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Hayder M Al-Kuraishy, Ali I Al-Gareeb
AIM: The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of orlistat alone and in combination with Garcinia cambogia on visceral adiposity index (VAI) in obese patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 99 obese male patients were recruited with aged range between 37 and 46 years. They were randomized into three equal groups, first group treated with orlistat 120 mg/day, second group treated with G. cambogia 166 mg/day, and third group treated with orlistat 120 mg/day plus G...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Yura Jang, Young Tae Je, Cheol-Won Yun, Hesson Chung
This study was designed to investigate the oil entrapment and systemic oil absorption-reducing activities of chitosan. High-molecular-weight chitosan formed gel aggregates with oil and bile salts in vitro. The oil/chitosan ratio and the molecular weight of chitosan were optimized for the in vivo study, and a molecular weight >100,000 was effective in reducing the oil contamination of mouse fur. The oil/chitosan weight ratio required for effective oil entrapment was less than 13 and 5 in the in vitro and in vivo experiments, respectively...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
A Kargulewicz, M Szulińska, M Kujawska-Łuczak, E Swora-Cwynar, K Musialik, M Grzymisławska, M Kręgielska-Narożna, P Bogdański
OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of three weight loss interventions on serum concentrations of adiponectin and leptin in obese premenopausal women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 114 obese Caucasian women were randomized into three groups receiving a low-calorie diet (LC; n = 39), an isocaloric diet with 500 mg of metformin twice a day (IM; n = 38), and an isocaloric diet with 120 mg of orlistat three times a day (IO; n = 37), for three months. Serum concentrations of adiponectin and leptin were evaluated, along with anthropometric and body composition parameters, at baseline and after the study...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Stergios A Polyzos, Jannis Kountouras, Christos S Mantzoros
The association of obesity with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been established. Obesity has been linked not only to initial stages of the disease, i.e., simple steatosis (SS), but also to its severity. Form an epidemiologic point of view, both diseases has an increasing prevalence worldwide. From a pathogenetic point of view, obesity and its associate IR contribute to the initial fat accumulation in the hepatocyte (SS), but also to the progression of SS to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), NASH-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
October 6, 2016: Minerva Endocrinologica
Cristina Cruz-Hernandez, Frederic Destaillats, Sagar K Thakkar, Laurence Goulet, Emma Wynn, Dominik Grathwohl, Claudia Roessle, Sara de Giorgi, Luc Tappy, Francesca Giuffrida, Vittorio Giusti
It was hypothesized that under induced lipid malabsorption/mal-digestion conditions, an enriched sn-1(3)-monoacylglycerol oil (MAG) may be a better carrier for n-3 LC-PUFA compared to triacylglycerol (TAG) from fish oil (FO). This monocentric, double blinded clinical trial examined the accretion of EPA (500 mg/d) and DHA (300 mg/d) when consumed as TAG or MAG, into the erythrocytes, plasma and chylomicrons of 45 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and 40 kg/m(2)) volunteers who were and were not administered Orlistat, an inhibitor of pancreatic lipases...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Manoswini Chakrabarti, Ilika Ghosh, Aditi Jana, Manosij Ghosh, Anita Mukherjee
CONTEXT: Obesity is a major global health problem associated with various adverse effects. Pharmacological interventions are often necessary for the management of obesity. Orlistat is an FDA-approved antiobesity drug which is a potent inhibitor of intestinal lipases. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, orlistat was evaluated for its genotoxic potential in human lymphocyte cells in vitro and was compared with that of another antiobesity drug sibutramine, presently withdrawn from market due its undesirable health effects...
October 6, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Lidia Brownell, Young-Chul Lee, Eu-Jin Hyun, Hyun-Jin Kim, Tae-Woo Kim, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Qi Jia
Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Claudia Harper, Andrea L Pattinson, Hamish A Fernando, Jessica Zibellini, Radhika V Seimon, Amanda Sainsbury
BACKGROUND: New evidence suggests that obesity is deleterious for bone health, and obesity treatments could potentially exacerbate this. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This narrative review, largely based on recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses, synthesizes the effects on bone of bariatric surgery, weight loss pharmaceuticals and dietary restriction. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: All three obesity treatments result in statistically significant reductions in hip bone mineral density (BMD) and increases in bone turnover relative to pre-treatment values, with the reductions in hip BMD being strongest for bariatric surgery, notably Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RYGB, 8%-11% of pre-surgical values) and weakest for dietary restriction (1%-1...
September 26, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Violet Kasabri, Entisar K Al-Hallaq, Yasser K Bustanji, Khalid K Abdul-Razzak, Ismail F Abaza, Fatma U Afifi
CONTEXT: Adiantum capillus-veneris L. (Adiantaceae) hypocholesterolemic activity is therapeutically praised. OBJECTIVES: Pharmacological modulation of pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (PL) and α-amylase/α-glucosidase by A. capillus-veneris are evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using positive controls (acarbose, orlistat, guar gum, atorvastatin, glipizide and metformin) as appropriate, crude aqueous extracts (AEs) of A. capillus-veneris aerial parts were tested via a combination of in vitro enzymatic (0...
September 23, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Assim A Alfadda, Madhawi M Al-Dhwayan, Abdulhameed A Alharbi, Basema K Al Khudhair, Omar M Al Nozha, Nawal M Al-Qahtani, Saad H Alzahrani, Wedad M Bardisi, Reem M Sallam, John J Riva, Jan L Brożek, Holger J Schünemann, Ainsley Moore
OBJECTIVE: To assist healthcare providers in evidence-based clinical decision-making for the management of overweight and obese adults in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: The Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia assembled an expert Saudi panel to produce this clinical practice guideline in 2015. In collaboration with the methodological working group from McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada, using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, which describes both the strength of recommendation and the quality of evidence  RESULTS: After identifying 11 questions, corresponding recommendations were agreed upon as guidance for the management of overweight and obese adults...
October 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Yaron Rotman, Arun J Sanyal
Given the high prevalence and rising incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the absence of approved therapies is striking. Although the mainstay of treatment of NAFLD is weight loss, it is hard to maintain, prompting the need for pharmacotherapy as well. A greater understanding of disease pathogenesis in recent years was followed by development of new classes of medications, as well as potential repurposing of currently available agents. NAFLD therapies target four main pathways. The dominant approach is targeting hepatic fat accumulation and the resultant metabolic stress...
September 19, 2016: Gut
Michael Erlandson, Laurie C Ivey, Katie Seikel
Obesity is a common condition that is associated with numerous medical problems such as cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and diabetes mellitus. Primary care physicians have an important role in helping patients develop a successful weight loss plan to improve their overall health. Dietary strategies emphasizing reduced caloric intake, regardless of the nutrient composition, are important for weight loss. Behavioral interventions such as motivational interviewing and encouraging physical activity lead to additional weight loss when combined with dietary changes...
September 1, 2016: American Family Physician
Nivedita Patni, Julie Brothers, Chao Xing, Abhimanyu Garg
Type I hyperlipoproteinemia (T1HLP) usually presents with extreme hypertriglyceridemia, recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis, lipemia retinalis, and cutaneous eruptive xanthomas. We report a unique 10-year-old male of Indian origin who presented in neonatal period with transient obstructive jaundice and xanthomas in the pancreas and kidneys. Serum triglycerides stabilized with extremely low-fat diet although he subsequently developed pancreatic atrophy. Extreme hypertriglyceridemia failed to respond to treatment with fenofibrate, fish oil, and orlistat...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Chima A Egedigwe, Ifeoma I Ijeh, Polycarp N Okafor, Chukwunonso E C C Ejike
CONTEXT: Aqueous and methanol extracts of Vernonia amygdalina Del. (Asteraceae) (AEVA and MEVA, respectively) leaves are reported to possess anti-obesity properties, exerted through unknown mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of AEVA and MEVA on relevant hormones and enzymes in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two Wistar rats were placed into seven groups. The test groups received 100 mg/kg...
August 27, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Ken Fujioka, Jill Braverman-Panza
The recent approval of liraglutide, lorcaserin, naltrexone/bupropion extended-release, and phentermine/topiramate extended-release, brings the number of medications for long-term weight loss to 5 (including orlistat). Indicated for the treatment of patients with overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥27 kg/m2 with ≥1 weight-related comorbidity) or obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2), these medications provide new opportunities to address this burgeoning health problem.
July 2016: Journal of Family Practice
Anika Mante, Martha Heider, Christin Zlomke, Karsten Mäder
Biodegradable nanoparticles made of Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) are increasingly proposed for the improvement of oral drug absorption, but also as carriers for the treatment of colonic diseases. Unfortunately, our knowledge of the digestibility of PLGA-NPs is rather limited. Therefore, we investigated the impact of pancreatin on the digestibility of PLGA-NPs stabilized with different emulsifiers. The pancreatin induced degradation was monitored by the pH-stat method and an enzymatic L-lactic acid assay. A high digestibility was found for poloxamer 188 and polysorbate 80 stabilized PLGA-NPs...
August 20, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Vanessa Point, Anais Bénarouche, Julie Zarrillo, Alexandre Guy, Romain Magnez, Laurence Fonseca, Brigitt Raux, Julien Leclaire, Gérard Buono, Frédéric Fotiadu, Thierry Durand, Frédéric Carrière, Carole Vaysse, Leslie Couëdelo, Jean-François Cavalier
Based on a previous study and in silico molecular docking experiments, we have designed and synthesized a new series of ten 5-Alkoxy-N-3-(3-PhenoxyPhenyl)-1,3,4-Oxadiazol-2(3H)-one derivatives (RmPPOX). These molecules were further evaluated as selective and potent inhibitors of mammalian digestive lipases: purified dog gastric lipase (DGL) and guinea pig pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (GPLRP2), as well as porcine (PPL) and human (HPL) pancreatic lipases contained in porcine pancreatic extracts (PPE) and human pancreatic juices (HPJ), respectively...
November 10, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Brian Camilleri, Julie M Bridson, Ajay Sharma, Ahmed Halawa
Obesity is associated with worse short-term outcomes after kidney transplantation but the effect on long-term outcomes is unknown. Although some studies have reported worse outcomes for obese recipients when compared to recipients with a BMI in the normal range, obese recipients who receive a transplant have better outcomes than those who remain wait-listed. Whether transplant candidates should be advised to lose weight before or after transplant has been debated and this is mainly due to the gap in the literature linking pre-transplant weight loss with better outcomes post-transplantation...
October 2016: Transplantation Reviews
Jeppe Bennekou Schroll, Elisabeth I Penninga, Peter C Gøtzsche
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how adverse events are summarised and reported in trials, as detailed information is usually considered confidential. We have acquired clinical study reports (CSRs) from the European Medicines Agency through the Freedom of Information Act. The CSRs describe the results of studies conducted as part of the application for marketing authorisation for the slimming pill orlistat. The purpose of this study was to study how adverse events were summarised and reported in study protocols, CSRs, and published papers of orlistat trials...
August 2016: PLoS Medicine
Gyo-Nam Kim, Mi-Rae Shin, Sung Ho Shin, Ah Reum Lee, Joo Young Lee, Bu-Il Seo, Min Yeong Kim, Tae Hoon Kim, Jeong Sook Noh, Man Hee Rhee, Seong-Soo Roh
Pancreatic lipase is the enzyme responsible for digestion and absorption of triglycerides, being its inhibition one of the widest studied methods used to determine the potential activity of natural products to inhibit dietary fat absorption. Decrease of energy intake from dietary fat through inhibition of this enzyme may be an excellent strategy to prevent and treat obesity. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme of Diospyros kaki fruit and Citrus unshiu peel mixture extract (PCM) was evaluated in vitro and its antiobesity effects were studied based on the serum lipid parameters analysis from high-fat diet- (HFD-) fed mice in vivo...
2016: BioMed Research International
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