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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327680/mechanisms-of-bacterial-resistance-to-antimicrobial-agents
#1
Engeline van Duijkeren, Anne-Kathrin Schink, Marilyn C Roberts, Yang Wang, Stefan Schwarz
During the past decades resistance to virtually all antimicrobial agents has been observed in bacteria of animal origin. This chapter describes in detail the mechanisms so far encountered for the various classes of antimicrobial agents. The main mechanisms include enzymatic inactivation by either disintegration or chemical modification of antimicrobial agents, reduced intracellular accumulation by either decreased influx or increased efflux of antimicrobial agents, and modifications at the cellular target sites (i...
January 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300156/comparative-activity-of-tedizolid-and-glycopeptide-combination-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-against-strains-with-reduced-susceptibility-to-glycopeptides
#2
J W Betts, H F Abdul Momin, L M Phee, D W Wareham
PURPOSE: Glycopeptides are widely used for the treatment of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Although difficult to detect, isolates with reduced (GISA), hetero (hGISA) or complete (GRSA) resistance to glycopeptides are increasingly reported. Optimal therapy for such strains is unknown. We compared the in vitro and in vivo activity of tedizolid (TED), a recently licensed oxazolidonone, with vancomycin (VAN) and teicoplanin (TEIC) combined with fusidic acid (FD) or rifampicin (RIF) against S...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261121/six-year-retrospective-review-of-hospital-data-on-antimicrobial-resistance-profile-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-skin-infections-from-a-single-institution-in-greece
#3
Christina Stefanaki, Alexandra Ieronymaki, Theoni Matoula, Chrysseis Caroni, Evaggelia Polythodoraki, Stella-Eugenia Chryssou, George Kontochristopoulos, Christina Antoniou
Objective: To determine the prevalence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated from Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) to various antibiotics. Material and Methods: All culture-positive results for S. aureus from swabs taken from patients presenting at one Greek hospital with a skin infection between the years 2010-2015 were examined retrospectively. Bacterial cultures, identification of S. aureus and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using the disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines and European Committee on Antimicrobial testing (EUCAST) breakpoints...
December 20, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246634/genetics-of-bi-component-leukocidin-and-drug-resistance-in-nasal-and-clinical-staphylococcus-aureus-in-lagos-nigeria
#4
Nkechi V Enwuru, Solayide A Adesida, Christian A Enwuru, Beniam Ghebremedhin, Udoma E Mendie, Akitoye O Coker
BACKGROUND: Resistant and virulent Staphylococcus aureus is a global public health challenge. Staphylococcal Bi-component leukotoxins are cytolytic to immune cells and evolve to disarm the innate immunity during infections, hence the severity of the disease. OBJECTIVE: We studied drug resistance profile and the occurrence of bi-component leukocidin in clinical and nasal S. aureus in Lagos, Nigeria. METHOD: Ninety-two S. aureus (70 clinical and 22 nasal) strains were characterized by conventional and molecular methods...
December 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229636/topical-antibiotic-use-co-selects-for-the-carriage-of-mobile-genetic-elements-conferring-resistance-to-unrelated-antimicrobials-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#5
Glen P Carter, Mark B Schultz, Sarah L Baines, Anders Goncalves da Silva, Helen Heffernan, Audrey Tiong, Peter H Pham, Ian R Monk, Timothy P Stinear, Benjamin P Howden, Deborah A Williamson
Topical antibiotics such as mupirocin and fusidic acid are commonly used in the prevention and treatment of skin infections, particularly those caused by staphylococci. However, widespread use of these agents is associated with increased resistance to these agents, potentially limiting their efficacy. Of particular concern is the observation that resistance to topical antibiotics is often associated with multidrug resistance, suggesting that topical antibiotics may play a role in the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains...
December 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203102/antimicrobial-resistance-and-underlying-mechanisms-in-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates
#6
Ebru Şebnem Yılmaz, Özkan Aslantaş
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of 97 clinical Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains against 14 antimicrobials and corresponding resistance mechanisms. METHODS: The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined using a disk diffusion method and antimicrobial resistance genes were screened by polymerase chain reaction. Mutations responsible for ciprofloxacin and rifampicin resistance were investigated by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing...
November 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189310/muscle-damage-due-to-fusidic-acid-statin-interaction-review-of-75-cases-from-the-french-pharmacovigilance-database-and-literature-reports
#7
Maxime Bataillard, Marie-Noëlle Beyens, Geneviève Mounier, Delphine Vergnon-Miszczycha, Haleh Bagheri, Pascal Cathebras
BACKGROUND/AREA OF UNCERTAINTY: Statins, which reduce cardiovascular risk in both primary and secondary prevention, are one of the most widely prescribed therapeutic classes in the world. Usually well-tolerated, statin-associated muscle symptoms are a well-known adverse effect. Fusidic acid (FA) is a bacteriostatic antibiotic of interest in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Cases of rhabdomyolysis, sometimes fatal, have been reported after coprescription of FA and a statin...
November 9, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178841/multiresistant-st59-sccmec-iv-t437-clone-with-strong-biofilm-forming-capacity-was-identified-predominantly-in-mrsa-isolated-from-chinese-children
#8
Xin Yang, Suyun Qian, Kaihu Yao, Lijuan Wang, Yingchao Liu, Fang Dong, Wenqi Song, Jinghui Zhen, Wei Zhou, Hong Xu, Hongyan Zheng, Wenting Li
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the clinical and molecular epidemiology and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) isolated from pediatricians in China. METHODS: SA strains were isolated from Beijing Children's hospital from February 2016 to January 2017. Isolates were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa and SCCmec typing (for Methicillin-resistant SA [MRSA] only). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by agar dilution method except sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (E-test method)...
November 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171572/susceptibility-pattern-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-to-vancomycin-and-other-alternate-agents-report-from-a-private-sector-hospital-laboratory
#9
Faryal Saleem, Naima Fasih, Afia Zafar
With increasing prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in clinical settings and injudicious use of antibiotics, resistance among MRSA against commonly used antibiotics is increasing. To assess the susceptibility pattern of MRSA against vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, rifampicin, fosfomycin fusidic acid, clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and teicoplanin, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for given antimicrobials were performed on 234 MRSA clinical isolates using automated VITEK 2 system...
November 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162115/opportunities-for-topical-antimicrobial-therapy-permeation-of-canine-skin-by-fusidic-acid
#10
Sian-Marie Frosini, Ross Bond, Anette Loeffler, Jo Larner
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcal infection of the canine epidermis and hair follicle is amongst the commonest reasons for antimicrobial prescribing in small animal veterinary practice. Topical therapy with fusidic acid (FA) is an attractive alternative to systemic therapy based on low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs, commonly <0.03 mg/l) documented in canine pathogenic staphylococci, including strains of MRSA and MRSP (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and S. pseudintermedius)...
November 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158519/biosynthesis-of-helvolic-acid-and-identification-of-an-unusual-c-4-demethylation-process-distinct-from-sterol-biosynthesis
#11
Jian-Ming Lv, Dan Hu, Hao Gao, Tetsuo Kushiro, Takayoshi Awakawa, Guo-Dong Chen, Chuan-Xi Wang, Ikuro Abe, Xin-Sheng Yao
Fusidane-type antibiotics represented by helvolic acid, fusidic acid and cephalosporin P1 are a class of bacteriostatic agents, which have drawn renewed attention because they have no cross-resistance to commonly used antibiotics. However, their biosynthesis is poorly understood. Here, we perform a stepwise introduction of the nine genes from the proposed gene cluster for helvolic acid into Aspergillus oryzae NSAR1, which enables us to isolate helvolic acid (~20 mg L-1) and its 21 derivatives. Anti-Staphylococcus aureus assay reveals that the antibacterial activity of three intermediates is even stronger than that of helvolic acid...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131910/resistant-infantile-bacterial-conjunctivitis-in-egypt-a-microbiology-study
#12
Aiman Abdeltawwab Hashish, Molham Abdelhafez Elbakary, Waleed Abdelhady Allam
PURPOSE: To study the microbiological aspects of infantile bacterial conjunctivitis resistant to empirical topical antibiotic therapy in Egypt. METHODS: Ninety-two eyes of 86 infants with bacterial conjunctivitis were included in this prospective study. They all failed to show evidence of clinical improvement after 2 weeks of empirical topical antibiotic therapy. Conjunctival swabs were obtained from all patients for bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity testing...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119029/rhabdomyolysis-induced-by-coadministration-of-fusidic-acid-and-atorvastatin-a-case-report-and-comprehensive-review-of-the-literature
#13
Dimitrios Patoulias, Theodoros Michailidis, Thomas Papatolios, Rafael Papadopoulos, Petros Keryttopoulos
Statins are among the most widely prescribed medications worldwide. Acute rhabdomyolysis constitutes a potentially life-threatening side effect regardless of whether statins are administered alone or in combination. The potentially fatal combination of a statin and fusidic acid has been well described in the literature. Acute renal failure can be a direct consequence of this drug-drug interaction. We present a case of a 79-year-old woman who presented to our Emergency Department with a one-week history of limb weakness, myalgia, and inability to stand and walk...
2017: Case Reports in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104696/ulcerated-metatypical-basal-cell-carcinoma-of-the-forehead
#14
Jose Cardoso, Uwe Wollina, Georgi Tchernev
An 81-year-old male presented with an ulcerated lesion on the frontal area. The lesion had started three years before with a small ulceration and was initially treated with a cream of betamethasone and fusidic acid twice daily for several months. The clinical impression was ulcerated basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The histopathological findings after surgical excision were consistent with metatypical or basosquamous carcinoma. The importance of metatypical and basosquamous carcinomas is their potential for a more aggressive behaviour than conventional BCC, both regarding local recurrences and metastatic disease...
October 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075549/polymorphism-in-commercial-sources-of-fusidic-acid-a-comparative-study-of-the-in-vitro-release-characteristics-of-forms-i-and-iii-from-a-marketed-pharmaceutical-cream
#15
Jonathan Byrne, Robert Reinhardt, Trinidad Velasco-Torrijos
A comparison of the polymorphic forms of 3 commercial sources of fusidic acid using FTIR and XRPD techniques has been performed in this study. It has been demonstrated that polymorphic Forms I and III are currently available on the commercial market. The influence of the observed polymorphism on the stability of the drug substance in bulk form has been investigated through stability and stress testing according to current ICH guidelines. Significant differences were detected between commercial sources with regard to the stability of the bulk substance under photolytic and humidity stress conditions...
2017: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069878/the-effect-of-low-dose-nitroglycerin-ointment-on-skin-flap-necrosis-in-breast-reconstruction-after-skin-sparing-or-nipple-sparing-mastectomy
#16
Min Ho Yun, Eul Sik Yoon, Byung-Il Lee, Seung-Ha Park
BACKGROUND: Skin flap necrosis is a common complication after mastectomy and breast reconstruction. It has been proven that nitroglycerin ointment, as a topical vasodilator, can decrease the rate of skin flap necrosis after mastectomy and breast reconstruction. However, nitroglycerin can cause several side effects, including headache, dizziness, and hypotension. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the application of a low dose of nitroglycerin ointment reduced the rate of skin flap necrosis in breast reconstruction after skin-sparing or nipple-sparing mastectomy...
November 2017: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063353/high-prevalence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-meca-staphylococcus-aureus-in-dairy-cattle-sheep-and-goat-bulk-tank-milk-in-jordan
#17
Mohammad M Obaidat, Alaa E Bani Salman, Amira A Roess
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of mecA and mecC methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in cattle, sheep, and goat dairy farms in Jordan. Milk samples were collected from bulk tanks at 117 dairy farms (44 cattle, 47 sheep, and 26 goat dairy farms) in each region of the country. MRSA were isolated on mecA and mecC chromogenic media and confirmed by PCR. The confirmed isolates were tested for resistance toward 15 antimicrobials by the disc diffusion method...
October 23, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063318/method-of-selection-of-bacteria-antibiotic-resistance-genes-based-on-clustering-of-similar-nucleotide-sequences
#18
I S Balashov, V A Naumov, P I Borovikov, A B Gordeev, D V Dubodelov, L A Lyubasovskaya, Yu V Rodchenko, A A Bystritskii, N V Aleksandrova, D Yu Trofimov, T V Priputnevich
A new method for selection of bacterium antibiotic resistance genes is proposed and tested for solving the problems related to selection of primers for PCR assay. The method implies clustering of similar nucleotide sequences and selection of group primers for all genes of each cluster. Clustering of resistance genes for six groups of antibiotics (aminoglycosides, β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides, macrolides and lincosamides, and fusidic acid) was performed. The method was tested for 81 strains of bacteria of different genera isolated from patients (K...
October 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027845/the-potent-mechanism-based-inactivation-of-cyp2d6-and-cyp3a4-with-fusidic-acid-in-in-vivo-bioaccumulation
#19
Xiu-Xian Lin, Guang-Hui Lian, Ying Xu, Qing Zhao, Jian Xiao, Shi-Fang Peng, Mei-Fang Xiao, Dong-Sheng Ouyang, Zhi-Rong Tan, Yi-Cheng Wang, Jing-Bo Peng, Wei Zhang, Yao Chen
1. The accumulation of fusidic acid (FA) after multiple doses of FA has been reported on in previous studies but the related mechanisms have not been clarified fully. In the present study, we explain the mechanisms related to the mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. 2. The irreversible inhibitory effects of FA on CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 were examined via a series of experiments, including: a) time-, concentration- and NADPH-dependent inactivation, b) substrate protection in enzyme inactivation and c) partition ratio with recombinant human CYP enzymes...
October 13, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977793/antibiotic-resistance-trends-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-in-kuwait-hospitals-2011-2015
#20
Edet Udo, Samar Boswihi
<br>The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance trends and carriage of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) genetic elements in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated in Kuwait hospitals to ascertain whether they were healthcare-associated (HA-MRSA) or community-associated (CA-MRSA). <br> Materials (Subjects) and Methods<br>In total 6,922 MRSA isolates obtained from different clinical samples were tested for resistance to antibiotics, urease production and carriage of SCCmec elements...
October 4, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
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