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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874119/automated-segmentation-of-cerebral-deep-gray-matter-from-mri-scans-effect-of-field-strength-on-sensitivity-and-reliability
#1
Renxin Chu, Shelley Hurwitz, Shahamat Tauhid, Rohit Bakshi
BACKGROUND: The cerebral subcortical deep gray matter nuclei (DGM) are a common, early, and clinically-relevant site of atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS). Robust and reliable DGM segmentation could prove useful to evaluate putative neuroprotective MS therapies. The objective of the study was to compare the sensitivity and reliability of DGM volumes obtained from 1.5T vs. 3T MRI. METHODS: Fourteen patients with MS [age (mean, range) 50.2 (32.0-60.8) years, disease duration 18...
September 5, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866564/analyzing-the-training-processes-of-deep-generative-models
#2
Mengchen Liu, Jiaxin Shi, Kelei Cao, Jun Zhu, Shixia Liu
Among the many types of deep models, deep generative models (DGMs) provide a solution to the important problem of unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. However, training DGMs requires more skill, experience, and know-how because their training is more complex than other types of deep models such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs). We develop a visual analytics approach for better understanding and diagnosing the training process of a DGM. To help experts understand the overall training process, we first extract a large amount of time series data that represents training dynamics (e...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835657/multimodal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-relation-to-cognitive-impairment-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#3
Su-Hyun Kim, Eun Young Park, Boram Park, Jae-Won Hyun, Na Young Park, AeRan Joung, Sang Hyun Lee, Ho Jin Kim
Cognitive impairment (CI) is reported in 29-57% of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, the pathophysiology underlying CI in NMOSD is poorly understood. The present study aims to investigate the predictive values of various conventional and quantitative MRI parameters for cognitive performance in patients with NMOSD. Neurological assessment and conventional, diffusion tensor, and volumetric MRI sequences were collected form 73 patients with NMOSD and 44 healthy controls (HCs)...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656649/multi-gradient-echo-myelin-water-fraction-imaging-comparison-to-the-multi-echo-spin-echo-technique
#4
Eva Alonso-Ortiz, Ives R Levesque, G Bruce Pike
PURPOSE: Myelin water fraction (MWF) mapping based on multi-gradient recalled-echo (MGRE) imaging has been proposed as an alternative to the conventional multi-echo-spin-echo (MESE) approach. In this work, we performed a comparative study of MESE and MGRE-derived MWFs in the same subject group. METHODS: MESE and MGRE data were acquired in 12 healthy volunteers at 3T. T2* decay curves were corrected for the effects of field inhomogeneities and multicomponent analysis of T2  and T2* signals was performed using non-negative least-squares fitting...
June 27, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653212/higher-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-is-associated-with-higher-white-matter-hyperintensities-burden
#5
Yue Li, Man Li, Xiaoyu Zhang, Qinglei Shi, Shuna Yang, Huimin Fan, Wei Qin, Lei Yang, Junliang Yuan, Tao Jiang, Wenli Hu
The pathogenesis of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) is incompletely understood but blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction may play a key role. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between BBB permeability and the severity of WMH burden. Consecutive participants without symptomatic stroke history presented for physical examination were recruited in this cross-sectional study and divided into three WMH burden groups according to total Fazekas scores. They received dynamic contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging to measure BBB permeability, and received Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)...
July 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645049/gaseous-elemental-mercury-in-the-marine-boundary-layer-and-air-sea-flux-in-the-southern-ocean-in-austral-summer
#6
Jiancheng Wang, Zhouqing Xie, Feiyue Wang, Hui Kang
Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in the marine boundary layer (MBL), and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in surface seawater of the Southern Ocean were measured in the austral summer from December 13, 2014 to February 1, 2015. GEM concentrations in the MBL ranged from 0.4 to 1.9ngm(-3) (mean±standard deviation: 0.9±0.2ngm(-3)), whereas DGM concentrations in surface seawater ranged from 7.0 to 75.9pgL(-1) (mean±standard deviation: 23.7±13.2pgL(-1)). The occasionally observed low GEM in the MBL suggested either the occurrence of atmospheric mercury depletion in summer, or the transport of GEM-depleted air from the Antarctic Plateau...
June 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628819/dissolved-gaseous-mercury-formation-and-mercury-volatilization-in-intertidal-sediments
#7
Rute Cesário, Laurier Poissant, Martin Pilote, Nelson J O'Driscoll, Ana M Mota, João Canário
Intertidal sediments of Tagus estuary regularly experiences complex redistribution due to tidal forcing, which affects the cycling of mercury (Hg) between sediments and the water column. This study quantifies total mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MMHg) concentrations and fluxes in a flooded mudflat as well as the effects on water-level fluctuations on the air-surface exchange of mercury. A fast increase in dissolved Hg and MMHg concentrations was observed in overlying water in the first 10min of inundation and corresponded to a decrease in pore waters, suggesting a rapid export of Hg and MMHg from sediments to the water column...
June 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540179/evaluating-the-effect-of-multiple-sclerosis-lesions-on-automatic-brain-structure-segmentation
#8
Sandra González-Villà, Sergi Valverde, Mariano Cabezas, Deborah Pareto, Joan C Vilanova, Lluís Ramió-Torrentà, Àlex Rovira, Arnau Oliver, Xavier Lladó
In recent years, many automatic brain structure segmentation methods have been proposed. However, these methods are commonly tested with non-lesioned brains and the effect of lesions on their performance has not been evaluated. Here, we analyze the effect of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions on three well-known automatic brain structure segmentation methods, namely, FreeSurfer, FIRST and multi-atlas fused by majority voting, which use learning-based, deformable and atlas-based strategies, respectively. To perform a quantitative analysis, 100 synthetic images of MS patients with a total of 2174 lesions are simulated on two public databases with available brain structure ground truth information (IBSR18 and MICCAI'12)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301067/progressive-iron-accumulation-across-multiple-sclerosis-phenotypes-revealed-by-sparse-classification-of-deep-gray-matter
#9
Ahmed M Elkady, Dana Cobzas, Hongfu Sun, Gregg Blevins, Alan H Wilman
PURPOSE: To create an automated framework for localized analysis of deep gray matter (DGM) iron accumulation and demyelination using sparse classification by combining quantitative susceptibility (QS) and transverse relaxation rate (R2*) maps, for evaluation of DGM in multiple sclerosis (MS) phenotypes relative to healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: R2*/QS maps were computed using a 4.7T 10-echo gradient echo acquisition from 16 clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), 41 relapsing-remitting (RR), 40 secondary-progressive (SP), 13 primary-progressive (PP) MS patients, and 75 controls...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268447/eeg-based-driver-fatigue-detection-using-hybrid-deep-generic-model
#10
Phyo Phyo San, Sai Ho Ling, Rifai Chai, Yvonne Tran, Ashley Craig, Hung Nguyen
Classification of electroencephalography (EEG)-based application is one of the important process for biomedical engineering. Driver fatigue is a major case of traffic accidents worldwide and considered as a significant problem in recent decades. In this paper, a hybrid deep generic model (DGM)-based support vector machine is proposed for accurate detection of driver fatigue. Traditionally, a probabilistic DGM with deep architecture is quite good at learning invariant features, but it is not always optimal for classification due to its trainable parameters are in the middle layer...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226618/eeg-based-driver-fatigue-detection-using-hybrid-deep-generic-model
#11
Phyo Phyo San, Sai Ho Ling, Rifai Chai, Yvonne Tran, Ashley Craig, Hung Nguyen, Phyo Phyo San, Sai Ho Ling, Rifai Chai, Yvonne Tran, Ashley Craig, Hung Nguyen, Ashley Craig, Sai Ho Ling, Hung Nguyen, Phyo Phyo San, Yvonne Tran, Rifai Chai
Classification of electroencephalography (EEG)-based application is one of the important process for biomedical engineering. Driver fatigue is a major case of traffic accidents worldwide and considered as a significant problem in recent decades. In this paper, a hybrid deep generic model (DGM)-based support vector machine is proposed for accurate detection of driver fatigue. Traditionally, a probabilistic DGM with deep architecture is quite good at learning invariant features, but it is not always optimal for classification due to its trainable parameters are in the middle layer...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151092/perfusion-alters-stiffness-of-deep-gray-matter
#12
Stefan Hetzer, Patric Birr, Andreas Fehlner, Sebastian Hirsch, Florian Dittmann, Eric Barnhill, Jürgen Braun, Ingolf Sack
Viscoelastic properties of the brain reflect tissue architecture at multiple length scales. However, little is known about the relation between vital tissue functions, such as perfusion, and the macroscopic mechanical properties of cerebral tissue. In this study, arterial spin labelling is paired with magnetic resonance elastography to investigate the relationship between tissue stiffness and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the in vivo human brain. The viscoelastic modulus, | G*|, and CBF were studied in deep gray matter (DGM) of 14 healthy male volunteers in the following sub-regions: putamen, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, thalamus, globus pallidus, and amygdala...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100092/sample-size-requirements-for-one-year-treatment-effects-using-deep-gray-matter-volume-from-3t-mri-in-progressive-forms-of-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Gloria Kim, Renxin Chu, Fawad Yousuf, Shahamat Tauhid, Lynn Stazzone, Maria K Houtchens, James M Stankiewicz, Christopher Severson, Dorlan Kimbrough, Francisco J Quintana, Tanuja Chitnis, Howard L Weiner, Brian C Healy, Rohit Bakshi
OBJECTIVE: The subcortical deep gray matter (DGM) develops selective, progressive, and clinically relevant atrophy in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (PMS). This patient population is the target of active neurotherapeutic development, requiring the availability of outcome measures. We tested a fully automated MRI analysis pipeline to assess DGM atrophy in PMS. DESIGN/METHODS: Consistent 3D T1-weighted high-resolution 3T brain MRI was obtained over one year in 19 consecutive patients with PMS [15 secondary progressive, 4 primary progressive, 53% women, age (mean±SD) 50...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009104/deep-gray-matter-atrophy-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-and-multiple-sclerosis
#14
J-W Hyun, G Park, K Kwak, H-J Jo, A Joung, J-H Kim, S H Lee, S Kim, J-M Lee, S-H Kim, H J Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated changes in deep gray matter (DGM) volume and its relationship to cognition and clinical factors in a large cohort of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and compared them with results from multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Brain magnetic resonance imaging (3 Tesla) and clinical data from 91 patients with NMOSD, 52 patients with MS and 44 healthy controls (HCs) were prospectively evaluated. Differences in DGM volumes were compared among groups...
February 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000669/a-live-rsv-vaccine-with-engineered-thermostability-is-immunogenic-in-cotton-rats-despite-high-attenuation
#15
Christopher C Stobart, Christina A Rostad, Zunlong Ke, Rebecca S Dillard, Cheri M Hampton, Joshua D Strauss, Hong Yi, Anne L Hotard, Jia Meng, Raymond J Pickles, Kaori Sakamoto, Sujin Lee, Michael G Currier, Syed M Moin, Barney S Graham, Marina S Boukhvalova, Brian E Gilbert, Jorge C G Blanco, Pedro A Piedra, Elizabeth R Wright, Martin L Moore
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of infant hospitalization and there remains no pediatric vaccine. RSV live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) have a history of safe testing in infants; however, achieving an effective balance of attenuation and immunogenicity has proven challenging. Here we seek to engineer an RSV LAV with enhanced immunogenicity. Genetic mapping identifies strain line 19 fusion (F) protein residues that correlate with pre-fusion antigen maintenance by ELISA and thermal stability of infectivity in live RSV...
December 21, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744504/the-effect-of-dimethyl-fumarate-on-cerebral-gray-matter-atrophy-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Sheena L Dupuy, Shahamat Tauhid, Shelley Hurwitz, Renxin Chu, Fawad Yousuf, Rohit Bakshi
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this pilot study was to compare cerebral gray matter (GM) atrophy over 1 year in patients starting dimethyl fumarate (DMF) for multiple sclerosis (MS) to that of patients on no disease-modifying treatment (noDMT). DMF is an established therapy for relapsing-remitting (RR) MS. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 20 patients with RRMS at the start of DMF [age (mean ± SD) 46.1 ± 10.2 years, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score 1...
December 2016: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687150/structural-and-functional-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-from-standard-fmri-studies
#17
H Sun, P Seres, A H Wilman
Standard functional MRI (fMRI), which includes resting-state or paradigm-driven designs, is widely used in studies of brain function, aging, and disease. These fMRI studies typically use two-dimensional gradient echo-planar imaging, which inherently contains phase data that enables quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). This work focuses on the dual value of QSM within fMRI studies, by providing both a localized analysis of functional changes in activated tissue, and iron-sensitive structural maps in deep grey matter (DGM)...
September 30, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612927/mercury-isotope-fractionation-during-transfer-from-post-desulfurized-seawater-to-air
#18
Shuyuan Huang, Kunning Lin, Dongxing Yuan, Yaqin Gao, Lumin Sun
Samples of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in the post-desulfurized seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant together with samples of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) over the post-desulfurized seawater surface were collected and analyzed to study the mercury isotope fractionation during transfer from post-desulfurized seawater to air. Experimental results showed that when DGM in the seawater was converted to GEM in the air, the δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg values were changed, ranging from -2.98 to -0.04‰ and from -0...
December 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612395/sleep-disordered-breathing-and-disorders-of-glucose-metabolism
#19
Tomoyuki Kawada, Masao Katsumata, Hirofumi Inagaki, Takayuki Nakamura, Yoichi Kon
AIMS: The authors identified the risk of disorders of glucose metabolism (DGM) for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 536 men aged 33-84 years. Patients with diabetes medication were excluded for the analysis and DGM were diagnosed by fasting plasma glucose≥100mg/dl and/or 2h plasma glucose ≥140mg/dl. RESULTS: The prevalence of DGM in subjects with and without severe SDB, which was judged by an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 30, were 64...
September 4, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567325/odor-identification-deficit-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-is-associated-with-hippocampal-and-deep-gray-matter-atrophy
#20
Jesper Hagemeier, Matthew R Woodward, Usama A Rafique, Chaitanya V Amrutkar, Niels Bergsland, Michael G Dwyer, Ralph Benedict, Robert Zivadinov, Kinga Szigeti
Even in early stages, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with olfactory deficit. We assess the association of volumetric differences in subcortical deep gray matter (DGM) structures and odor identification deficit (OID) in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), AD and normal controls (NCs), and relate findings to the current gold standard right sided memory measure, visual reproduction. Eighty subjects (19 aMCI; 42 CE; 19 NC) were included in this study. We obtained olfactory testing and normalized structural brain volumes from 3T T1 MRI scans...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
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