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antimicrobial peptide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774357/peyer-s-patch-specific-lactobacillus-reuteri-strains-increase-extracellular-microbial-dna-and-antimicrobial-peptide-expression-in-the-mouse-small-intestine
#1
Ce Qi, Jin Sun, Ya Li, Min Gu, Tim Goulette, Xiaomeng You, David A Sela, Xingguo Wang, Hang Xiao
Specific Lactobacillus reuteri is autochthonous Lactobacillus species in humans with potential application in food production as a probiotic. The difference in colonizing Peyer's patches (PP) might decide their health-promoting properties. We aimed to investigate the difference between PP- and lumen-specific L. reuteri on antimicrobial peptide expression in this study. L. reuteri strains were isolated from PP and the lumen of C57BL/6J mice, which were used to treat mice. PP-specific L. reuteri cells stimulate RegIIIγ mRNA expression of the crypt epithelial sample...
May 18, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774111/ceragenin-csa-13-as-free-molecules-and-attached-to-magnetic-nanoparticle-surfaces-induce-caspase-dependent-apoptosis-in-human-breast-cancer-cells-via-disruption-of-cell-oxidative-balance
#2
Ewelina Piktel, Izabela Prokop, Urszula Wnorowska, Grzegorz Król, Mateusz Cieśluk, Katarzyna Niemirowicz, Paul B Savage, Robert Bucki
Natural antimicrobial peptides and ceragenins, as non-peptide amphipathic mimics, have been proposed as anti-cancer agents. To date, it has been confirmed that cathelicidin LL-37 and ceragenin CSA-13, both in free form and immobilized on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP@LL-37, MNP@CSA-13) induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Nevertheless, the question remains whether ceragenins, as synthetic analogs of LL-37 peptide and mimicking a number of its properties, act as antineoplastic agents in breast cancer cells, where LL-37 peptide stimulates oncogenesis...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773800/x-ray-structure-of-a-carpet-like-antimicrobial-defensin-phospholipid-membrane-disruption-complex
#3
Michael Järvå, Fung T Lay, Thanh Kha Phan, Cassandra Humble, Ivan K H Poon, Mark R Bleackley, Marilyn A Anderson, Mark D Hulett, Marc Kvansakul
Defensins are cationic antimicrobial peptides expressed throughout the plant and animal kingdoms as a first line of defense against pathogens. Membrane targeting and disruption is a crucial function of many defensins, however the precise mechanism remains unclear. Certain plant defensins form dimers that specifically bind the membrane phospholipids phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, thereby triggering the assembly of defensin-lipid oligomers that permeabilize cell membranes. To understand this permeabilization mechanism, here we determine the crystal structure of the plant defensin NaD1 bound to PA...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772735/antibiofilm-peptides-and-peptidomimetics-with-focus-on-surface-immobilization
#4
REVIEW
Athina Andrea, Natalia Molchanova, Håvard Jenssen
Bacterial biofilms pose a major threat to public health, as they are associated with at least two thirds of all infections. They are highly resilient and render conventional antibiotics inefficient. As a part of the innate immune system, antimicrobial peptides have drawn attention within the last decades, as some of them are able to eradicate biofilms at sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels. However, peptides possess a number of disadvantages, such as susceptibility to proteolytic degradation, pH and/or salinity-dependent activity and loss of activity due to binding to serum proteins...
May 16, 2018: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772685/the-emergence-of-endophytic-microbes-and-their-biological-promise
#5
Gary Strobel
As is true with animal species, plants also have an associated microflora including endophytes as well as microbes associated with the phyllosphere and rhizosphere (plant surfaces) and this is considered the plant microbiome. However, those organisms within virtually all tissues and organs of the plant are known as endophytes. Most often fungi are the most frequently recovered endophytes from plant tissues, but bacterial forms generally occur in greater numbers, but not in species varieties. The exact biological/biochemical role of the endophyte in the plant and how it interacts with the plant and other endophytes and plant associated organisms has not been intensely and carefully examined...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772374/evolution-expression-and-characterisation-of-liver-expressed-antimicrobial-peptide-genes-in-ancient-chondrostean-sturgeons
#6
Shuhuan Zhang, Qiaoqing Xu, Hao Du, Zhitao Qi, Youshen Li, Jun Huang, Jun Di, Qiwei Wei
Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (leap-2) is an evolutionarily ancient molecule that acts as the key component in vertebrate innate immunity against invading pathogens. Leap-2 has been identified and characterised in several teleosts, but not yet in chondrosteans. Herein, the complete coding sequences of leap-2b and leap-2c were identified from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from Dabry's sturgeon (Acipenser dabryanus) and Chinese sturgeon (A. sinensis), designated as adleap-2b, adleap-2c, asleap-2b, and asleap-2c, respectively...
May 14, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771981/antimicrobial-activity-of-bovine-nk-lysin-derived-peptides-on-mycoplasma-bovis
#7
Rohana P Dassanayake, Shollie M Falkenberg, Karen B Register, Daniel Samorodnitsky, Eric M Nicholson, Timothy A Reinhardt
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a diverse group of molecules which play an important role in the innate immune response. Bovine NK-lysins, a type of AMP, have been predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides demonstrate antimicrobial activity against various bacterial pathogens, including several involved in bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in cattle; however, such studies are yet to be performed with one important contributor to the BRDC, Mycoplasma bovis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771109/the-therapeutic-pipeline-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infections
#8
Lori L Burrows
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, designated by the World Health Organization as a critical priority for development of new therapeutics due to high levels of intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance. Other challenges include its versatility (it can persist in the environment and most strains are capable of causing disease in compromised hosts), robust efflux mechanisms that limit drug penetration, and the propensity to form antimicrobial-tolerant biofilms. Novel therapeutics in development to prevent or treat P...
May 17, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770866/meucin-49-a-multifunctional-scorpion-venom-peptide-with-bactericidal-synergy-with-neurotoxins
#9
Bin Gao, Julie Dalziel, Simone Tanzi, Shunyi Zhu
Besides key roles in prey capture and predator defense, scorpion venom also functions as internal immune agents protecting the venom gland from infection and external immune agents cleaning saprophytic microbes from their own body surfaces. However, antimicrobials (typically antimicrobial peptides, AMPs) in the venom often exist in low abundance that might exclude their immune role alone, leaving an open question with regard to their in vivo biological function. Here, we report the bactericidal activity of seven peptides isolated from the scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus venom, including one classical α-helical AMP and five ion channel-targeted neurotoxins...
May 16, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768720/bis-cyclic-guanidine-as-a-novel-class-of-compounds-potent-against-clostridium-difficile
#10
Chunhui Li, Peng Teng, Zhong Peng, Peng Sang, Xingmin Sun, Jianfeng Cai
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) symptoms range from diarrhea to severe toxic megacolon and even death. Due to its rapid acquisition of resistance, C. difficile is listed as an urgent antibiotic-resistant threat, and has surpassed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as the most common hospital-acquired infections in the USA. To combat the pathogen, the new structural class of pseudo peptides that exhibit antimicrobial activities could play an important role. Herein, we report that bis-cyclic guanidine compounds that exhibit potent antibacterial activity against C...
May 16, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768179/intestinal-epithelial-wnt-signaling-mediates-acetylcholine-triggered-host-defense-against-infection
#11
Sid Ahmed Labed, Khursheed A Wani, Sakthimala Jagadeesan, Abdul Hakkim, Mehran Najibi, Javier Elbio Irazoqui
Regulated antimicrobial peptide expression in the intestinal epithelium is key to defense against infection and to microbiota homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate such expression is necessary for understanding immune homeostasis and inflammatory disease and for developing safe and effective therapies. We used Caenorhabditis elegans in a preclinical approach to discover mechanisms of antimicrobial gene expression control in the intestinal epithelium. We found an unexpected role for the cholinergic nervous system...
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768168/a-worm-s-gut-feelings-neuronal-muscarinic-and-epithelial-canonical-wnt-pathways-promote-antimicrobial-defense
#12
Romana R Gerner, Manuela Raffatellu
Molecular mechanisms connecting the gut-brain axis to immunity remain elusive. In this issue of Immunity, Labed et al. (2018) demonstrate that two evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanisms, the neuronal muscarinic and the epithelial Wnt pathways, together induce antimicrobial peptide expression that protects Caenorhabditis elegans against intestinal infection.
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767727/effects-of-long-term-intake-of-a-yogurt-fermented-with-lactobacillus-delbrueckii-subsp-bulgaricus-2038-and-streptococcus-thermophilus-1131-on-mice
#13
Yuki Usui, Yasumasa Kimura, Takeshi Satoh, Naoki Takemura, Yasuo Ouchi, Hiroko Ohmiya, Kyosuke Kobayashi, Hiromi Suzuki, Satomi Koyama, Satoko Hagiwara, Hirotoshi Tanaka, Seiya Imoto, Gérard Eberl, Yukio Asami, Kosuke Fujimoto, Satoshi Uematsu
The gut is an extremely complicated ecosystem where microorganisms, nutrients and host cells interact vigorously. Although the function of the intestine and its barrier system weakens with age, some probiotics can potentially prevent age-related intestinal dysfunction. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038 and Streptococcus thermophilus 1131, which are the constituents of LB81 yogurt, are representative probiotics. However, it is unclear whether their long-term intake has a beneficial influence on systemic function...
May 15, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767501/enhanced-antimicrobial-activity-and-structural-transitions-of-a-nanofibrillated-cellulose-nisin-bio-composite-suspension
#14
Ramon Weishaupt, Lukas Heuberger, Gilberto Siqueira, Beatrice Gutt, Tanja Zimmermann, Katharina Maniura-Weber, Stefan Salentinig, Greta Faccio
The occurrence of resistance to antibiotics has posed a high demand for novel strategies to fight bacterial infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a promising alternative to con-ventional antibiotics. However, their poor solubility in water and sensitivity to degradation has limited their application. Here we report the design of a smart, pH-responsive antimicro-bial nanobiocomposite material based on the AMP nisin and oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose (TONFC). Morphological transformations of the nano-scale structure of nisin functionalized TONFC fibrils were discovered at pH values between pH 5...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767453/optimizing-antimicrobial-peptide-dendrimers-in-chemical-space
#15
Thissa Siriwardena, Alice Capecchi, Bee-Ha Gan, Xian Jin, Runze He, Dengwen Wei, Lan Ma, Thilo Köhler, Christian van Delden, Sacha Javor, Jean-Louis Reymond
Here we used nearest neighbor searches in chemical space to improve the activity of antimicrobial peptide dendrimer (AMPD) G3KL and identified dendrimer T7 with an expanded activity range against Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria including Klebsiellae pneumoniae, increased serum stability and promising activity in an in vivo infection model against a multidrug resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii. Imaging, spectroscopic studies and a structural model from molecular dynamics simulations suggest that T7 acts by membrane disruption...
May 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767133/intestinal-challenge-with-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-in-pigs-and-nutritional-intervention-to-prevent-postweaning-diarrhea
#16
REVIEW
Yawang Sun, Sung Woo Kim
Gut health of nursery pigs immediately after weaning is tightly associated with their growth performance and economic values. Postweaning diarrhea (PWD) is one of the major concerns related to gut health of nursery pigs which often is caused by infections of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), mainly including F4 (K88)+ and F18+ E. coli. The main virulence factors of ETEC are adhesins (fimbriae or pili) and enterotoxins. The common types of fimbriae on ETEC from PWD pigs are F18+ and F4+ . Typically, PWD in pigs is associated with both F18+ and F4+ ETEC infections whereas pre-weaning diarrhea in pigs is associated with F4+ ETEC infection...
December 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765362/tachyplesin-causes-membrane-instability-that-kills-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-by-inhibiting-the-3-ketoacyl-carrier-protein-reductase-fabg
#17
Cunbao Liu, Jialong Qi, Bin Shan, Yanbing Ma
Tachyplesin is a type of cationic β-hairpin antimicrobial peptide discovered in horseshoe crab approximately 30 years ago that is well known for both its potential antimicrobial activities against multidrug-resistant bacteria and its cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. Though its physical interactions with artificial membranes have been well studied, details of its physiological mechanism of action the physiological consequences of its action remain limited. By using the DNA-binding fluorescent dye propidium iodide to monitor membrane integrity, confocal microscopy to assess the intracellular location of FITC-tagged tachyplesin, and RNA sequencing of the differentially expressed genes in four Gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) treated with lethal or sublethal concentrations of tachyplesin, we found that compared with levofloxacin-treated bacteria, tachyplesin-treated bacteria showed significant effects on the pathways underlying unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763807/positional-scanning-library-applied-to-the-human-eosinophil-cationic-protein-rnase3-n-terminus-reveals-novel-and-potent-anti-biofilm-peptides
#18
David Pulido, Guillem Prats-Ejarque, Clara Villalba, Marcel Albacar, Mohammed Moussaoui, David Andreu, Rudolf Volkmer, Marc Torrent, Ester Boix
Eradication of established biofilm communities of pathogenic bacteria is one of the pending challenges in the development of new antimicrobial agents. In particular, the dreaded nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms microbial communities that offer an enhanced resistance to conventional antibiotics. Recently, we have described an engineered antimicrobial peptide derived from the human RNase3, also named the eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), RN3 (5-36), which combines bactericidal activity with high cell agglutination and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affinity...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762526/hypoxia-metabolism-and-immune-cell-function
#19
REVIEW
Ewelina Krzywinska, Christian Stockmann
Hypoxia is a hallmark of inflamed, infected or damaged tissue, and the adaptation to inadequate tissue oxygenation is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs are key mediators of the cellular response to hypoxia, but they are also associated with pathological stress such as inflammation, bacteriological infection or cancer. In addition, HIFs are central regulators of many innate and adaptive immunological functions, including migration, antigen presentation, production of cytokines and antimicrobial peptides, phagocytosis as well as cellular metabolic reprogramming...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762159/vitamin-d-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-more-than-just-a-supplement
#20
John Gubatan, Alan C Moss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to explore the protective role of vitamin D on the gastrointestinal tract, summarize the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and highlight recent studies examining the impact of low vitamin D and vitamin D supplementation on IBD clinical outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin D protects the gut barrier by regulating tight junction proteins and inhibiting intestinal apoptosis. Vitamin D enhances innate immunity by inducing antimicrobial peptides and regulates adaptive immunity by promoting anti-inflammatory T cells and cytokines...
May 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
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