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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640800/hiv-testing-linkage-to-hiv-medical-care-and-interviews-for-partner-services-among-youths-61-health-department-jurisdictions-united-states-puerto-rico-and-the-u-s-virgin-islands-2015
#1
Renee Stein, Wei Song, Mariette Marano, Heta Patel, Shubha Rao, Elana Morris
Identifying persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are unaware of their infection, linking them to HIV medical care, and reducing health disparities are important national goals (1). Of the 8,841 teens and young adults aged 13-24 years (collectively referred to as youths in this report) who received a diagnosis of HIV in 2014, 70% were young men who have sex with men (MSM) (2). In the same year, an estimated 52% of young MSM living with HIV were unaware of their infection compared with 15% among all persons living with HIV (3)...
June 23, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640673/the-end-of-written-informed-consent-for-hiv-testing-not-with-a-bang-but-a-whimper
#2
Ronald Bayer, Morgan Philbin, Robert H Remien
In 2014, only two states in the United States still mandated specific written informed consent for HIV testing and, after years of controversy, New York ended this requirement, leaving only Nebraska. New York's shift to opt-out testing meant that a singular feature of what had characterized the exceptionalism surrounding HIV testing was eliminated. We trace the history of debates on written informed consent nationally and in New York State. Over the years of dispute from when HIV testing was initiated in 1985 to 2014, the evidence about the benefits and burdens of written informed consent changed...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637262/qualitative-exploration-of-a-smoking-cessation-trial-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-south-africa
#3
Nandita Krishnan, Joel Gittelsohn, Alexandra Ross, Jessica Elf, Sandy Chon, Raymond Niaura, Neil Martinson, Jonathan E Golub
Introduction: In South Africa, people living with HIV (PLWH) have a high prevalence of smoking, which undermines the beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, little is known about barriers to smoking cessation and what interventions work for PLWH in this setting. Methods: A randomized trial comparing intensive anti-smoking counseling versus counseling and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was recently concluded in Klerksdorp, South Africa. In a post-trial follow-up, 23 in-depth interviews with patients and one focus group discussion with counselors from the trial were conducted...
June 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637208/unit-conversions-between-loinc-codes
#4
Ronald G Hauser, Douglas B Quine, Alex Ryder, Sheldon Campbell
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) is the most widely used controlled vocabulary to identify laboratory tests. A given laboratory test can often be reported in more than 1 unit of measure (eg, grams or moles), and LOINC defines unique codes for each unit. Consequently, an identical laboratory test performed by 2 different clinical laboratories may have different LOINC codes. The absence of unit conversions between compatible LOINC codes impedes data aggregation and analysis of laboratory results...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637198/multi-target-activity-of-hemidesmus-indicus-decoction-against-innovative-hiv-1-drug-targets-and-characterization-of-lupeol-mode-of-action
#5
Francesca Esposito, Manuela Mandrone, Claudia Del Vecchio, Ilaria Carli, Simona Distinto, Angela Corona, Mariacaterina Lianza, Dario Piano, Massimo Tacchini, Elias Maccioni, Filippo Cottiglia, Elisa Saccon, Ferruccio Poli, Cristina Parolin, Enzo Tramontano
Despite the availability of several anti-retrovirals there is still an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic strategies and finding new drugs against underexplored HIV-1 targets. Among them, there are the HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase (RT)-associated Ribonuclease H (RNase H) function and the cellular α-glucosidase, involved in the control mechanisms of N-linked glycoproteins formation in the endoplasmic reticulum. It is known that many natural compounds, such as pentacyclic triterpenes, are a promising class of HIV-1 inhibitors...
June 20, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636956/elicitation-of-robust-tier-2-neutralizing-antibody-responses-in-nonhuman-primates-by-hiv-envelope-trimer-immunization-using-optimized-approaches
#6
Matthias Pauthner, Colin Havenar-Daughton, Devin Sok, Joseph P Nkolola, Raiza Bastidas, Archana V Boopathy, Diane G Carnathan, Abishek Chandrashekar, Kimberly M Cirelli, Christopher A Cottrell, Alexey M Eroshkin, Javier Guenaga, Kirti Kaushik, Daniel W Kulp, Jinyan Liu, Laura E McCoy, Aaron L Oom, Gabriel Ozorowski, Kai W Post, Shailendra K Sharma, Jon M Steichen, Steven W de Taeye, Talar Tokatlian, Alba Torrents de la Peña, Salvatore T Butera, Celia C LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Guido Silvestri, Ian A Wilson, Darrell J Irvine, Rogier W Sanders, William R Schief, Andrew B Ward, Richard T Wyatt, Dan H Barouch, Shane Crotty, Dennis R Burton
The development of stabilized recombinant HIV envelope trimers that mimic the virion surface molecule has increased enthusiasm for a neutralizing antibody (nAb)-based HIV vaccine. However, there is limited experience with recombinant trimers as immunogens in nonhuman primates, which are typically used as a model for humans. Here, we tested multiple immunogens and immunization strategies head-to-head to determine their impact on the quantity, quality, and kinetics of autologous tier 2 nAb development. A bilateral, adjuvanted, subcutaneous immunization protocol induced reproducible tier 2 nAb responses after only two immunizations 8 weeks apart, and these were further enhanced by a third immunization with BG505 SOSIP trimer...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636866/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-trichomonas-vaginalis-and-other-sexually-transmissible-infections-among-women-attending-antenatal-clinics-in-three-provinces-in-papua-new-guinea-a-cross-sectional-survey
#7
Lisa M Vallely, Pamela Toliman, Claire Ryan, Glennis Rai, Johanna Wapling, Carolyn Tomado, Savarina Huliafi, Gloria Munnull, Patricia Rarau, Suparat Phuanukoonnon, Handan Wand, Peter Siba, Glen D L Mola, John M Kaldor, Andrew J Vallely
Background Papua New Guinea (PNG) is estimated to have among the highest prevalences of HIV and sexually transmissible infections (STIs) of any Asia-Pacific country, and one of the highest burdens of maternal syphilis globally. The prevalence of curable STIs, such as Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), among pregnant women in PNG is relatively unknown. METHODS: A cross-sectional bio-behavioural survey to investigate the epidemiology of CT, NG, TV and other STIs among pregnant women in three provinces of PNG was undertaken...
October 2016: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634358/hiv-1-gp41-targeting-fusion-inhibitory-peptides-enhance-the-gp120-targeting-protein-mediated-inactivation-of-hiv-1-virions
#8
Qianqian Qi, Qian Wang, Weizao Chen, Lanying Du, Dimiter S Dimitrov, Lu Lu, Shibo Jiang
Protein- or peptide-based viral inactivators are being developed as novel antiviral drugs with improved efficacy, pharmacokinetics and toxicity profiles because they actively inactivate cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions before attachment to host cells. By contrast, most clinically used antiviral drugs must penetrate host cells to inhibit viral replication. In this study, we pre-treated HIV-1 particles with a gp120-targeting bispecific multivalent protein, 2Dm2m or 4Dm2m, in the presence or absence of the gp41-targeting HIV-1 fusion inhibitory peptides enfuvirtide (T20), T2635, or sifuvirtide (SFT)...
June 21, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634155/perceptions-of-hiv-seriousness-risk-and-threat-among-online-samples-of-hiv-negative-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-seven-countries
#9
Anna N Chard, Nicholas Metheny, Rob Stephenson
BACKGROUND: Rates of new HIV infections continue to increase worldwide among men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite effective prevention strategies such as condoms and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), low usage of both methods in many parts of the world hinder prevention efforts. An individual's perceptions of the risk of acquiring HIV and the seriousness they afford to seroconversion are important drivers of behavioral risk-taking. Understanding the behavioral factors suppressing the uptake of HIV prevention services is a critical step in informing strategies to improve interventions to combat the ongoing HIV pandemic among MSM...
June 20, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634152/ensuring-inclusion-of-adolescent-key-populations-at-higher-risk-of-hiv-exposure-recommendations-for-conducting-biological-behavioral-surveillance-surveys
#10
Lisa Grazina Johnston, Justine Sass, Jeffry Acaba, Wing-Sie Cheng, Shirley Mark Prabhu
Ending acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) depends on greater efforts to reduce new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and prevent AIDS-related deaths among key populations at highest HIV risk, including males who have sex with males, sex workers, and people who inject drugs. Although adolescent key populations (AKP) are disproportionately affected by HIV, they have been largely ignored in HIV biological behavioral surveillance survey (BBSS) activities to date. This paper reviews current ethical and sampling challenges and provides suggestions to ensure AKP are included in surveillance activities, with the aim being to enhance evidence-informed, strategic, and targeted funding allocations and programs toward ending AIDS among AKP...
June 20, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633630/clinical-characteristics-of-acute-hepatitis-a-outbreak-in-taiwan-2015-2016-observations-from-a-tertiary-medical-center
#11
Nan-Yu Chen, Zhuo-Hao Liu, Shian-Sen Shie, Tsung-Hsing Chen, Ting-Shu Wu
BACKGROUND: Acute hepatitis A is a fecal-oral transmitted disease related to inadequate sanitary conditions. In addition to its traditional classification, several outbreaks in the men who have sex with men (MSM) population have resulted in acute hepatitis A being recognized as a sexually transmitted disease. However, few studies have clarified the clinical manifestations in these outbreaks involving the MSM population. METHODS: Beginning in June 2015, there was an outbreak of acute hepatitis A involving the MSM population in Northern Taiwan...
June 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633335/pulmonary-tb-varying-radiological-presentations-in-individuals-with-hiv-in-soweto-south-africa
#12
Jesne Kistan, Fatima Laher, Kennedy Otwombe, Ravindre Panchia, Nohemie Mawaka, Limakatso Lebina, Andreas Diacon, Bavesh Kana, Neil Martinson
Background: HIV-uninfected individuals with pulmonary TB (PTB) commonly present with radiological features of upper lobe cavitatory disease. In contrast, individuals with HIV and PTB may present differently. This study compared radiological features of individuals with laboratory-confirmed PTB by HIV status from the largest study in South Africa. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of adults recruited between 2012 and 2015 with laboratory-confirmed PTB in Soweto, South Africa...
March 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633097/results-of-the-first-international-hiv-1-coreceptor-proficiency-panel-test
#13
Eva Heger, Rolf Kaiser, Elena Knops, Maria Neumann-Fraune, Eugen Schuelter, Alejandro Pironti, Thomas Lengauer, Hauke Walter, Saleta Sierra
BACKGROUND: Quality Assurance (QA) programs are essential to evaluate performance in diagnostics laboratories. OBJECTIVES: We present the results from the first QA for HIV-1 genotypic tropism testing, organized and coordinated by the Institute of Virology at the University of Cologne. STUDY DESIGN: 12 cell culture-derived viral strains of different HIV-1 clades from the NIH AIDS Reagent Program were sent to the participants to be processed with their standard diagnostic methods Fasta files containing the V3 region sequence were centrally analyzed at the Institute of Virology, Cologne...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632929/persistent-neuropsychiatric-impairment-in-hcv-patients-or-educational-mismatch
#14
Anders Gade
Dirks et al.(1) just published a study of 159 patients infected with hepatitis C virus. They are to be commended for excluding patients with advanced fibrosis or liver cirrhosis, HIV co-infection, and present drug addiction, which have confounded interpretation in many earlier studies of HCV. The four patient groups differed significantly from controls in most cognitive domains studied. However, for the evaluation of these cognitive test results, a crucial piece of information is missing in the article: education...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632482/staff-associate-specialist-and-specialty-doctors-national-audit-on-the-management-of-gonorrhoea-in-the-united-kingdom-2015
#15
Helen Mullan, Jane Richards, John Lee
The British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) revised United Kingdom national guideline for the management of gonorrhoea in adults, 2011, identified five auditable outcome measures, namely, that all patients should receive first-line treatment, be screened or treated for chlamydial infection, have a test of cure (TOC), be offered written information and have partner notification carried out. The UK National Guideline for Gonorrhoea Testing, Clinical Effectiveness Group, BASHH, 2012, recommended in addition that all reactive nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) from pharynx and rectum should be confirmed by supplementary testing, using a second NAAT which detects a different nucleic acid target, all those with a positive NAAT for gonorrhoea should have culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and that TOC should be done by two weeks...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632478/sexual-risk-behaviors-and-predictors-of-inconsistent-condom-use-among-crack-cocaine-users-in-the-french-overseas-territories-in-the-americas
#16
Marie-Claire Parriault, Astrid Van-Melle, Célia Basurko, Larissa Valmy, Bruno Hoen, André Cabié, Marie-Thérèse Goerger-Sow, Mathieu Nacher
The French overseas territories in the Americas are the French territories most affected by HIV. Crack cocaine users are particularly impacted. The objective of this study was to describe sexual risk behaviors and inconsistent condom use among crack cocaine users. A total of 640 crack cocaine users were interviewed. The sampling method was non-probabilistic. An anonymous standardized questionnaire of 110 questions was used. Over a third of persons did not use condoms systematically with casual sex partners (36...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631642/sporadic-occurrence-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-hiv-seronegative-patients-uncommon-etiology
#17
Shukla Das, Shyama Datt, Priyamvada Roy, Rumpa Saha, Immaculata Xess
Cryptococcosis in HIV-seronegative patients is rarely reported from India. This prospective study was conducted to look for cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals and compare their laboratory features to cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seropositive patients. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected from 153 suspected cases of meningitis and subjected to India ink preparation, antigen detection, and culture. Nineteen samples tested positive for Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Seventeen and two patients were HIV reactive and nonreactive, respectively...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631060/estimating-the-size-of-the-msm-population-in-metro-vancouver-canada-using-multiple-methods-and-diverse-data-sources
#18
Ashleigh J Rich, Nathan J Lachowsky, Paul Sereda, Zishan Cui, Jason Wong, Stanley Wong, Jody Jollimore, Henry Fisher Raymond, Travis Salway Hottes, Eric A Roth, Robert S Hogg, David M Moore
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV globally, regionally in Canada, and locally in Vancouver. Lack of reliable population size estimates of MSM impedes effective implementation of health care services and limits our understanding of the HIV epidemic. We estimated the population size of MSM residing in Metro Vancouver drawing on four data sources: the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), a cross-sectional bio-behavioural MSM survey, HIV testing services data from sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics serving MSM, and online social networking site Facebook...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631059/trends-in-hiv-risk-testing-and-treatment-among-msm-in-chicago-2004-2014-implications-for-hiv-elimination-planning
#19
Ethan Morgan, Britt Skaathun, Nicola Lancki, Antonio D Jimenez, Jesus Ramirez-Valles, Ramona Bhatia, Stephanie Masiello-Schuette, Nanette Benbow, Nikhil Prachand, John A Schneider
Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA continue to have high rates of HIV infection. Increasingly, in addition to behavioral factors, biomedical interventions have been found to play important roles in HIV prevention. In this analysis, we used four waves of cross-sectional data (2004, 2008, 2011, and 2014) from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS) to examine trends in key behaviors and biomedical interventions among MSM in Chicago (N = 3298). Logistic regression was used to determine changes in behaviors and use of biomedical interventions...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630794/a-case-of-presumed-tuberculosis-uveitis-with-occlusive-vasculitis-from-an-endemic-region
#20
Berna Başarır, Yalçın Karaküçük, Çiğdem Altan, Banu Şatana, Bulut Ocak, Aslı İnal
In this report, we present a case with presumed unilateral tuberculosis uveitis from an endemic region. A 23-year-old male presented with decreased vision in his left eye for 15 days. Visual acuities were 1.0 in his right eye and 0.3 in his left eye. Ophthalmologic examination was normal for the right eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed 2+ cells in the vitreous without anterior chamber reaction in his left eye. Fundus examination revealed occlusive vasculitis and granuloma. His history revealed that he had a respiratory infection with fever 3 months ago while visiting his native country, Rwanda, and was treated with non-specific antibiotic therapy...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
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