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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914286/multi-centre-field-evaluation-of-the-performance-of-the-trinity-biotech-uni-gold-hiv-1-2-rapid-test-as-a-first-line-screening-assay-for-gay-and-bisexual-men-compared-with-4th-generation-laboratory-immunoassays
#1
P Keen, D P Conway, P Cunningham, A McNulty, D L Couldwell, S C Davies, D E Smith, J Gray, M Holt, C C O'Connor, P Read, D Callander, G Prestage, R Guy
BACKGROUND: The Trinity Biotech Uni-Gold HIV test (Uni-Gold) is often used as a supplementary rapid test in testing algorithms. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the operational performance of the Uni-Gold as a first-line screening test among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in a setting where 4th generation HIV laboratory assays are routinely used. STUDY DESIGN: We compared the performance of Uni-Gold with conventional HIV serology conducted in parallel among GBM attending 22 testing sites...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914222/molecular-diversity-of-human-parvovirus-b19-during-two-outbreaks-of-erythema-infectiosum-in-brazil
#2
Rita de Cássia Nasser Cubel Garcia, Renata Freire Alves Pereira, Kátia Martins Lopes de Azevedo, Tatiana Xavier de Castro, Francisco C A Mello, Sérgio Setubal, Marilda M Siqueira, David Brown, Solange Artimos de Oliveira
This study was conducted to provide information on the genetic diversity of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) circulating in the municipality of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil during 1996-2006, a period with two distinct outbreaks of B19V infection: 1999-2000 and 2004-2005. A total of 27 sera from patients with erythema infectiosum (EI) and five sera from HIV-infected patients that tested positive for B19V DNA during the study period were analyzed. To genotype B19V strains, a semi-nested PCR for partial amplification of the capsid gene was performed and sequence analysis revealed that 31 sequences belonged to subgenotype 1a (G1a) of the main genotype 1 and one sequence was characterized as subgenotype 3b (G3b)...
November 30, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913840/finding-direction-in-the-search-for-selection
#3
Grant Thiltgen, Mario Dos Reis, Richard A Goldstein
Tests for positive selection have mostly been developed to look for diversifying selection where change away from the current amino acid is often favorable. However, in many cases we are interested in directional selection where there is a shift toward specific amino acids, resulting in increased fitness in the species. Recently, a few methods have been developed to detect and characterize directional selection on a molecular level. Using the results of evolutionary simulations as well as HIV drug resistance data as models of directional selection, we compare two such methods with each other, as well as against a standard method for detecting diversifying selection...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913375/eleven-million-people-are-in-line-for-hiv-tests-through-routine-nhs-contact
#4
Anne Gulland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913227/assisted-partner-services-for-hiv-in-kenya-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Peter Cherutich, Matthew R Golden, Beatrice Wamuti, Barbra A Richardson, Kristjana H Ásbjörnsdóttir, Felix A Otieno, Ann Ng'ang'a, Peter Maingi Mutiti, Paul Macharia, Betsy Sambai, Matt Dunbar, David Bukusi, Carey Farquhar
BACKGROUND: Assisted partner services for index patients with HIV infections involves elicitation of information about sex partners and contacting them to ensure that they test for HIV and link to care. Assisted partner services are not widely available in Africa. We aimed to establish whether or not assisted partner services increase HIV testing, diagnoses, and linkage to care among sex partners of people with HIV infections in Kenya. METHODS: In this cluster randomised controlled trial, we recruited non-pregnant adults aged at least 18 years with newly or recently diagnosed HIV without a recent history of intimate partner violence who had not yet or had only recently linked to HIV care from 18 HIV testing services clinics in Kenya...
November 29, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912079/a-humanized-mouse-model-for-hiv-2-infection-and-efficacy-testing-of-a-single-pill-triple-drug-combination-anti-retroviral-therapy
#6
Shuang Hu, Charles Preston Neff, Dipu Mohan Kumar, Yuichiro Habu, Sarah R Akkina, Takahiro Seki, Ramesh Akkina
While HIV-2 is a causative agent for AIDS in addition to the better studied HIV-1, there is currently no suitable animal model for experimental studies for HIV-2 infection and evaluating promising drugs in vivo. Here we evaluated humanized mice for their susceptibility to HIV-2 infection and tested a single-pill three drug formulation of anti-retrovirals (NRTIs abacavir and lamivudine, integrase inhibitor dolutegravir) (trade name, Triumeq(R)). Our results showed that hu-mice are susceptible to HIV-2 infection showing persistent viremia and CD4 T cell loss, key hallmarks of AIDS pathogenesis...
November 29, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911908/uptake-of-community-based-peer-administered-hiv-point-of-care-testing-findings-from-the-proud-study
#7
Lisa Lazarus, Sheetal Patel, Ashley Shaw, Sean Leblanc, Christine Lalonde, Manisha Hladio, Kira Mandryk, Cynthia Horvath, William Petrcich, Claire Kendall, Mark W Tyndall
OBJECTIVES: HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ottawa is estimated at about 10%. The successful integration of peers into outreach efforts and wider access to HIV point-of-care testing (POCT) create opportunities to explore the role of peers in providing HIV testing. The PROUD study, in partnership with Ottawa Public Health (OPH), sought to develop a model for community-based peer-administered HIV POCT. METHODS: PROUD draws on community-based participatory research methods to better understand the HIV risk environment of people who use drugs in Ottawa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911718/attacking-hiv-1-rna-versus-dna-by-sequence-specific-approaches-rnai-versus-crispr-cas
#8
REVIEW
Elena Herrera-Carrillo, Ben Berkhout
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection can be effectively controlled by potent antiviral drugs, but this never results in a cure. The patient should therefore take these drugs for the rest of his/her life, which can cause drug-resistance and adverse effects. Therefore, more durable therapeutic strategies should be considered, such as a stable gene therapy to protect the target T cells against HIV-1 infection. The development of potent therapeutic regimens based on the RNA interference (RNAi) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-Cas) mechanisms will be described, which can be delivered by lentiviral vectors...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911096/evaluating-health-advice-in-a-web-2-0-environment-the-impact-of-multiple-user-generated-factors-on-hiv-advice-perceptions
#9
Joseph B Walther, Jeong-Woo Jang, Ashley A Hanna Edwards
Unlike traditional media, social media systems often present information of different types from different kinds of contributors within a single message pane, a juxtaposition of potential influences that challenges traditional health communication processing. One type of social media system, question-and-answer advice systems, provides peers' answers to health-related questions, which yet other peers read and rate. Responses may appear good or bad, responders may claim expertise, and others' aggregated evaluations of an answer's usefulness may affect readers' judgments...
December 2, 2016: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910703/co-calibration-of-two-self-reported-measures-of-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Robin M Nance, J A Chris Delaney, Carol E Golin, Wendee M Wechsberg, Chinazo Cunningham, Frederick Altice, Katerina Christopoulos, Kevin Knight, Vu Quan, Michael S Gordon, Sandra Springer, Jeremy Young, Paul K Crane, Kenneth H Mayer, Michael J Mugavero, Carlos Del Rio, Richard A Kronmal, Heidi M Crane
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is an important determinant of clinical success assessed in many HIV studies. Harmonizing adherence data from studies that use different measures is difficult without a co-calibration equation to convert between validated instruments. Our purpose was to co-calibrate two commonly used adherence measures: the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) questionnaire and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). We used robust linear regression to develop a co-calibration equation in a clinical care cohort...
December 2, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910095/a-comparison-of-methods-for-estimating-the-incidence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-repeat-blood-donors
#11
Donald J Brambilla, Michael P Busch, Roger Y Dodd, Simone A Glynn, Steven H Kleinman
BACKGROUND: The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in repeat blood donors has been estimated using seven methods. Although incidence is always calculated as cases per person-time, approaches to selecting cases and calculating person-time vary. Incidence estimates have not been compared among methods. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The seven methods were compared in a simulation study. Because three methods used information from donations made before an estimation interval, 8 years of donation and infection history were simulated, and Years 7 and 8 were treated as the estimation interval for all methods...
December 1, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908751/enhanced-potency-of-bivalent-small-molecule-gp41-inhibitors
#12
Vladimir Sofiyev, Hardeep Kaur, Beth A Snyder, Priscilla A Hogan, Roger G Ptak, Peter Hwang, Miriam Gochin
Low molecular weight peptidomimetic inhibitors with hydrophobic pocket binding properties and moderate fusion inhibitory activity against HIV-1 gp41-mediated cell fusion were elaborated by increasing the available surface area for interacting with the heptad repeat-1 (HR1) coiled coil on gp41. Two types of modifications were tested: 1) increasing the overall hydrophobicity of the molecules with an extension that could interact in the HR1 groove, and 2) forming symmetrical dimers with two peptidomimetic motifs that could potentially interact simultaneously in two hydrophobic pockets on the HR1 trimer...
November 19, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908641/free-energy-perturbation-calculation-of-relative-binding-free-energy-between-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-and-the-gp120-glycoprotein-of-hiv-1
#13
Anthony J Clark, Tatyana Gindin, Baoshan Zhang, Lingle Wang, Robert Abel, Colleen S Murret, Fang Xu, Amy Bao, Nina J Lu, Tongqing Zhou, Peter D Kwong, Lawrence Shapiro, Barry Honig, Richard A Friesner
Direct calculation of relative binding affinities between antibodies and antigens is a long-sought goal. However, despite substantial efforts, no generally applicable computational method has been described. Here we describe a systematic free energy perturbation (FEP) protocol and calculate the binding affinities between the gp120 envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 and three broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) of the VRC01 class. The protocol has been adapted from successful studies of small molecules to address the challenges associated with modeling protein-protein interactions...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907114/rates-and-predictors-of-non-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-positive-individuals-in-kenya-results-from-the-second-kenya-aids-indicator-survey-2012
#14
Irene N Mukui, Lucy Ng'ang'a, John Williamson, Joyce N Wamicwe, Shobha Vakil, Abraham Katana, Andrea A Kim
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the levels and associated factors of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial in designing interventions to improve adherence and health outcomes of ART. We assessed non-adherence to ART among HIV-infected persons reporting ART use in a nationally representative survey in Kenya. METHODS: The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012 was a population-based, household survey of persons aged 18 months-64 years conducted in 2012-2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907055/effect-of-glu12-his89-interaction-on-dynamic-structures-in-hiv-1-p17-matrix-protein-elucidated-by-nmr
#15
Yuta Konagaya, Rina Miyakawa, Masumi Sato, Akimasa Matsugami, Satoru Watanabe, Fumiaki Hayashi, Takanori Kigawa, Chiaki Nishimura
To test the existence of the salt bridge and stability of the HIV-1 p17 matrix protein, an E12A (mutated at helix 1) was established to abolish possible electrostatic interactions. The chemical shift perturbation from the comparison between wild type and E12A suggested the existence of an electrostatic interaction in wild type between E12 and H89 (located in helix 4). Unexpectedly, the studies using urea denaturation indicated that the E12A substitution slightly stabilized the protein. The dynamic structure of E12A was examined under physiological conditions by both amide proton exchange and relaxation studies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906995/assessment-of-the-world-health-organization-s-hiv-drug-resistance-early-warning-indicators-in-main-and-decentralized-outreach-antiretroviral-therapy-sites-in-namibia
#16
Nicholus Mutenda, Alexandra Bukowski, Anne-Marie Nitschke, Tuli Nakanyala, Ndapewa Hamunime, Tadesse Mekonen, Francina Tjituka, Greatjoy Mazibuko, Samson Mwinga, David Mabirizi, Evans Sagwa, Rosalia Indongo, Natalie Dean, Michael R Jordan, Steven Y Hong
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) early warning indicators (EWIs) of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) assess factors at individual ART sites that are known to create situations favourable to the emergence of HIVDR. METHODS: In 2014, the Namibia HIV care and treatment program abstracted the following adult and pediatric EWIs from all public ART sites (50 main sites and 143 outreach sites): On-time pill pick-up, Retention in care, Pharmacy stock-outs, Dispensing practices, and Viral load suppression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906994/enhancing-hiv-testing-and-treatment-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china-a-pilot-model-with-two-rapid-tests-single-blood-draw-session-and-intensified-case-management-in-six-cities-in-2013
#17
Dapeng Zhang, Hongyan Lu, Minghua Zhuang, Guohui Wu, Hongjing Yan, Jun Xu, Xiaoli Wei, Chengmei Li, Sining Meng, Xiaojing Fu, Jinlei Qi, Peng Wang, Mei Luo, Min Dai, Ray Yip, Jiangping Sun, Zunyou Wu
OBJECTIVES: To explore models to improve HIV testing, linkage to care and treatment among men who have sex with men (MSM) in cooperation with community-based organizations (CBOs) in China. METHODS: We introduced a new model for HIV testing services targeting MSM in six cities in 2013.These models introduced provision of rapid HIV testing by CBO staff and streamlined processes for HIV screening, confirmation of initial reactive screening results, and linkage to care among diagnosed people...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906910/progress-with-scale-up-of-hiv-viral-load-monitoring-seven-sub-saharan-african-countries-january-2015-june-2016
#18
Shirley Lecher, Jason Williams, Peter N Fonjungo, Andrea A Kim, Dennis Ellenberger, Guoqing Zhang, Christiane Adje Toure, Simon Agolory, Georgette Appiah-Pippim, Suzanne Beard, Marie Yolande Borget, Sergio Carmona, Geoffrey Chipungu, Karidia Diallo, Marie Downer, Dianna Edgil, Holly Haberman, Mackenzie Hurlston, Steven Jadzak, Charles Kiyaga, William MacLeod, Boniface Makumb, Hellen Muttai, Christina Mwangi, Jane W Mwangi, Michael Mwasekaga, Mary Naluguza, Lucy W Ng'Ang'A, Shon Nguyen, Souleymane Sawadogo, Katrina Sleeman, Wendy Stevens, Joel Kuritsky, Shannon Hader, John Nkengasong
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends viral load testing as the preferred method for monitoring the clinical response of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to antiretroviral therapy (ART) (1). Viral load monitoring of patients on ART helps ensure early diagnosis and confirmation of ART failure and enables clinicians to take an appropriate course of action for patient management. When viral suppression is achieved and maintained, HIV transmission is substantially decreased, as is HIV-associated morbidity and mortality (2)...
December 2, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906733/routine-inpatient-human-immunodeficiency-virus-screening-missed-prevention-opportunities
#19
Daniel C Baker
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: This article reviews the current guidelines for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening among inpatients and explores adherence to the guidelines and barriers to their implementation. BACKGROUND: In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released updated recommendations suggesting HIV screening for all patients in all healthcare settings. DESCRIPTION: A nonsystematic review of current HIV screening guidelines, as well as research and nonresearch literature, addressing rates of inpatient screening was performed...
January 2017: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906084/quasi-poisson-versus-negative-binomial-regression-models-in-identifying-factors-affecting-initial-cd4-cell-count-change-due-to-antiretroviral-therapy-administered-to-hiv-positive-adults-in-north-west-ethiopia-amhara-region
#20
Awoke Seyoum, Principal Ndlovu, Temesgen Zewotir
BACKGROUND: CD4 cells are a type of white blood cells that plays a significant role in protecting humans from infectious diseases. Lack of information on associated factors on CD4 cell count reduction is an obstacle for improvement of cells in HIV positive adults. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate baseline factors that could affect initial CD4 cell count change after highly active antiretroviral therapy had been given to adult patients in North West Ethiopia...
November 9, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
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