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Stefan Hetzer, Patric Birr, Andreas Fehlner, Sebastian Hirsch, Florian Dittmann, Eric Barnhill, Jürgen Braun, Ingolf Sack
Viscoelastic properties of the brain reflect tissue architecture at multiple length scales. However, little is known about the relation between vital tissue functions, such as perfusion, and the macroscopic mechanical properties of cerebral tissue. In this study, arterial spin labelling is paired with magnetic resonance elastography to investigate the relationship between tissue stiffness and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the in vivo human brain. The viscoelastic modulus, | G*|, and CBF were studied in deep gray matter (DGM) of 14 healthy male volunteers in the following sub-regions: putamen, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, thalamus, globus pallidus, and amygdala...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Gloria Kim, Renxin Chu, Fawad Yousuf, Shahamat Tauhid, Lynn Stazzone, Maria K Houtchens, James M Stankiewicz, Christopher Severson, Dorlan Kimbrough, Francisco Quintana, Tanuja Chitnis, Howard L Weiner, Brian C Healy, Rohit Bakshi
OBJECTIVE: The subcortical deep gray matter (DGM) develops selective, progressive, and clinically-relevant atrophy in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (PMS). This patient population is the target of active neurotherapeutic development, requiring the availability of outcome measures. We tested a fully automated MRI analysis pipeline to assess DGM atrophy in PMS. DESIGN/METHODS: Consistent 3D T1-weighted high-resolution 3T brain MRI was obtained over one year in 19 consecutive patients with PMS [15 secondary progressive, 4 primary progressive, 53% women, age (mean±SD) 50...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
J-W Hyun, G Park, K Kwak, H-J Jo, A Joung, J-H Kim, S H Lee, S Kim, J-M Lee, S-H Kim, H J Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated changes in deep gray matter (DGM) volume and its relationship to cognition and clinical factors in a large cohort of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and compared them with results from multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Brain magnetic resonance imaging (3 Tesla) and clinical data from 91 patients with NMOSD, 52 patients with MS and 44 healthy controls (HCs) were prospectively evaluated. Differences in DGM volumes were compared among groups...
February 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Christopher C Stobart, Christina A Rostad, Zunlong Ke, Rebecca S Dillard, Cheri M Hampton, Joshua D Strauss, Hong Yi, Anne L Hotard, Jia Meng, Raymond J Pickles, Kaori Sakamoto, Sujin Lee, Michael G Currier, Syed M Moin, Barney S Graham, Marina S Boukhvalova, Brian E Gilbert, Jorge C G Blanco, Pedro A Piedra, Elizabeth R Wright, Martin L Moore
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of infant hospitalization and there remains no pediatric vaccine. RSV live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) have a history of safe testing in infants; however, achieving an effective balance of attenuation and immunogenicity has proven challenging. Here we seek to engineer an RSV LAV with enhanced immunogenicity. Genetic mapping identifies strain line 19 fusion (F) protein residues that correlate with pre-fusion antigen maintenance by ELISA and thermal stability of infectivity in live RSV...
December 21, 2016: Nature Communications
Sheena L Dupuy, Shahamat Tauhid, Shelley Hurwitz, Renxin Chu, Fawad Yousuf, Rohit Bakshi
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this pilot study was to compare cerebral gray matter (GM) atrophy over 1 year in patients starting dimethyl fumarate (DMF) for multiple sclerosis (MS) to that of patients on no disease-modifying treatment (noDMT). DMF is an established therapy for relapsing-remitting (RR) MS. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 20 patients with RRMS at the start of DMF [age (mean ± SD) 46.1 ± 10.2 years, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score 1...
December 2016: Neurology and Therapy
H Sun, P Seres, A H Wilman
Standard functional MRI (fMRI), which includes resting-state or paradigm-driven designs, is widely used in studies of brain function, aging, and disease. These fMRI studies typically use two-dimensional gradient echo-planar imaging, which inherently contains phase data that enables quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). This work focuses on the dual value of QSM within fMRI studies, by providing both a localized analysis of functional changes in activated tissue, and iron-sensitive structural maps in deep grey matter (DGM)...
September 30, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Shuyuan Huang, Kunning Lin, Dongxing Yuan, Yaqin Gao, Lumin Sun
Samples of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in the post-desulfurized seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant together with samples of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) over the post-desulfurized seawater surface were collected and analyzed to study the mercury isotope fractionation during transfer from post-desulfurized seawater to air. Experimental results showed that when DGM in the seawater was converted to GEM in the air, the δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg values were changed, ranging from -2.98 to -0.04‰ and from -0...
December 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Tomoyuki Kawada, Masao Katsumata, Hirofumi Inagaki, Takayuki Nakamura, Yoichi Kon
AIMS: The authors identified the risk of disorders of glucose metabolism (DGM) for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 536 men aged 33-84 years. Patients with diabetes medication were excluded for the analysis and DGM were diagnosed by fasting plasma glucose≥100mg/dl and/or 2h plasma glucose ≥140mg/dl. RESULTS: The prevalence of DGM in subjects with and without severe SDB, which was judged by an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 30, were 64...
September 4, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Jesper Hagemeier, Matthew R Woodward, Usama A Rafique, Chaitanya V Amrutkar, Niels Bergsland, Michael G Dwyer, Ralph Benedict, Robert Zivadinov, Kinga Szigeti
Even in early stages, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with olfactory deficit. We assess the association of volumetric differences in subcortical deep gray matter (DGM) structures and odor identification deficit (OID) in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), AD and normal controls (NCs), and relate findings to the current gold standard right sided memory measure, visual reproduction. Eighty subjects (19 aMCI; 42 CE; 19 NC) were included in this study. We obtained olfactory testing and normalized structural brain volumes from 3T T1 MRI scans...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Joseph Aloi, Bruce W Bode, Jagdeesh Ullal, Paul Chidester, Raymie S McFarland, Amy E Bedingfield, Melanie Mabrey, Robby Booth, April Mumpower, Amisha Wallia
BACKGROUND: American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines recommend a basal bolus correction insulin regimen as the preferred method of treatment for non-critically ill hospitalized patients. However, achieving ADA glucose targets safely, without hypoglycemia, is challenging. In this study we evaluated the safety and efficacy of basal bolus subcutaneous (SubQ) insulin therapy managed by providers compared to a nurse-directed Electronic Glycemic Management System (eGMS). METHOD: This retrospective crossover study evaluated 993 non-ICU patients treated with subcutaneous basal bolus insulin therapy managed by a provider compared to an eGMS...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Thomas Gattringer, Michael Khalil, Christian Langkammer, Margit Jehna, Alexander Pichler, Daniela Pinter, Markus Kneihsl, Katja Petrovic, Stefan Ropele, Franz Fazekas, Christian Enzinger
Besides specific iron accumulation in some neurodegenerative disorders, increased iron deposition in cerebral deep gray matter (DGM) is found in multiple sclerosis. As this is considered largely a white matter (WM) disease, we speculated that patients with more severe ischemic WM hyperintensities (WMH) might also have an increased iron concentration in DGM structures and tested this assumption by using magnetic resonance imaging-based quantitative R2* relaxometry. WMH severity was measured in 61 patients with acute transient neurological symptoms (mean age: 71...
September 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Laura M Mason, Simona Chessa, Hiep Huatan, David E Storey, Pranav Gupta, Jonathan Burley, Colin D Melia
The Dynamic Gastric Model (DGM) is an in-vitro system which aims to closely replicate the complex mixing, dynamic biochemical release and emptying patterns of the human stomach. In this study, the DGM was used to understand how the polymer content of hydrophilic matrices influences drug release in fasted and fed dissolution environments. Matrices containing a soluble model drug (caffeine) and between 10 and 30% HPMC 2208 (METHOCEL(®) K4M CR) were studied in the DGM under simulated fasted and fed conditions...
August 20, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Carsten Finke, Josephine Heine, Florence Pache, Anna Lacheta, Nadja Borisow, Joseph Kuchling, Judith Bellmann-Strobl, Klemens Ruprecht, Alexander U Brandt, Friedemann Paul
OBJECTIVE: To assess volumes and microstructural integrity of deep gray matter structures in a homogeneous cohort of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study including 36 aquaporin-4 antibody-positive (AQP4 Ab-positive) Caucasian patients with NMOSD and healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education. Volumetry of deep gray matter structures (DGM; thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens) was performed using 2 independent automated methods...
June 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Chunjie Wang, Zhijia Ci, Zhangwei Wang, Xiaoshan Zhang
Two oceanographic cruises were carried out in the East China Sea (ECS) during the summer and fall of 2013. The main objectives of this study are to identify the spatial-temporal distributions of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in air and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in surface seawater, and then to estimate the Hg(0) flux. The GEM concentration was lower in summer (1.61 ± 0.32 ng m(-3)) than in fall (2.20 ± 0.58 ng m(-3)). The back-trajectory analysis revealed that the air masses with high GEM levels during fall largely originated from the land, while the air masses with low GEM levels during summer primarily originated from ocean...
May 2016: Environmental Pollution
Bo Li, Jianjun Tian, Lixue Guo, Chengbin Fei, Ting Shen, Xuanhui Qu, Guozhong Cao
Two-step dipping is one of the popular low temperature solution methods to prepare organic-inorganic halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) films for solar cells. However, pinholes in perovskite films fabricated by the static growth method (SGM) result in low power conversion efficiency (PCE) in the resulting solar cells. In this work, the static dipping process is changed into a dynamic dipping process by controlled stirring PbI2 substrates in CH3NH3I isopropanol solution. The dynamic growth method (DGM) produces more nuclei and decreases the pinholes during the nucleation and growth of perovskite crystals...
February 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yaou Liu, Zhengjia Dai, Yunyun Duan, Jing Huang, Zhuoqiong Ren, Zheng Liu, Huiqing Dong, Ni Shu, Hugo Vrenken, Mike P Wattjes, Frederik Barkhof, Yong He, Kuncheng Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate brain functional connectivity (FC) alterations in patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) presenting without conventional brain MRI lesions, and to identify the FC differences between the CIS patients who converted to multiple sclerosis (MS) and those not converted during a 5-year follow-up. METHODS: We recruited 20 CIS patients without conventional brain lesions, 28 patients with MS and 28 healthy controls (HC). Normalized voxel-based functional connectivity strength (nFCS) was determined using resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) and compared among groups...
September 2016: European Radiology
Jia Guo, Jyu-Lin Chen, Robin Whittemore, Evans Whitaker
Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Several postpartum lifestyle intervention studies have been conducted for this high-risk group; however, the randomized clinical trials have not been evaluated systematically. Thus, the aim of this article is to evaluate the outcomes of clinical trials that focus on diabetes prevention among women with DGM. This systematic review utilized Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
January 2016: Journal of Women's Health
Carlotta Mummolo, Sukyung Park, Luigi Mangialardi, Joo H Kim
Evaluating the effects of load carriage on gait balance stability is important in various applications. However, their quantification has not been rigorously addressed in the current literature, partially due to the lack of relevant computational indices. The novel Dynamic Gait Measure (DGM) characterizes gait balance stability by quantifying the relative effects of inertia in terms of zero-moment point, ground projection of center of mass, and time-varying foot support region. In this study, the DGM is formulated in terms of the gait parameters that explicitly reflect the gait strategy of a given walking pattern and is used for computational evaluation of the distinct balance stability of loaded walking...
2016: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Gianpietro Malescio, Santi Prestipino
The phase behavior of stabilized dispersions of macromolecules is most easily described in terms of the effective interaction between the centers of mass of solute particles. For molecules such as polymer chains, dendrimers, etc., the effective pair potential is finite at the origin, allowing "particles" to freely interpenetrate each other. Using a double-Gaussian model (DGM) for demonstration, we study the behavior of the system as a function of the attraction strength η. Above a critical strength η(c), the infinite-size system is Ruelle unstable, in that it collapses to a cluster of finite volume...
November 2015: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Niels Bergsland, Robert Zivadinov, Michael G Dwyer, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Ralph Hb Benedict
BACKGROUND: Deep gray matter (DGM) atrophy is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but no studies have investigated surface-based structure changes over time with respect to healthy controls (HCs). Moreover, the relationship between cognition and the spatio-temporal evolution of DGM atrophy is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To explore DGM structural differences between MS and HCs over time in relation to neuropsychological (NP) outcomes. METHODS: The participants were 44 relapsing-remitting and 20 secondary progressive MS patients and 22 HCs...
September 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
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