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Yue Li, Man Li, Long Zuo, Qinglei Shi, Wei Qin, Lei Yang, Tao Jiang, Wenli Hu
Objective: Several studies have demonstrated that compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of individual cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) markers, but the association between BBB permeability and total magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cSVD burden remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between BBB permeability and total MRI cSVD burden. Methods: Consecutive participants without symptomatic stroke history presented for physical examination were enrolled in this cross-sectional study...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Franz Veru-Lesmes, Aldanie Rho, Suzanne King, Ridha Joober, Marita Pruessner, Ashok Malla, Srividya N Iyer
BACKGROUND: The abnormally high incidence of disorders of glucose metabolism (DGM) in psychotic-spectrum disorders (PSD) has often been attributed to the side effects of antipsychotics and unhealthy lifestyles. The influence of social determinants of health has been largely ignored, despite ample evidence linking social adversity with both PSD and DGM. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of well-established social determinants of health on preclinical levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Simon Schwab, Ruth Harbord, Valerio Zerbi, Lloyd Elliott, Soroosh Afyouni, Jim Q Smith, Mark W Woolrich, Stephen M Smith, Thomas E Nichols
There are a growing number of neuroimaging methods that model spatio-temporal patterns of brain activity to allow more meaningful characterizations of brain networks. This paper proposes dynamic graphical models (DGMs) for dynamic, directed functional connectivity. DGMs are a multivariate graphical model with time-varying coefficients that describe instantaneous directed relationships between nodes. A further benefit of DGMs is that networks may contain loops and that large networks can be estimated. We use network simulations, human resting-state fMRI (N = 500) to investigate the validity and reliability of the estimated networks...
April 3, 2018: NeuroImage
Duong Tung Pham, Joseph Paul Baboo, Jinju Song, Sungjin Kim, Jeonggeun Jo, Vinod Mathew, Muhammad Hilmy Alfaruqi, Balaji Sambandam, Jaekook Kim
Pyrite (FeS2 ) is a promising electrode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) because of its high natural availability, low toxicity, cost-effectiveness, high theoretical capacity (894 mA h g-1 ) and high theoretical specific energy density (1270 W h kg-1 , 4e- /FeS2 ). Nevertheless, the use of FeS2 in electrochemical capacitors was restricted due to fast capacity fading as a result of polysulfide (S/Sn 2- ) formation during the initial electrochemical cycling. In order to avoid the formation of polysulfides, we employed the strategy of utilizing an ether based electrolyte (1...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Laura Gaetano, Dieter A Häring, Ernst-Wilhelm Radue, Nicole Mueller-Lenke, Avinash Thakur, Davorka Tomic, Ludwig Kappos, Till Sprenger
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of fingolimod on deep gray matter (dGM), thalamus, cortical GM (cGM), white matter (WM), and ventricular volume (VV) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: Data were pooled from 2 phase III studies. A total of 2,064 of 2,355 (88%) contributed to the analysis: fingolimod 0.5 mg n = 783, fingolimod 1.25 mg n = 799, or placebo n = 773. Percentage change from baseline in dGM and thalamic volumes was evaluated with FMRIB's Integrated Registration & Segmentation Tool; WM, cGM, and VV were evaluated with structural image evaluation using normalization of atrophy cross-sectional version (SIENAX) at months 12 and 24...
April 10, 2018: Neurology
Ahmed M Elkady, Dana Cobzas, Hongfu Sun, Gregg Blevins, Alan H Wilman
BACKGROUND: Combined R2* and quantitative susceptibility (QS) has been previously used in cross-sectional multiple sclerosis (MS) studies to distinguish deep gray matter (DGM) iron accumulation and demyelination. PURPOSE: We propose and apply discriminative analysis of regional evolution (DARE) to define specific changes in MS and healthy DGM. STUDY TYPE: Longitudinal (baseline and 2-year follow-up) retrospective study. SUBJECTS: Twenty-seven relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 17 progressive MS (PMS), and corresponding age-matched healthy subjects...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Yoshihiko Hibi, Ayumi Kashihara
A previous study has reported that Knudsen diffusion coefficients obtained by tracer experiments conducted with a binary gas system and a porous medium are consistently smaller than those obtained by permeability experiments conducted with a single-gas system and a porous medium. To date, however, that study is the only one in which tracer experiments have been conducted with a binary gas system. Therefore, to confirm this difference in Knudsen diffusion coefficients, we used a method we had developed previously to conduct tracer experiments with a binary carbon dioxide-nitrogen gas system and five porous media with permeability coefficients ranging from 10-13 to 10-11  m2 ...
March 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Takeshi Onishi, Naoki Nitta, Tadateru Fukami, Satoshi Nakasu, Kazuhiko Nozaki
Background: A single inflammatory demyelinating brain lesion sometimes mimics a brain tumor on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and thus poses a considerable diagnostic challenge. We assessed the usefulness of a new MRI technique, fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA), for the diagnosis of inflammatory demyelinating disease (IDD). Methods: Three patients (2 males, 1 female) with a histopathologically proven inflammatory demyelinating brain lesion which mimicked a brain tumor on MRI were evaluated with a post-contrast three-dimensional FIESTA sequence before biopsy and treatment...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Arman Eshaghi, Ferran Prados, Wallace J Brownlee, Daniel R Altmann, Carmen Tur, M Jorge Cardoso, Floriana De Angelis, Steven H van de Pavert, Niamh Cawley, Nicola De Stefano, M Laura Stromillo, Marco Battaglini, Serena Ruggieri, Claudio Gasperini, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca, Alex Rovira, Jaume Sastre-Garriga, Hugo Vrenken, Cyra E Leurs, Joep Killestein, Lukas Pirpamer, Christian Enzinger, Sebastien Ourselin, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Declan Chard, Alan J Thompson, Daniel C Alexander, Frederik Barkhof, Olga Ciccarelli
OBJECTIVE: Gray matter (GM) atrophy occurs in all multiple sclerosis (MS) phenotypes. We investigated whether there is a spatiotemporal pattern of GM atrophy that is associated with faster disability accumulation in MS. METHODS: We analyzed 3,604 brain high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans from 1,417 participants: 1,214 MS patients (253 clinically isolated syndrome [CIS], 708 relapsing-remitting [RRMS], 128 secondary-progressive [SPMS], and 125 primary-progressive [PPMS]), over an average follow-up of 2...
February 2018: Annals of Neurology
Yuyao Zhang, Hongjiang Wei, Matthew J Cronin, Naying He, Fuhua Yan, Chunlei Liu
Longitudinal brain atlases play an important role in the study of human brain development and cognition. Existing atlases are mainly based on anatomical features derived from T1-and T2-weighted MRI. A 4D developmental quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) atlas may facilitate the estimation of age-related iron changes in deep gray matter nuclei and myelin changes in white matter. To this end, group-wise co-registered QSM templates were generated over various age intervals from age 1-83 years old. Registration was achieved by combining both T1-weighted and QSM images...
May 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Ali Al-Radaideh, Imad Athamneh, Hadeel Alabadi, Majed Hbahbih
INTRODUCTION: This study was carried out to investigate the global and regional morphometric and iron changes in grey matter (GM) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and link them to the white matter (WM) lesions in a multimodal magnetic resonance imaging approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 30 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients along with 30 age-matched healthy controls (HC) who were scanned on a 3T Siemens Trio system. The scanning protocol included a 3D, high resolution T1, T2, and T2*-weighted sequences...
January 3, 2018: Clinical Neuroradiology
Chiu-Shia Fen, Yong-Tai Sun, Yuen Cheng, Yuanchin Chen, Whaiwan Yang, Changtai Pan
Variations of gas phase density are responsible for advective and diffusive transports of organic vapors in unsaturated soils. Laboratory experiments were conducted to explore dense gas transport (sulfur hexafluoride, SF6 ) from different source densities through a nitrogen gas-dry soil column. Gas pressures and SF6 densities at transient state were measured along the soil column for three transport configurations (horizontal, vertically upward and vertically downward transport). These measurements and others reported in the literature were compared with simulation results obtained from two models based on different diffusion approaches: the dusty gas model (DGM) equations and a Fickian-type molar fraction-based diffusion expression...
January 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Hua'an Wu, Bo Zeng, Meng Zhou
High accuracy in water demand predictions is an important basis for the rational allocation of city water resources and forms the basis for sustainable urban development. The shortage of water resources in Chongqing, the youngest central municipality in Southwest China, has significantly increased with the population growth and rapid economic development. In this paper, a new grey water-forecasting model (GWFM) was built based on the data characteristics of water consumption. The parameter estimation and error checking methods of the GWFM model were investigated...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
N A Page, L M Seheri, M J Groome, J Moyes, S Walaza, J Mphahlele, K Kahn, C N Kapongo, H J Zar, S Tempia, C Cohen, S A Madhi
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccination has reduced diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality globally. The monovalent rotavirus vaccine was introduced into the public immunization program in South Africa (SA) in 2009 and led to approximately 50% reduction in rotavirus hospitalization in young children. The aim of this study was to investigate the rotavirus genotype distribution in SA before and after vaccine introduction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In addition to pre-vaccine era surveillance conducted from 2002 to 2008 at Dr George Mukhari Hospital (DGM), rotavirus surveillance among children <5 years hospitalized for acute diarrhoea was established at seven sentinel sites in SA from April 2009 to December 2014...
October 27, 2017: Vaccine
Terri Grassby, Giuseppina Mandalari, Myriam M-L Grundy, Cathrina H Edwards, Carlo Bisignano, Domenico Trombetta, Antonella Smeriglio, Simona Chessa, Shuvra Ray, Jeremy Sanderson, Sarah E Berry, Peter R Ellis, Keith W Waldron
This study compares in vitro and in vivo models of lipid digestion from almond particles within a complex food matrix (muffins) investigating whether the cell-wall barrier regulates the bioaccessibility of nutrients within this matrix. Muffins containing small (AF) or large (AP) particles of almond were digested in triplicate using an in vitro dynamic gastric model (DGM, 1 h) followed by a static duodenal digestion (8 h). AF muffins had 97.1 ± 1.7% of their lipid digested, whereas AP muffins had 57.6 ± 1...
October 2017: Journal of Functional Foods
Jun Song, Dongshan Yang, Jinxue Ruan, Jifeng Zhang, Yuqing Eugene Chen, Jie Xu
Immunodeficient mice have been used predominantly in biomedical research. Realizing that large animal species may have an enhanced ability to predict clinical outcome relative to mice, we worked to develop immunodeficient rabbits by CRISPR/Cas9. We first demonstrated that multiplex embryo transfer efficiently produced multiple lines of single-gene mutant (SGM) founders. Embryos microinjected with single sgRNA targeting FOXN1, RAG2, IL2RG or PRKDC were pooled for embryo transfer. As few as three recipients were used to produce twenty SGM founders for four genes...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Renxin Chu, Shelley Hurwitz, Shahamat Tauhid, Rohit Bakshi
BACKGROUND: The cerebral subcortical deep gray matter nuclei (DGM) are a common, early, and clinically-relevant site of atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS). Robust and reliable DGM segmentation could prove useful to evaluate putative neuroprotective MS therapies. The objective of the study was to compare the sensitivity and reliability of DGM volumes obtained from 1.5T vs. 3T MRI. METHODS: Fourteen patients with MS [age (mean, range) 50.2 (32.0-60.8) years, disease duration 18...
September 5, 2017: BMC Neurology
Mengchen Liu, Jiaxin Shi, Kelei Cao, Jun Zhu, Shixia Liu
Among the many types of deep models, deep generative models (DGMs) provide a solution to the important problem of unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. However, training DGMs requires more skill, experience, and know-how because their training is more complex than other types of deep models such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs). We develop a visual analytics approach for better understanding and diagnosing the training process of a DGM. To help experts understand the overall training process, we first extract a large amount of time series data that represents training dynamics (e...
January 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Su-Hyun Kim, Eun Young Park, Boram Park, Jae-Won Hyun, Na Young Park, AeRan Joung, Sang Hyun Lee, Ho Jin Kim
Cognitive impairment (CI) is reported in 29-57% of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, the pathophysiology underlying CI in NMOSD is poorly understood. The present study aims to investigate the predictive values of various conventional and quantitative MRI parameters for cognitive performance in patients with NMOSD. Neurological assessment and conventional, diffusion tensor, and volumetric MRI sequences were collected form 73 patients with NMOSD and 44 healthy controls (HCs)...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Eva Alonso-Ortiz, Ives R Levesque, G Bruce Pike
PURPOSE: Myelin water fraction (MWF) mapping based on multi-gradient recalled-echo (MGRE) imaging has been proposed as an alternative to the conventional multi-echo-spin-echo (MESE) approach. In this work, we performed a comparative study of MESE and MGRE-derived MWFs in the same subject group. METHODS: MESE and MGRE data were acquired in 12 healthy volunteers at 3T. T2* decay curves were corrected for the effects of field inhomogeneities and multicomponent analysis of T2  and T2* signals was performed using non-negative least-squares fitting...
March 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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