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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668321/the-role-of-lipolysis-in-postoral-and-oral-fat-preferences-in-mice
#1
Anthony Sclafani, Karen Ackroff
Fatty acid receptors in the mouth and gut are implicated in the appetite for fat-rich foods. The role of lipolysis in oral- and postoral-based fat preferences of C57BL/6J mice was investigated by inhibiting lipase enzymes with orlistat. Experiment 1 showed that postoral lipolysis is required: mice learned to prefer (by 70%) a flavored solution paired with intragastric infusions of 5% soybean oil but not a flavor paired with soybean oil + orlistat (4 mg/g fat) infusions. Experiments 2-4 tested the oral attraction to oil in mice given brief choice tests that minimize postoral effects...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659879/orlistat-therapy-for-children-with-type-1-hyperlipoproteinemia-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Nivedita Patni, Claudia Quittner, Abhimanyu Garg
Context: Patients with Type I Hyperlipoproteinemia (T1HLP), a rare genetic disorder, present with significant chylomicronemia and recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis. Currently, the only therapeutic option is to consume an extremely low fat diet, as the triglyceride lowering medications are not efficacious. Objective: To determine the efficacy of Orlistat, a gastric and pancreatic lipase inhibitor, Orlistat, in reducing serum triglyceride levels in patients with T1HLP...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659193/pharmacologic-and-pharmacodynamic-equivalence-of-2-formulations-of-orlistat
#3
Steven Johnson, Susan M Schwartz
We sought to establish the bioequivalence of 2 weight-loss aids: orlistat 27-mg chewable tablet and orlistat 60-mg capsule, measured pharmacodynamically as percentage fecal fat excretion. Two open-label, single-center, randomized, 3-period, 3-treatment crossover studies were conducted in adults with body mass index 25-33 kg/m2 . For each 9-day treatment period, subjects received orlistat 27-mg chewable tablet, 60-mg capsule, or 120-mg capsules (2 60-mg capsules) 3 times daily; a 2-day washout separated treatments...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614312/diacylglycerol-lipase-alpha-promotes-tumorigenesis-in-oral-cancer-by-cell-cycle-progression
#4
Yasuhiko Okubo, Atsushi Kasamatsu, Masanobu Yamatoji, Kazuaki Fushimi, Takashi Ishigami, Toshihiro Shimizu, Hiroki Kasama, Masashi Shiiba, Hideki Tanzawa, Katsuhiro Uzawa
Diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLA), which catalyzes the hydrolysis of diacylglycerol to 2-arachidonoylglycerol and free fatty acid, is required for axonal growth during the brain development and for retrograde synaptic signaling at mature synapses. So far, no information was found regarding the possible role of DAGLA in human tumorigenesis. Thus, the current study sought to clarify the contribution of DAGLA in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and assess the clinical possibilities for OSCC treatment. Using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry, we found a significant up-regulation of DAGLA in OSCCs compared with normal cells and tissues both at mRNA and protein expression levels...
March 31, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602978/effect-of-diane-35-alone-or-in-combination-with-orlistat-or-metformin-in-chinese-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-patients
#5
Xiangyan Ruan, Jinghua Song, Muqing Gu, Lijuan Wang, Husheng Wang, Alfred O Mueck
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of Diane-35, alone or in combination with orlistat or metformin, on androgen and body fat percentage parameters in Chinese overweight and obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with insulin resistance. METHODS: A total of 240 PCOS women were randomly allocated to receive Diane-35 alone (D group), Diane-35 plus orlistat (DO group), Diane-35 plus metformin (DM group), or Diane-35 plus orlistat plus metformin (DOM group). Serum TT, DHEA-S, androstenedione, SHBG, FT, FAI, body fat, and body fat percentage were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment...
March 30, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593789/drugs-involved-in-dyslipidemia-and-obesity-treatment-focus-on-adipose-tissue
#6
REVIEW
Sofia Dias, Sílvia Paredes, Laura Ribeiro
Metabolic syndrome can be defined as a state of disturbed metabolic homeostasis characterized by visceral obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, and insulin resistance. The growing prevalence of metabolic syndrome will certainly contribute to the burden of cardiovascular disease. Obesity and dyslipidemia are main features of metabolic syndrome, and both can present with adipose tissue dysfunction, involved in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this syndrome. We revised the effects, and underlying mechanisms, of the current approved drugs for dyslipidemia and obesity (fibrates, statins, niacin, resins, ezetimibe, and orlistat; sibutramine; and diethylpropion, phentermine/topiramate, bupropion and naltrexone, and liraglutide) on adipose tissue...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577037/chylous-ascites-a-review-of-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Richa Bhardwaj, Haleh Vaziri, Arun Gautam, Enrique Ballesteros, David Karimeddini, George Y Wu
Chylous ascites (CA) is a rare form of ascites that results from the leakage of lipid-rich lymph into the peritoneal cavity. This usually occurs due to trauma and rupture of the lymphatics or increased peritoneal lymphatic pressure secondary to obstruction. The underlying etiologies for CA have been classified as traumatic, congenital, infectious, neoplastic, postoperative, cirrhotic or cardiogenic. Since malignancy and cirrhosis account for about two-thirds of all the cases of CA in Western countries, in this article we have attempted to reclassify CA based on portal and non-portal etiologies...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569717/the-effect-of-fasn-inhibition-on-the-growth-and-metabolism-of-a-cisplatin-resistant-ovarian-carcinoma-model
#8
Efthymia Papaevangelou, Gilberto S Almeida, Carol Box, Nandita M deSouza, Yuen-Li Chung
Overexpression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key regulator of the de novo synthesis of fatty acids, has been demonstrated in a variety of cancers and is associated with poor prognosis and increased multidrug resistance. Inhibition of FASN with the anti-obesity drug orlistat has been shown to have significant anti-tumorigenic effects in many cancers, notably breast and prostate. In this study, we investigated whether FASN inhibition using orlistat is an effective adjunctive treatment for ovarian cancers that have become platinum resistant using a cisplatin-resistant ovarian tumour xenograft model in mice...
March 23, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558911/aqueous-and-ethanolic-extracts-of-welsh-onion-allium-fistulosum-attenuate-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#9
Yoon-Young Sung, Dong-Seon Kim, Seung-Hyung Kim, Ho Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUND: Allium fistulosum (Welsh onion) is a traditional medicinal plant used for the treatment of colds, influenza, abdominal pain, headache, and heart disease. This study evaluated the effects of A. fistulosum ethanolic extract (AFE) and aqueous extract (AFW) on body weight and other obesity-related parameters. METHODS: Male 8-week-old C57BL/6 J mice were fed either a standard chow diet (normal control) or a high-fat diet (HFD) either alone (HFD-control) or in combination with G...
March 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529254/a-new-scope-for-orlistat-effect-of-approved-anti-obesity-drug-against-experimental-microsporidiosis
#10
I F Abou-El-Naga, D E Said, M R Gaafar, S M Ahmed, S A El-Deeb
As the current therapies for intestinal microsporidiosis are either inconsistent in their efficacies or hampered by several adverse effects, alternative antimicrosporidial agents are being sought. The present study is the first that was designed to evaluate the potency of orlistat, an approved anti-obesity drug, against intestinal microsporidiosis caused by both Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis. Results were assessed through studying fecal and intestinal spore load, intestinal histopathological changes, viability, and infectivity of spores from treated animals...
February 24, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520715/enhanced-neuronal-survival-and-neurite-outgrowth-triggered-by-novel-small-organic-compounds-mimicking-the-lewisx-glycan
#11
Thomas Theis, Anmol Singh Johal, Maciej Kabat, Sayantani Basak, Melitta Schachner
Glycosylation fine-tunes signal transduction of adhesion molecules during neural development and supports synaptic plasticity and repair after injury in the adult nervous system. One abundantly expressed neural glycan is LewisX (LeX). Although it is known that its expression starts at the formation of the neural tube during the second embryonic week in the mouse and peaks during the first postnatal week, its functional relevance is only rudimentarily understood. To gain better insights into the functions of this glycan, we identified small organic compounds that mimic structurally and functionally this glycan glycosidically linked to several neural adhesion molecules...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514007/supplementation-of-grape-seed-and-skin-extract-to-orlistat-therapy-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-murine-spleen-lipotoxicity
#12
Takwa Bedhiafi, Kamel Charradi, Mouna Ben Azaiz, Mohamed Mahmoudi, Issam Msakni, Khawla Jebari, Ammar Bouziani, Ferid Limam, Ezzedine Aouani
Spleen is the largest lymphoid organ and obesity is related to an elevated risk of immunity dysfunction and the mechanism whereby fat adversely affects the spleen is poorly understood. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) and orlistat (Xenical, Xe) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced spleen lipotoxicity. Obese rats were treated either with GSSE (4 g/kg bw) or Xe (2 mg/kg bw) or GSSE + Xe and monitored for weight loss during 3 months. Animals were then sacrificed and their spleen used for the evaluation of lipotoxicity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation as well as the putative protection afforded by GSSE and Xe treatment...
March 7, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449326/fatty-acid-synthase-mediates-egfr-palmitoylation-in-egfr-mutated-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#13
Azhar Ali, Elena Levantini, Jun Ting Teo, Julian Goggi, John G Clohessy, Chan Shuo Wu, Leilei Chen, Henry Yang, Indira Krishnan, Olivier Kocher, Junyan Zhang, Ross A Soo, Kishore Bhakoo, Tan Min Chin, Daniel G Tenen
Metabolic reprogramming is widely known as a hallmark of cancer cells to allow adaptation of cells to sustain survival signals. In this report, we describe a novel oncogenic signaling pathway exclusively acting in mutated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with acquired tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance. Mutated EGFR mediates TKI resistance through regulation of the fatty acid synthase (FASN), which produces 16-C saturated fatty acid palmitate. Our work shows that the persistent signaling by mutated EGFR in TKI-resistant tumor cells relies on EGFR palmitoylation and can be targeted by Orlistat, an FDA-approved anti-obesity drug...
February 15, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411652/the-safety-of-pharmacologic-treatment-for-pediatric-obesity
#14
Ariana M Chao, Thomas A Wadden, Robert I Berkowitz
Pediatric obesity is a serious public health concern. Five medications have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for chronic weight management in adults with obesity, when used as an adjunct to lifestyle modification. Orlistat is the only FDA-approved medication for pediatric patients aged 12 years and above. Areas covered: This paper summarizes safety and efficacy data from clinical trials of weight loss medications conducted among pediatric samples. Relevant studies were identified through searches in PubMed...
February 7, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388462/safety-and-tolerability-of-new-generation-anti-obesity-medications-a-narrative-review
#15
REVIEW
Dhiren K Patel, Fatima Cody Stanford
The prevalence of obesity and associated comorbidities is rising. Despite their weight-loss efficacy, new generation anti-obesity medications are only prescribed to a minority of adults with obesity, possibly, which in part may be due to safety concerns. This review presents detailed safety profiles for orlistat, phentermine/topiramate, lorcaserin, naltrexone/bupropion and liraglutide 3.0 mg, and discusses the associated risk-benefit profiles. Two anti-obesity medications presented safety issues that warranted further discussion; phentermine/topiramate (fetal toxicity) and liraglutide 3...
March 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376439/pharmacotherapy-for-obesity-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
REVIEW
Tariq Chukir, Alpana P Shukla, Katherine H Saunders, Louis J Aronne
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Obesity is one of the main risk factors for T2DM and its management requires a multidisciplinary approach, which may include pharmacotherapy. Areas covered: In this paper, data on efficacy, tolerability and safety of FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for obesity (orlistat, phentermine/topiramate extended-release, lorcaserin, bupropion sustained release/naltrexone sustained release and liraglutide) are reviewed, focusing on individuals with type 2 diabetes...
February 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309795/lipase-inhibitor-orlistat-prevents-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-by-targeting-an-early-step-in-the-virus-life-cycle
#17
Knud Esser, Julie Lucifora, Jochen Wettengel, Katrin Singethan, Almut Glinzer, Alma Zernecke, Ulrike Protzer
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a strictly hepatotropic pathogen which is very efficiently targeted to the liver and into its host cell, the hepatocyte. The sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) has been identified as a key virus entry receptor, but the early steps in the virus life cycle are still only barely understood. Here, we investigated the effect of lipase inhibition and lipoprotein uptake on HBV infection using differentiated HepaRG cells and primary human hepatocytes. We found that an excess of triglyceride rich lipoprotein particles in vitro diminished HBV infection and a reduced hepatic virus uptake in vivo if apolipoprotein E is lacking indicating virus transport along with lipoproteins to target hepatocytes...
March 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305933/effects-of-weight-loss-medications-on-cardiometabolic-risk-profiles-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#18
Rohan Khera, Ambarish Pandey, Apoorva K Chandar, Mohammad H Murad, Larry J Prokop, Ian J Neeland, Jarett D Berry, Michael Camilleri, Siddharth Singh
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis to evaluate the overall and comparative effects of weight-loss medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration for long-term use on cardiometabolic risk profiles of obese adults. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review through February 28, 2017 to identify randomized clinical trials of the effects of Food and Drug Administration-approved weight-loss medications (ie, orlistat, lorcaserin, naltrexone-bupropion, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide) administered to obese adults for 1 year or more, compared with placebo or another active agent...
April 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301630/obesity-pathophysiology-and-management
#19
REVIEW
Kishore M Gadde, Corby K Martin, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Steven B Heymsfield
Obesity continues to be among the top health concerns across the globe. Despite our failure to contain the high prevalence of obesity, we now have a better understanding of its pathophysiology, and how excess adiposity leads to type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle modification is recommended as the cornerstone of obesity management, but many patients do not achieve long-lasting benefits due to difficulty with adherence as well as physiological and neurohormonal adaptation of the body in response to weight loss...
January 2, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275922/effects-of-orlistat-on-blood-pressure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-27-randomized-controlled-clinical-trials
#20
Amirhossein Sahebkar, Luis E Simental-Mendía, Petri T Kovanen, Claudio Pedone, Mario Simental-Mendía, Arrigo F G Cicero
Obesity and high blood pressure (BP) are strongly related and weight loss is mightily associated with a significant BP decrease. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate and quantify the BP decrease associated with orlistat use in randomized controlled trials. The search included PubMed-Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases by up to June 05, 2017, to identify randomized controlled trials investigating the impact of orlistat on blood pressure. Quantitative data synthesis was performed using a random-effects model, with weighed mean difference and 95% confidence interval as summary statistics...
February 2018: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
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