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antimicrobial peptide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437109/structure-of-the-fundamental-lipopeptide-surfactin-at-the-air-water-interface-investigated-by-sum-frequency-generation-spectroscopy
#1
Sami Alhassan Goussous, Michael Thomas Lee Casford, Annabel C Murphy, George Salmond, Finian J Leeper, Paul B Davies
The lipopeptide surfactin produced by certain strains of Bacillus subtilis is a powerful bio-surfactant possessing potentially useful antimicrobial properties. In order to better understand its surface behaviour, we have used surface sensitive Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy in the C-H and C=O stretching regions to determine its structure at the air/water interface. Using surfactin with the leucine groups of the peptide ring perdeuterated we have shown that the majority of the SFG signals arise from the 4 leucine residues...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436180/control-mechanisms-for-producing-antimicrobial-factors-in-ruminant-mammary-gland
#2
REVIEW
Naoki Isobe
Mastitis, a symptom of inflammation in mammary tissue by infection with various kinds of bacteria, causes huge economic losses in the milk industry. One of the popular methods for treatment of mastitis is antibiotics, although this prohibits milk shipping and sometimes causes resistant microbes. Therefore, a new strategy to treat mastitis without antibiotics is eagerly required around the world. Antimicrobial factors belong to innate immunity and can start their function extremely early after bacterial stimulation...
April 24, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435091/antimicrobial-peptides-role-in-human-disease-and-potential-as-immunotherapies
#3
REVIEW
César de la Fuente-Núñez, Osmar N Silva, Timothy K Lu, Octavio Luiz Franco
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved through billions of years as part of our innate immune system. These agents are produced by various cells throughout the human body and play important roles in our ability to respond to infections. In this review, we outline evidence linking AMP expression with a range of inflammatory and autoimmune human diseases. Finally, we highlight the promise of endogenous AMP induction for the treatment of disease (i.e., host-directed therapy) and briefly mention the different peptide drugs that are currently undergoing clinical trials...
April 21, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433529/antimicrobial-peptides-within-the-yellowtail-kingfish-seriola-lalandi
#4
Simon Muncaster, Kirsty Kraakman, Olivia Gibbons, Koen Mensink, Maria Forlenza, Gregory Jacobson, Steve Bird
A number of Seriola species are currently farmed or being investigated as future aquaculture species in countries around the world. However they face a number of issues and limitations which will need to be overcome to ensure future stability and growth, one of which are disease outbreaks. Despite this, very little has been done to understand the immune system of Seriola species and very few immune genes have been characterised. Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are naturally occurring low molecular weight polypeptides that play a major role in an organism's immune system and act effectively as a first line of defence...
April 19, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433027/potential-of-mean-force-for-insertion-of-antimicrobial-peptide-melittin-into-a-pore-in-mixed-dopc-dopg-lipid-bilayer-by-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#5
Yuan Lyu, Ning Xiang, Xiao Zhu, Ganesan Narsimhan
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) inactivate microorganisms by forming transmembrane pores in a cell membrane through adsorption and aggregation. Energetics of addition of an AMP to a transmembrane pore is important for evaluation of its formation and growth. Such information is essential for the characterization of pore forming ability of peptides in cell membranes. This study quantifies the potential of mean force through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for the addition of melittin, a naturally occurring AMP, into a DOPC/DOPG mixed bilayer, a mimic of bacterial membrane, for different extents of insertion into either a bilayer or a pore consisting of three to six transmembrane peptides...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432358/differential-sensitivity-to-infections-and-antimicrobial-peptide-mediated-immune-response-in-four-silkworm-strains-with-different-geographical-origin
#6
Ottavia Romoli, Alessio Saviane, Andrea Bozzato, Paola D'Antona, Gianluca Tettamanti, Andrea Squartini, Silvia Cappellozza, Federica Sandrelli
The domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori has an innate immune system, whose main effectors are the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Silkworm strains are commonly grouped into four geographical types (Japanese, Chinese, European and Tropical) and are generally characterised by a variable susceptibility to infections. To clarify the genetic and molecular mechanisms on which the different responses to infections are based, we exposed one silkworm strain for each geographical area to oral infections with the silkworm pathogens Enterococcus mundtii or Serratia marcescens...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431948/serum-peptides-as-putative-modulators-of-inflammation-in-psoriasis
#7
Tetsuhiko Matsuura, Masaaki Sato, Kouhei Nagai, Toshiyuki Sato, Mitsumi Arito, Kazuki Omoteyama, Naoya Suematsu, Kazuki Okamoto, Tomohiro Kato, Yoshinao Soma, Manae S Kurokawa
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a refractory inflammatory disease, however, its pathophysiology is still not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: We tried to identify novel serum peptides associated with the pathophysiology of psoriasis. METHODS: Serum peptides from 24 patients with psoriasis vulgaris (PV), 10 patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), 14 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and 23 healthy control (HC) subjects were analyzed by mass spectrometry...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429216/effect-of-n-and-c-terminal-modifications-on-cytotoxic-properties-of-antimicrobial-peptide-tachyplesin-i
#8
D V Kuzmin, A A Emelianova, M B Kalashnikova, P V Panteleev, T V Ovchinnikova
We analyze the effects of N-terminal acetylation and C-terminal amidation on the cytotoxic properties of β-hairpin antimicrobial peptide tachyplesin I. MTT-assay showed that modified tachyplesin I exhibited increased cytotoxicity toward both tumor and normal human cells. Hemolytic activity of modified tachyplesin I was also higher than that of the initial molecule. In contrast to non-modified tachyplesin I, the peptide with C- and N-terminal modifications is resistant to proteolytic degradation in fresh human serum...
April 20, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429214/analysis-of-synergistic-effects-of-antimicrobial-peptide-arenicin-1-and-conventional-antibiotics
#9
I A Bolosov, A A Kalashnikov, P V Panteleev, T V Ovchinnikova
We studied combined effects of antimicrobial peptide arenicin-1 from lugworm Arenicola marina and some conventional antibiotics. A number of drug combinations with pronounced synergistic effects were revealed. The influence of antibacterial activity assessment conditions was determined and the methodology excluding false-positive test results was developed.
April 20, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428776/mapping-and-identification-of-antifungal-peptides-in-the-putative-antifungal-protein-afpb-from-the-filamentous-fungus-penicillium-digitatum
#10
Sandra Garrigues, Mónica Gandía, Attila Borics, Florentine Marx, Paloma Manzanares, Jose F Marcos
Antifungal proteins (AFPs) from Ascomycetes are small cysteine-rich proteins that are abundantly secreted and show antifungal activity against non-producer fungi. A gene coding for a class B AFP (AfpB) was previously identified in the genome of the plant pathogen Penicillium digitatum. However, previous attempts to detect the AfpB protein were not successful despite the high expression of the corresponding afpB gene. In this work, the structure of the putative AfpB was modeled. Based on this model, four synthetic cysteine-containing peptides, PAF109, PAF112, PAF118, and PAF119, were designed and their antimicrobial activity was tested and characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428067/targeting-and-synergistic-action-of-an-antifungal-peptide-in-an-antibiotic-drug-delivery-system
#11
Seong-Cheol Park, Young-Min Kim, Jong-Kook Lee, Nam-Hong Kim, Eun-Ji Kim, Hun Heo, Min-Young Lee, Jung Ro Lee, Mi-Kyeong Jang
Amphotericin B (AmB) has been widely used against fungal infections throughout almost the entire body, including the skin, nails, oral cavity, respiratory tract, and urinary tract. However, the development of AmB-loaded nanoparticles demands a novel technique that reduces its toxicity and other associated problems. Here, we developed a pH-responsive and redox-sensitive polymer-based AmB-delivery carrier system. In particular, this system was functionalized by conjugation with the antifungal peptide histatin 5, which acts both as a targeting ligand and a synergistic antifungal molecule against Candida albicans, a major systemic fungal pathogen of humans...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427192/dna-methylation-directly-downregulates-human-cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide-gene-camp-promoter-activity
#12
Xi Chen, Guangying Qi, Mingqun Qin, Yantao Zou, Kanghua Zhong, Ying Tang, Yong Guo, Xinxiang Jiang, Lihua Liang, Xianqiong Zou
LL-37, the active product of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. LL-37 also has important physiological functions in immune regulation, angiogenesis and in modulating apoptosis. The roles of LL-37 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are still not clear. The correlation between DNA methylation and human CAMP expression is also unknown. Here human CAMP/LL-37 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal and OSCC tissues. The results indicated that low expression of CAMP/LL-37 correlated with histological differentiation and lymph node metastasis and also promoted tumor progression...
March 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426765/allatotropin-a-pleiotropic-neuropeptide-that-elicits-mosquito-immune-responses
#13
Salvador Hernández-Martínez, Minerva Sánchez-Zavaleta, Kevin Brito, Antonia Herrera-Ortiz, Sheila Ons, Fernando G Noriega
Allatotropins (AT) are neuropeptides with pleotropic functions on a variety of insect tissues. They affect processes such as juvenile hormone biosynthesis, cardiac rhythm, oviduct and hindgut contractions, nutrient absorption and circadian cycle. The present work provides experimental evidence that AT elicits immune responses in two important mosquito disease vectors, Anopheles albimanus and Aedes aegypti. Hemocytes and an immune-competent mosquito cell line responded to AT by showing strong morphological changes and increasing bacterial phagocytic activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426232/glycine-substitution-reduces-antimicrobial-activity-and-helical-stretch-of-dipgla-h-in-lipid-micelles
#14
Marc-Antoine Sani, Catharina Saenger, Davor Juretic, Frances Separovic
With the rise in antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) show promise for therapeutic development but higher specificity is required. PGLa-H is a naturally occurring decapeptide, reported to have moderate antibacterial activity and low hemolytic activity, with its sequence being identical to the C-terminal fragment of highly selective AMP, PGLa. DiPGLa-H, a sequential tandem repeat of PGLa-H, as well as Kiadin, an analogue with a Val to Gly substitution at position 15, display improved in vitro bactericidal activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens, with generally low toxicity for human cells...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425152/nmr-structures-and-molecular-dynamics-simulation-of-hylin-a1-peptide-analogs-interacting-with-micelles
#15
Edson Crusca, Amanda Souza Câmara, Carolina Oliveira Matos, Reinaldo Marchetto, Eduardo Maffud Cilli, Luciano Morais Lião, Aline Lima de Oliveira
Antimicrobial peptides are recognized candidates with pharmaceutical potential against epidemic emerging multi-drug resistant bacteria. In this study, we use nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations to determine the unknown structure and evaluate the interaction with dodecylphosphatidylcholine (DPC) and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) micelles with three W(6) -Hylin-a1 analogs antimicrobial peptides (HyAc, HyK, and HyD). The HyAc, HyK, and HyD bound to DPC micelles are all formed by a unique α-helix structure...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424689/antimicrobial-and-attractant-roles-for-chemerin-in-the-oral-cavity-during-inflammatory-gum-disease
#16
Urszula Godlewska, Piotr Brzoza, Aneta Sroka, Pawel Majewski, Holger Jentsch, Martin Eckert, Sigrun Eick, Jan Potempa, Brian A Zabel, Joanna Cichy
Periodontal inflammation is one of the most common chronic inflammatory conditions in humans. Despite recent advances in identifying and characterizing oral microbiota dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of gum disease, just how host factors maintain a healthy homeostatic oral microbial community or prevent the development of a pathogenic oral microbiota remains poorly understood. An important determinant of microbiota fate is local antimicrobial proteins. Here, we report that chemoattractant protein chemerin, which we recently identified as a potent endogenous antimicrobial agent in body barriers such as the skin, is present in the oral cavity under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424688/antimicrobial-activity-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-current-status-and-new-perspectives-of-antimicrobial-peptide-based-therapies
#17
REVIEW
Francisca Alcayaga-Miranda, Jimena Cuenca, Maroun Khoury
While mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-based therapy appears to be promising, there are concerns regarding possible side effects related to the unwanted suppression of antimicrobial immunity leading to an increased risk of infection. Conversely, recent data show that MSCs exert strong antimicrobial effects through indirect and direct mechanisms, partially mediated by the secretion of antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs). In fact, MSCs have been reported to increase bacterial clearance in preclinical models of sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and cystic fibrosis-related infections...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424327/rig-i-mavs-and-sting-signaling-promote-gut-integrity-during-irradiation-and-immune-mediated-tissue-injury
#18
Julius C Fischer, Michael Bscheider, Gabriel Eisenkolb, Chia-Ching Lin, Alexander Wintges, Vera Otten, Caroline A Lindemans, Simon Heidegger, Martina Rudelius, Sébastien Monette, Kori A Porosnicu Rodriguez, Marco Calafiore, Sophie Liebermann, Chen Liu, Stefan Lienenklaus, Siegfried Weiss, Ulrich Kalinke, Jürgen Ruland, Christian Peschel, Yusuke Shono, Melissa Docampo, Enrico Velardi, Robert R Jenq, Alan M Hanash, Jarrod A Dudakov, Tobias Haas, Marcel R M van den Brink, Hendrik Poeck
The molecular pathways that regulate the tissue repair function of type I interferon (IFN-I) during acute tissue damage are poorly understood. We describe a protective role for IFN-I and the RIG-I/MAVS signaling pathway during acute tissue damage in mice. Mice lacking mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) were more sensitive to total body irradiation- and chemotherapy-induced intestinal barrier damage. These mice developed worse graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a preclinical model of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) than did wild-type mice...
April 19, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423328/treating-flu-with-skin-of-frog
#19
James E Crowe
Glands in frog skin secrete substances that possess broad antimicrobial function. Holthausen et al. mined this soup of natural products and discovered a peptide that destroys diverse human influenza strains (Holthausen et al., 2017). This study points the way to the discovery of novel anti-influenza molecules targeting conserved elements on influenza surface proteins.
April 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423018/comprehensive-analysis-of-phospholipids-and-glycolipids-in-the-opportunistic-pathogen-enterococcus-faecalis
#20
Rafi Rashid, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Iris H Gao, Zeus J Nair, Jaspal K Kumar, Liang Gao, Kimberly A Kline, Markus R Wenk
Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, opportunistic, pathogenic bacterium that causes a significant number of antibiotic-resistant infections in hospitalized patients. The development of antibiotic resistance in hospital-associated pathogens is a formidable public health threat. In E. faecalis and other Gram-positive pathogens, correlations exist between lipid composition and antibiotic resistance. Resistance to the last-resort antibiotic daptomycin is accompanied by a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol (PG) levels, whereas multiple peptide resistance factor (MprF) converts anionic PG into cationic lysyl-PG via a trans-esterification reaction, providing resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides...
2017: PloS One
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