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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722096/the-14-th-international-workshops-on-opportunistic-protists-iwop-14
#1
Melanie T Cushion, Andrew H Limper, Aleksey Porollo, Vivian Saper, Anthony P Sinai, Louis M Weiss
The 14th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-14) was held August 10 to 12, 2017 in Cincinnati, OH, USA. The IWOP meetings focus on opportunistic protists (OIs); e.g. free-living amoebae, Pneumocystis, Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, the Microsporidia, and kinetoplastid flagellates. Highlights of Pneumocystis research included reports of primary homothallism for mating; a potential requirement for sexual replication in its life cycle; a new antigen on the surface of small asci; and roles for CLRs, Dectin-1 and Mincle in host responses; and identification of MSG families and mechanisms used for surface variation...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701142/polyamines-and-related-nitrogen-compounds-in-the-chemotherapy-of-neglected-diseases-caused-by-kinetoplastids
#2
Juan A Bisceglia, Maria C Mollo, Nadia Gruber, Liliana R Orelli
Neglected diseases due to the parasitic protozoa Leishmania and Trypanosoma (kinetoplastids) affect millions of people worldwide, and the lack of suitable treatments has promoted an ongoing drug discovery effort to identify novel nontoxic and cost-effective chemotherapies. Polyamines are ubiquitous small organic molecules that play key roles in kinetoplastid parasites metabolism, redox homeostasis and in the normal progression of cell cycles, which differ from those found in the mammalian host. These features make polyamines attractive in terms of antiparasitic drug development...
April 27, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696033/redidb-3-0-a-comprehensive-collection-of-rna-editing-events-in-plant-organellar-genomes
#3
Claudio Lo Giudice, Graziano Pesole, Ernesto Picardi
RNA editing is an important epigenetic mechanism by which genome-encoded transcripts are modified by substitutions, insertions and/or deletions. It was first discovered in kinetoplastid protozoa followed by its reporting in a wide range of organisms. In plants, RNA editing occurs mostly by cytidine (C) to uridine (U) conversion in translated regions of organelle mRNAs and tends to modify affected codons restoring evolutionary conserved aminoacid residues. RNA editing has also been described in non-protein coding regions such as group II introns and structural RNAs...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666191/flagellum-inheritance-in-trypanosoma-brucei-requires-a-kinetoplastid-specific-protein-phosphatase
#4
Qing Zhou, Gang Dong, Ziyin Li
Trypanosoma brucei causes sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in cattle in sub-Saharan Africa and alternates between its mammalian hosts and its insect vector, the tsetse fly. T. brucei uses a flagellum for motility, cell division, and cell-cell communication. Proper positioning and attachment of the newly assembled flagellum rely on the faithful duplication and segregation of flagellum-associated cytoskeletal structures. These processes are regulated by the polo-like kinase homolog TbPLK, whose activity and abundance are under stringent control to ensure spatiotemporally regulated phosphorylation of its substrates...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621574/catalytically-important-flavin-linked-through-a-phosphoester-bond-in-a-eukaryotic-fumarate-reductase
#5
Marina V Serebryakova, Yulia V Bertsova, Svyatoslav S Sokolov, Alexander A Kolesnikov, Alexander A Baykov, Alexander V Bogachev
One of the three domains of kinetoplastid NADH:fumarate oxidoreductase (FRD) is homologous to bacterial flavin transferase that catalyzes transfer of FMN residue from FAD to threonine in flavoproteins. Leptomonas pyrrhocoris FRD produced in yeast cells, which lack flavin transferase gene in their proteome, reduces fumarate in the presence of NADH and contains an FMN residue covalently linked to a Ser9 residue. The conserved flavinylation motif of FRD, D3 (g/s)x(s/t)(s/g)AS9 , is similar to the Dxx(s/t)gAT motif recognized by flavin transferase in prokaryotic proteins...
April 2, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609908/discovery-of-a-quinoline-based-phenyl-sulfone-derivative-as-an-antitrypanosomal-agent
#6
Huaisheng Zhang, Jasmine Collins, Rogers Nyamwihura, Shelbi Ware, Marcel Kaiser, Ifedayo Victor Ogungbe
A series of natural products-based phenyl sulfone derivative and their property-based analogues were investigated as potential growth inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei. Trypanosoma brucei is a kinetoplastid protozoan parasite that causes trypanosomiasis. In this work, we found that nopol- and quinoline-based phenyl sulfone derivative were the most active and selective for T. brucei, and they were not reactive towards the active thiol of T. brucei's cysteine protease rhodesain. A thiol reactive variant of the quinoline-based phenyl sulfone was subsequently investigated and found to be a moderate inhibitor of rhodesain...
May 15, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582753/the-kinetoplastid-infecting-bodo-saltans-virus-bsv-a-window-into-the-most-abundant-giant-viruses-in-the-sea
#7
Christoph M Deeg, Cheryl-Emiliane T Chow, Curtis A Suttle
Giant viruses are ecologically important players in aquatic ecosystems that have challenged concepts of what constitutes a virus. Herein, we present the giant Bodo saltans virus (BsV), the first characterized representative of the most abundant group of giant viruses in ocean metagenomes, and the first isolate of a klosneuvirus, a subgroup of the Mimiviridae proposed from metagenomic data. BsV infects an ecologically important microzooplankton, the kinetoplastid Bodo saltans . Its 1.39 Mb genome encodes 1227 predicted ORFs, including a complex replication machinery...
March 27, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543820/the-crystal-structure-of-the-leishmania-infantum-silent-information-regulator-2-related-protein-1-implications-to-protein-function-and-drug-design
#8
Céline Ronin, David Mendes Costa, Joana Tavares, Joana Faria, Fabrice Ciesielski, Paola Ciapetti, Terry K Smith, Jane MacDougall, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Iain K Pemberton
The de novo crystal structure of the Leishmania infantum Silent Information Regulator 2 related protein 1 (LiSir2rp1) has been solved at 1.99Å in complex with an acetyl-lysine peptide substrate. The structure is broadly commensurate with Hst2/SIRT2 proteins of yeast and human origin, reproducing many of the structural features common to these sirtuin deacetylases, including the characteristic small zinc-binding domain, and the larger Rossmann-fold domain involved in NAD+-binding interactions. The two domains are linked via a cofactor binding loop ordered in open conformation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540192/udp-glycosyltransferase-genes-in-trypanosomatid-genomes-have-diversified-independently-to-meet-the-distinct-developmental-needs-of-parasite-adaptations
#9
Sara Silva Pereira, Andrew P Jackson
BACKGROUND: Trypanosomatid parasites such as Trypanosoma spp. and Leishmania spp. are a major source of infectious disease in humans and domestic animals worldwide. Fundamental to the host-parasite interactions of these potent pathogens are their cell surfaces, which are highly decorated with glycosylated proteins and other macromolecules. Trypanosomatid genomes contain large multi-copy gene families encoding UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs), the primary role of which is cell-surface decoration...
March 14, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530930/degradation-of-cyclin-b-is-critical-for-nuclear-division-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#10
Hanako Hayashi, Bungo Akiyoshi
Kinetoplastids have a nucleus that contains the nuclear genome and a kinetoplast that contains the mitochondrial genome. These single-copy organelles must be duplicated and segregated faithfully to daughter cells at each cell division. In Trypanosoma brucei , although duplication of both organelles starts around the same time, segregation of the kinetoplast precedes that of the nucleus. Cytokinesis subsequently takes place so that daughter cells inherit a single copy of each organelle. Very little is known about the molecular mechanism that governs the timing of these events...
March 12, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501621/shedding-light-on-lipid-metabolism-in-kinetoplastida-a-phylogenetic-analysis-of-phospholipase-d-protein-homologs
#11
Noel-Marie Plonski, Bianca Bissoni, Madara Hetti Arachchilage, Karl Romstedt, Edgar E Kooijman, Helen Piontkivska
Unicellular flagellates that make up the class Kinetoplastida include multiple parasites responsible for public health concerns, including Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi (agents of African sleeping sickness and Chagas disease, respectively), and various Leishmania species, which cause leishmaniasis. These diseases are generally difficult to eradicate, with treatments often having lethal side effects and/or being effective only during the acute phase of the diseases, when most patients are still asymptomatic...
May 20, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491738/conservation-and-variation-in-strategies-for-dna-replication-of-kinetoplastid-nuclear-genomes
#12
REVIEW
Catarina A Marques, Richard McCulloch
Introduction: Understanding how the nuclear genome of kinetoplastid parasites is replicated received experimental stimulus from sequencing of the Leishmania major, Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi genomes around 10 years ago. Gene annotations suggested key players in DNA replication initiation could not be found in these organisms, despite considerable conservation amongst characterised eukaryotes. Initial studies that indicated trypanosomatids might possess an archaeal-like Origin Recognition Complex (ORC), composed of only a single factor termed ORC1/CDC6, have been supplanted by the more recent identification of an ORC in T...
February 2018: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491737/gene-and-chromosomal-copy-number-variations-as-an-adaptive-mechanism-towards-a-parasitic-lifestyle-in-trypanosomatids
#13
REVIEW
João Luís Reis-Cunha, Hugo O Valdivia, Daniella Castanheira Bartholomeu
Trypanosomatids are a group of kinetoplastid parasites including some of great public health importance, causing debilitating and life-long lasting diseases that affect more than 24 million people worldwide. Among the trypanosomatids, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and species from the Leishmania genus are the most well studied parasites, due to their high prevalence in human infections. These parasites have an extreme genomic and phenotypic variability, with a massive expansion in the copy number of species-specific multigene families enrolled in host-parasite interactions that mediate cellular invasion and immune evasion processes...
February 2018: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491736/high-throughput-methods-for-dissection-of-trypanosome-gene-regulatory-networks
#14
REVIEW
Esteban D Erben
From synthesis to decay, mRNA associates with RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) establishing dynamic ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs). Understanding the composition and function of RNPs is fundamental to understanding how eukaryotic mRNAs are controlled. This is especially relevant for trypanosomes and related kinetoplastid parasites, which mostly rely on post-transcriptional mechanisms to control gene expression. Crucial for trypanosome differentiation, development, or even response to heat shock, RBPs are known to be essential modulators of diverse molecular processes...
February 2018: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491735/editorial-new-insights-into-the-genomes-of-kinetoplastid-parasites
#15
EDITORIAL
Luis Miguel De Pablos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476727/molecular-diagnosis-of-trypanosoma-cruzi
#16
REVIEW
Alejandro G Schijman
Chagas disease, caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, affects millions of people, most of them neglected populations. The different phases of the disease, the transmission mode and the high genetic variability of the parasite determine that molecular detection methods display different degree of success. Molecular diagnostic tests may be employed during epidemiological surveys of transmission, for early diagnosis of congenital transmission and acute infections due to oral transmission, transfusion or transplantation routes, reactivation due to immunosuppression and monitoring of treatment response in chronically infected patients receiving trypanocidal chemotherapy...
February 21, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474390/transcriptomes-of-trypanosoma-brucei-rhodesiense-from-sleeping-sickness-patients-rodents-and-culture-effects-of-strain-growth-conditions-and-rna-preparation-methods
#17
Julius Mulindwa, Kevin Leiss, David Ibberson, Kevin Kamanyi Marucha, Claudia Helbig, Larissa Melo do Nascimento, Eleanor Silvester, Keith Matthews, Enock Matovu, John Enyaru, Christine Clayton
All of our current knowledge of African trypanosome metabolism is based on results from trypanosomes grown in culture or in rodents. Drugs against sleeping sickness must however treat trypanosomes in humans. We here compare the transcriptomes of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of human patients with those of trypanosomes from culture and rodents. The data were aligned and analysed using new user-friendly applications designed for Kinetoplastid RNA-Seq data. The transcriptomes of trypanosomes from human blood and cerebrospinal fluid did not predict major metabolic differences that might affect drug susceptibility...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473141/the-trypanosoma-cruzi-rna-binding-protein-rbp42-is-expressed-in-the-cytoplasm-throughout-the-life-cycle-of-the-parasite
#18
R Tyler Weisbarth, Anish Das, Paul Castellano, Michael A Fisher, Han Wu, Vivian Bellofatto
Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease in humans, has a complex life cycle that promotes survival in disparate environments. In each environment, the parasite must fine-tune its metabolic pathways to divide and multiply. In the absence of recognizable transcriptional gene regulation, it is apparent that protein levels are determined by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Post-transcriptional gene control is influenced by RNA-binding proteins that target mRNAs in the cell's cytoplasm...
April 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469990/differential-metabolic-pathway-analysis-of-the-proteomes-of-leishmania-donovani-and-leptomonas-seymouri
#19
Neeloo Singh, Renu Goel, Ekta Jain
PURPOSE: Although in trypanosomatids, monoxeny (Leptomonas) is ancestral to dixeny (Leishmania), however clinical cases of visceral leishmanisis with Leptomonas co-infection are increasingly being reported from India. Using a proteogenomic approach, a detailed proteome analysis of these two kinetoplastid parasites viz., Leishmania and its sister Leptomonas, to catalog the key proteins associated with and therefore possibly responsible for phenotype changes in Leptomonas evolution and domestication as co-infection with Leishmania is carried out...
February 22, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425238/host-parasite-co-metabolic-activation-of-antitrypanosomal-aminomethyl-benzoxaboroles
#20
Ning Zhang, Martin Zoltner, Ka-Fai Leung, Paul Scullion, Sebastian Hutchinson, Ricardo C Del Pino, Isabel M Vincent, Yong-Kang Zhang, Yvonne R Freund, Michael R K Alley, Robert T Jacobs, Kevin D Read, Michael P Barrett, David Horn, Mark C Field
Recent development of benzoxaborole-based chemistry gave rise to a collection of compounds with great potential in targeting diverse infectious diseases, including human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), a devastating neglected tropical disease. However, further medicinal development is largely restricted by a lack of insight into mechanism of action (MoA) in pathogenic kinetoplastids. We adopted a multidisciplinary approach, combining a high-throughput forward genetic screen with functional group focused chemical biological, structural biology and biochemical analyses, to tackle the complex MoAs of benzoxaboroles in Trypanosoma brucei...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
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