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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899001/drug-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
REVIEW
Emma Mead, Greg Atkinson, Bernd Richter, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Louise Baur, Nicholas Finer, Eva Corpeleijn, Claire O'Malley, Louisa J Ells
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of drug interventions for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed (subsets not available on Ovid), LILACS as well as the trial registers ICTRP (WHO) and ClinicalTrials.gov. Searches were undertaken from inception to March 2016...
November 29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872792/porcine-pancreatic-lipase-inhibitory-agent-isolated-from-medicinal-herb-and-inhibition-kinetics-of-extracts-from-eleusine-indica-l-gaertner
#2
Siew Ling Ong, Siau Hui Mah, How Yee Lai
Eleusine indica (Linnaeus) Gaertner is a traditional herb known to be depurative, febrifuge, and diuretic and has been reported with the highest inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) among thirty two plants screened in an earlier study. This study aims to isolate and identify the active components that may possess high potential as an antiobesity agent. Of the screened solvent fractions of E. indica, hexane fraction showed the highest inhibitory activity of 27.01 ± 5.68% at 100 μg/mL...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845741/cst-an-herbal-formula-exerts-anti-obesity-effects-through-brain-gut-adipose-tissue-axis-modulation-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#3
AbuZar Ansari, Shambhunath Bose, Mukesh Kumar Yadav, Jing-Hua Wang, Yun-Kyung Song, Seong-Gyu Ko, Hojun Kim
The brain, gut, and adipose tissue interact to control metabolic pathways, and impairment in the brain-gut-adipose axis can lead to metabolic disorders, including obesity. Chowiseungcheng-tang (CST), a herbal formulation, is frequently used to treat metabolic disorders. Here, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of CST and its link with brain-gut-adipose axis using C57BL/6J mice as a model. The animals were provided with a normal research diet (NRD) or high-fat diet (HFD) in absence or presence of CST or orlistat (ORL) for 12 weeks...
November 11, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808050/-pharmacotherapy-for-obesity
#4
Jens Meldgaard Bruun
Obesity is a chronic condition, which is why pharmacotherapy can be considered, if lifestyle modification (hypocaloric diet/exercise) does not result in a weight loss of at least 5%. Pharmacotherapy is indicated, if an individual has a BMI > 30 kg/m(2) or a BMI > 27 kg/m(2) and concomitant disease (e.g. Type 2 diabetes), and can be liraglutide (3 mg) or orlistat (120 mg/60 mg). Choice of treatment must be based on patient preferences and clinical situation, side effects, contraindications and financial considerations...
October 31, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793869/example-of-the-drug-interaction-between-ciclosporin-and-orlistat-resulting-in-relapse-of-evan-s-syndrome
#5
Irina Earnshaw, Jecko Thachil
A man aged 35 years with a history of Evan's syndrome presented to the clinic with jaundice and shortness of breath, with further testing indicating a relapse of his previously well-controlled condition, for which he was taking ciclosporin. This followed shortly after he had started taking orlistat to prevent weight gain from a course of steroids, and once the orlistat was stopped, his platelets began to rise. The patient required 4 months of steroid treatment before his platelet levels finally stabilised and he could be put back on his regular medicine regime...
October 28, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792149/herbal-formula-ht048-attenuates-diet-induced-obesity-by-improving-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-rats
#6
Yoon Hee Lee, Bora Jin, Sung Hyun Lee, MiKyung Song, HyeonHui Bae, Byung Jae Min, Juyeon Park, Donghun Lee, Hocheol Kim
It is well established that obesity causes a variety of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Despite the diligent scientific efforts to find effective ways to lower the level of obesity, the size of obese population grows continuously around the world. Here we present the results that show feeding diet containing HT048, a mixture of the extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida leaves and Citrus unshiu peel, two of the well-known traditional herbal medicines in Eastern Asia, decreases obesity in rats...
October 25, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789354/does-the-commonly-used-ph-stat-method-with-back-titration-really-quantify-the-enzymatic-digestibility-of-lipid-drug-delivery-systems-a-case-study-on-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-sln
#7
Martha Heider, Gerd Hause, Karsten Mäder
Enzymatic digestion of lipid drug carriers is very important. Commonly, pancreatin induced formation of fatty acids is monitored by the pH-stat method, which provides a fast, but unspecific readout. However, according to the literature, the pKa values of long chain fatty acids are strongly dependent on the local environment and might vary between 4.2 and 10.15. The high pKa values would lead to an incomplete detection of the lipid digestion and false results. In order to investigate these issues in more detail, we produced cetyl palmitate solid lipid nanoparticles (CP-SLN) stabilized with poloxamer 188 or polysorbate 80...
December 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773782/obesity-current-and-potential-pharmacotherapeutics-and-targets
#8
REVIEW
Vidya Narayanaswami, Linda P Dwoskin
Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757272/effect-of-orlistat-alone-or-in-combination-with-garcinia-cambogia-on-visceral-adiposity-index-in-obese-patients
#9
Hayder M Al-Kuraishy, Ali I Al-Gareeb
AIM: The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of orlistat alone and in combination with Garcinia cambogia on visceral adiposity index (VAI) in obese patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 99 obese male patients were recruited with aged range between 37 and 46 years. They were randomized into three equal groups, first group treated with orlistat 120 mg/day, second group treated with G. cambogia 166 mg/day, and third group treated with orlistat 120 mg/day plus G...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746355/chitosan-dosage-regimen-to-trap-fecal-oil-excretion-after-peroral-lipase-inhibitor-administration-in-mice
#10
Yura Jang, Young Tae Je, Cheol-Won Yun, Hesson Chung
This study was designed to investigate the oil entrapment and systemic oil absorption-reducing activities of chitosan. High-molecular-weight chitosan formed gel aggregates with oil and bile salts in vitro. The oil/chitosan ratio and the molecular weight of chitosan were optimized for the in vivo study, and a molecular weight >100,000 was effective in reducing the oil contamination of mouse fur. The oil/chitosan weight ratio required for effective oil entrapment was less than 13 and 5 in the in vitro and in vivo experiments, respectively...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735028/improvement-of-serum-adiponectin-and-leptin-concentrations-effects-of-a-low-calorie-or-isocaloric-diet-combined-with-metformin-or-orlistat-a-prospective-randomized-open-label-trial
#11
A Kargulewicz, M Szulińska, M Kujawska-Łuczak, E Swora-Cwynar, K Musialik, M Grzymisławska, M Kręgielska-Narożna, P Bogdański
OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of three weight loss interventions on serum concentrations of adiponectin and leptin in obese premenopausal women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 114 obese Caucasian women were randomized into three groups receiving a low-calorie diet (LC; n = 39), an isocaloric diet with 500 mg of metformin twice a day (IM; n = 38), and an isocaloric diet with 120 mg of orlistat three times a day (IO; n = 37), for three months. Serum concentrations of adiponectin and leptin were evaluated, along with anthropometric and body composition parameters, at baseline and after the study...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711029/adipose-tissue-obesity-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#12
Stergios A Polyzos, Jannis Kountouras, Christos S Mantzoros
The association of obesity with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been established. Obesity has been linked not only to initial stages of the disease, i.e., simple steatosis (SS), but also to its severity. Form an epidemiologic point of view, both diseases has an increasing prevalence worldwide. From a pathogenetic point of view, obesity and its associate IR contribute to the initial fat accumulation in the hepatocyte (SS), but also to the progression of SS to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), NASH-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
October 6, 2016: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707818/monoacylglycerol-enriched-oil-increases-epa-dha-delivery-to-circulatory-system-in-humans-with-induced-lipid-malabsorption-conditions
#13
Cristina Cruz-Hernandez, Frédéric Destaillats, Sagar K Thakkar, Laurence Goulet, Emma Wynn, Dominik Grathwohl, Claudia Roessle, Sara de Giorgi, Luc Tappy, Francesca Giuffrida, Vittorio Giusti
It was hypothesized that under induced lipid malabsorption/maldigestion conditions, an enriched sn-1(3)-monoacylglycerol (MAG) oil may be a better carrier for n-3 long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) compared with triacylglycerol (TAG) from fish oil. This monocentric double blinded clinical trial examined the accretion of EPA (500 mg/day) and DHA (300 mg/day) when consumed as TAG or MAG, into the erythrocytes, plasma, and chylomicrons of 45 obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) and ≤40 kg/m(2)) volunteers who were and were not administered Orlistat, an inhibitor of pancreatic lipases...
December 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707005/genotoxicity-of-antiobesity-drug-orlistat-and-effect-of-caffeine-intervention-an-in-vitro-study
#14
Manoswini Chakrabarti, Ilika Ghosh, Aditi Jana, Manosij Ghosh, Anita Mukherjee
CONTEXT: Obesity is a major global health problem associated with various adverse effects. Pharmacological interventions are often necessary for the management of obesity. Orlistat is an FDA-approved antiobesity drug which is a potent inhibitor of intestinal lipases. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, orlistat was evaluated for its genotoxic potential in human lymphocyte cells in vitro and was compared with that of another antiobesity drug sibutramine, presently withdrawn from market due its undesirable health effects...
October 6, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699065/appetite-suppression-and-antiobesity-effect-of-a-botanical-composition-composed-of-morus-alba-yerba-mate-and-magnolia-officinalis
#15
Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Lidia Brownell, Young-Chul Lee, Eu-Jin Hyun, Hyun-Jin Kim, Tae-Woo Kim, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Qi Jia
Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665425/effects-of-obesity-treatments-on-bone-mineral-density-bone-turnover-and-fracture-risk-in-adults-with-overweight-or-obesity
#16
Claudia Harper, Andrea L Pattinson, Hamish A Fernando, Jessica Zibellini, Radhika V Seimon, Amanda Sainsbury
BACKGROUND: New evidence suggests that obesity is deleterious for bone health, and obesity treatments could potentially exacerbate this. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This narrative review, largely based on recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses, synthesizes the effects on bone of bariatric surgery, weight loss pharmaceuticals and dietary restriction. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: All three obesity treatments result in statistically significant reductions in hip bone mineral density (BMD) and increases in bone turnover relative to pre-treatment values, with the reductions in hip BMD being strongest for bariatric surgery, notably Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RYGB, 8%-11% of pre-surgical values) and weakest for dietary restriction (1%-1...
December 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663206/antiobesity-and-antihyperglycaemic-effects-of-adiantum-capillus-veneris-extracts-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluations
#17
Violet Kasabri, Entisar K Al-Hallaq, Yasser K Bustanji, Khalid K Abdul-Razzak, Ismail F Abaza, Fatma U Afifi
CONTEXT: Adiantum capillus-veneris L. (Adiantaceae) hypocholesterolemic activity is therapeutically praised. OBJECTIVES: Pharmacological modulation of pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (PL) and α-amylase/α-glucosidase by A. capillus-veneris are evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using positive controls (acarbose, orlistat, guar gum, atorvastatin, glipizide and metformin) as appropriate, crude aqueous extracts (AEs) of A. capillus-veneris aerial parts were tested via a combination of in vitro enzymatic (0...
September 23, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652370/the-saudi-clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-management-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-adults
#18
Assim A Alfadda, Madhawi M Al-Dhwayan, Abdulhameed A Alharbi, Basema K Al Khudhair, Omar M Al Nozha, Nawal M Al-Qahtani, Saad H Alzahrani, Wedad M Bardisi, Reem M Sallam, John J Riva, Jan L Brożek, Holger J Schünemann, Ainsley Moore
OBJECTIVE: To assist healthcare providers in evidence-based clinical decision-making for the management of overweight and obese adults in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: The Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia assembled an expert Saudi panel to produce this clinical practice guideline in 2015. In collaboration with the methodological working group from McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada, using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, which describes both the strength of recommendation and the quality of evidence  RESULTS: After identifying 11 questions, corresponding recommendations were agreed upon as guidance for the management of overweight and obese adults...
October 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646933/current-and-upcoming-pharmacotherapy-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
Yaron Rotman, Arun J Sanyal
Given the high prevalence and rising incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the absence of approved therapies is striking. Although the mainstay of treatment of NAFLD is weight loss, it is hard to maintain, prompting the need for pharmacotherapy as well. A greater understanding of disease pathogenesis in recent years was followed by development of new classes of medications, as well as potential repurposing of currently available agents. NAFLD therapies target four main pathways. The dominant approach is targeting hepatic fat accumulation and the resultant metabolic stress...
September 19, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583422/update-on-office-based-strategies-for-the-management-of-obesity
#20
Michael Erlandson, Laurie C Ivey, Katie Seikel
Obesity is a common condition that is associated with numerous medical problems such as cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and diabetes mellitus. Primary care physicians have an important role in helping patients develop a successful weight loss plan to improve their overall health. Dietary strategies emphasizing reduced caloric intake, regardless of the nutrient composition, are important for weight loss. Behavioral interventions such as motivational interviewing and encouraging physical activity lead to additional weight loss when combined with dietary changes...
September 1, 2016: American Family Physician
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