Nakamura, Tomoki Kobayashi, Takashi Nakahara, Yuko Nagaoki, Tomokazu Kawaoka, Masataka Tsuge, Akira Hiramatsu, Yoshiiku Kawakami, Hiroshi Aikata, Clair Nelson Hayes, Kazuko Tsugawa, Michiya Yokozaki, Kazuaki Chayama
BACKGROUND: Wisteria floribunda agglutinin positive human Mac-2-binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi) is a novel serum glycomarker for liver fibrosis. However, it is not known whether or not M2BPGi reflects only liver fibrosis. We measured serum M2BPGi levels in patients with acute liver injury. METHODS: Fifty-one patients with acute liver injury were enrolled. M2BPGi levels were measured at the initial visit and at achievement of recovery. The relationship between M2BPGi values at the initial visit and clinical outcomes was analyzed...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468559/pediatric-mesenchymal-hamartomas-of-the-liver-can-show-both-foregut-and-hindgut-phenotype
#11
Hao Wu, William Ferguson, Eumenia Castro, Milton Finegold, Kalyani Patel
Cystic epithelium in mesenchymal hamartoma (MH) is typically biliary type. Mucinous differentiation of the epithelium and increased hepatocellular component may pose a diagnostic challenge. We studied MH in 7 children (6 M, 1 F; age 4 months to 8 years, median 1 year). Resected tumors varied from 3.0 to 17.0 cm. All tumors showed biliary epithelium in the cystic component with strong and diffuse reactivity for CK7 and CK19. Expression of CK20 and CDX2 was additionally seen in 2 tumors, rare/focal in 1, and diffuse with mucinous differentiation in the other...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459804/transplantation-of-hgf-gene-engineered-skeletal-myoblasts-improve-infarction-recovery-in-a-rat-myocardial-ischemia-model
#12
Shu-Ling Rong, Xiao-Lin Wang, Cui-Ying Zhang, Zhuo-Hui Song, Lu-Hua Cui, Xiao-Feng He, Xu-Jiong Li, Hui-Jin Du, Bao Li
BACKGROUND: Skeletal myoblast transplantation seems a promising approach for the repair of myocardial infarction (MI). However, the low engraftment efficacy and impaired angiogenic ability limit the clinical efficiency of the myoblasts. Gene engineering with angiogenic growth factors promotes angiogenesis and enhances engraftment of transplanted skeletal myoblasts, leading to improved infarction recovery in myocardial ischemia. The present study evaluated the therapeutic effects of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene-engineered skeletal myoblasts on tissue regeneration and restoration of heart function in a rat MI model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452735/-effect-of-acetylcysteine-corvitin-and-their-combination-on-the-functional-state-of-liver-in-rats-with-paracetamol-induced-toxic-hepatitis
#13
M Ghonghadze, N Antelava, K Liluashvili, M Okujava, K Pachkoria
Nowadays drug-induced hepatotoxicity is urgent problem worldwide. Currently more than 1000 drugs are hepatotoxic and most often are the reason of acute fulminant hepatitis and hepatocellular failure, the states requiring liver transplantation. The paracetamol induced liver toxicity is related with accumulation of its toxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), which is the free radical and enhances peroxidation of lipids, disturbs the energy status and causes death of hepatocytes. During our research we investigated and assessed the efficacy of acetylcysteine, corvitin and their combination in rat model of paracetamol induced acute toxic hepatitis...
February 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450387/composite-biomarker-panel-for-prediction-of-severity-and-diagnosis-of-acute-gvhd-with-t-cell-depleted-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplants-single-centre-pilot-study
#14
San San Min, Varun Mehra, Jennifer Clay, Gemma F Cross, Abdel Douiri, Tracy Dew, Tanya N Basu, Victoria Potter, M Mansour Ceesay, Antonio Pagliuca, Roy A Sherwood, Royce P Vincent
AIMS: Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of a composite biomarker panel to help identify individuals at risk of developing aGVHD, and to help predict and differentiate between severity of aGVHD following T-cell-depleted allogeneic HSCT. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed our cohort of biopsy confirmed patients with aGVHD, who underwent T-cell-depleted HSCT and matched them with negative controls without any evidence of aGVHD...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448819/construction-of-three-dimensional-vascularized-functional-human-liver-tissue-using-a-layer-by-layer-cell-coating-technique
#15
Kazuki Sasaki, Takami Akagi, Tadafumi Asaoka, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Yasunari Fukuda, Yoshifumi Iwagami, Daisaku Yamada, Takehiro Noda, Hiroshi Wada, Kunihito Gotoh, Koichi Kawamoto, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori, Mitsuru Akashi
The creation of artificial liver tissue is an active area of research due to the shortage of donors for liver transplantation. Here we investigated whether a simple and efficient cell coating technique developed in our laboratory could be used to generate functional vascularized liver tissue. This technique creates three-dimensional tissue by loading cells sterically onto other cells that have been coated with layer-by-layer (LbL) nanofilms of fibronectin and gelatin, two extracellular matrix proteins. We used this technique to construct homogenous, dense, well-vascularized liver tissue from cryopreserved human primary hepatocytes, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and normal human dermal fibroblasts...
February 28, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440304/the-natural-history-of-severe-acute-liver-injury
#16
David G Koch, J L Speiser, V Durkalski, R J Fontana, T Davern, B McGuire, R T Stravitz, A M Larson, I Liou, O Fix, M L Schilsky, T McCashland, J E Hay, N Murray, O S Shaikh, D Ganger, A Zaman, S B Han, R T Chung, R S Brown, S Munoz, K R Reddy, L Rossaro, R Satyanarayana, A J Hanje, J Olson, R M Subramanian, C Karvellas, B Hameed, A H Sherker, W M Lee, A Reuben
OBJECTIVES: Acute liver failure (ALF) is classically defined by coagulopathy and hepatic encephalopathy (HE); however, acute liver injury (ALI), i.e., severe acute hepatocyte necrosis without HE, has not been carefully defined nor studied. Our aim is to describe the clinical course of specifically defined ALI, including the risk and clinical predictors of poor outcomes, namely progression to ALF, the need for liver transplantation (LT) and death. METHODS: 386 subjects prospectively enrolled in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group registry between 1 September 2008 through 25 October 2013, met criteria for ALI: International Normalized Ratio (INR)≥2...
April 25, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437180/a-drug-induced-hybrid-electrospun-poly-capro-lactone-cell-derived-extracellular-matrix-scaffold-for-liver-tissue-engineering
#17
Rhiannon Grant, David C Hay, Anthony Callanan
Liver transplant is the only treatment option for patients with end-stage liver failure, however, there are too few donor livers available for transplant. Whole organ tissue engineering presents a potential solution to the problem of rapidly escalating donor liver shortages worldwide. A major challenge for liver tissue engineers is the creation of a hepatocyte microenvironment; a niche in which liver cells can survive and function optimally. While polymers and decellularized tissues pose an attractive option for scaffold manufacturing, neither alone has thus far proved sufficient...
May 3, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433103/liver-transplantation-for-wilson-disease
#18
Ahsan Ahmad, Euriko Torrazza-Perez, Michael L Schilsky
Liver transplantation (LT) is a life-saving and curative treatment for Wilson disease (WD), providing restoration of function of the liver and mitigation of portal hypertension. Indications for LT in patients with WD include acute liver failure or end-stage liver disease not treatable by medical therapy. LT is also used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma when it develops in patients with WD when tumor resection is not feasible. LT solely for neurologic or psychiatric WD remains controversial. Living liver donation as well as cadaveric orthotopic and auxiliary LT are options for transplantation for WD...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428345/proliferation-of-primary-human-hepatocytes-and-prevention-of-hepatitis-b-virus-reinfection-efficiently-deplete-nuclear-cccdna-in-vivo
#19
Lena Allweiss, Tassilo Volz, Katja Giersch, Janine Kah, Giuseppina Raffa, Joerg Petersen, Ansgar W Lohse, Concetta Beninati, Teresa Pollicino, Stephan Urban, Marc Lütgehetmann, Maura Dandri
OBJECTIVE: The stability of the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in nuclei of non-dividing hepatocytes represents a key determinant of HBV persistence. Contrarily, studies with animal hepadnaviruses indicated that hepatocyte turnover can reduce cccDNA loads but knowledge on the proliferative capacity of HBV-infected primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) in vivo and the fate of cccDNA in dividing PHHs is still lacking. This study aimed to determine the impact of human hepatocyte division on cccDNA stability in vivo...
April 20, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425419/a-rare-bsep-mutation-associated-with-a-mild-form-of-progressive-familial-intrahepatic-cholestasis-type-2
#20
Orith Waisbourd-Zinman, Lea F Surrey, Anna E Schwartz, Pierre A Russo, Jessica Wen
Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis type 2 (PFIC2) is a rare cholestatic disorder diagnosed in infancy or childhood that can lead to severe hepatic fibrosis and liver failure. Mutations in the ABCB11 gene result in a deficiency of the bile salt export protein (BSEP) and accumulation of bile inside the hepatocytes. Hepatocellular carcinoma is another condition associated with severe forms of deletion mutations in the ABCB11 gene. Treatment options including ursodeoxycholic acid biliary diversion have mixed outcomes and some patients require liver transplantation...
May 2017: Annals of Hepatology
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