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antimicrobial peptide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915299/cathelicidin-ll-37-level-in-the-scalp-hair-of-patients-with-tinea-capitis
#1
Nagwa H Abdelaal, Laila A Rashed, Sahar Y Ibrahim, Mona H Abd El Halim, Noha Ghoneim, Noha A Saleh, Marwah A Saleh
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered an important first line of defense against pathogens. Cathelicidin LL-37 was upregulated in response to fungal infection. In this work we aimed to evaluate cathelicidin LL-37 in the hair of tinea capitis and compare it to normal controls. Hair samples were collected from 30 children and 30 controls aged from 2 to10 years old, and the level of cathelicidin LL-37 in the hair was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The 30 patients were further subdivided into three subgroups according to their clinical type...
December 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915228/cytokines-il-17-and-il-22-in-the-host-response-to-infection
#2
Maria Valeri, Manuela Raffatellu
Cytokines IL-17 and IL-22 play pivotal roles in host defense against microbes and in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. These cytokines are produced by cells that are often located in epithelial barriers, including subsets of T cells and innate lymphoid cells. In general, IL-17 and IL-22 can be characterized as important cytokines in the rapid response to infectious agents, both by recruiting neutrophils and by inducing the production of antimicrobial peptides. Although each cytokine induces an innate immune response in epithelial cells, their functional spectra are generally distinct: IL-17 mainly induces an inflammatory tissue response and is involved in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, whereas IL-22 is largely protective and regenerative...
December 2, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915018/design-and-surface-immobilization-of-short-anti-biofilm-peptides
#3
Biswajit Mishra, Tamara Lushnikova, Radha M Golla, Xiuqing Wang, Guangshun Wang
: Short antimicrobial peptides are essential to keep us healthy and their lasting potency can inspire the design of new types of antibiotics. This study reports the design of a family of eight-residue tryptophan-rich peptides (TetraF2W) obtained by converting the four phenylalanines in temporin-SHf to tryptophans. The temporin-SHf template was identified from the antimicrobial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP). Remarkably, the double arginine variant (TetraF2W-RR) was more effective in killing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) USA300, but less cytotoxic to human skin HaCat and kidney HEK293 cells, than the lysine-containing dibasic combinations (KR, RK and KK)...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914888/the-first-report-on-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-venom-gland-of-iranian-scorpion-hemiscorpius-lepturus
#4
Fatemeh Kazemi-Lomedasht, Vahid Khalaj, Kamran Pooshang Bagheri, Mahdi Behdani, Delavar Shahbazzadeh
Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion is one of the most venomous members of the Hemiscorpiidae family. H. lepturus is distributed in Iran, Iraq and Yemen. The prevalence and severity of scorpionism is high and health services are not able to control it. Scorpionism in Iran especially in the southern regions (Khuzestan, Sistan and Baluchestan, Hormozgan, Ilam) is one of the main health challenges. Due to the medical and health importance of scorpionism, the focus of various studies has been on the identification of H...
November 30, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914268/anti-adhesive-antimicrobial-peptide-coating-prevents-catheter-associated-infection-in-a-mouse-urinary-infection-model
#5
Kai Yu, Joey C Y Lo, Mei Yan, Xiaoqiang Yang, Donald E Brooks, Robert E W Hancock, Dirk Lange, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) represent one of the most common hospital acquired infections with significant economic consequences and increased patient morbidity. CAUTIs often start with pathogen adhesion and colonization on the catheter surface followed by biofilm formation. Current strategies to prevent CAUTIs are insufficiently effective and antimicrobial coatings based on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) hold promise in curbing CAUTIs. Here we report an effective surface tethering strategy to prepare AMP coatings on polyurethane (PU), a common biomedical plastic used for catheter manufacture, by using an anti-adhesive hydrophilic polymer coating...
November 24, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913751/new-fungal-defensin-like-peptides-provide-evidence-for-fold-change-of-proteins-in-evolution
#6
Yucheng Wu, Bin Gao, Shunyi Zhu
Defensins containing a consensus cystine framework, Cys[1]..Cys[2]X3Cys[3]..Cys[4]..Cys[5]X1Cys[6] ("X", any amino acids normally except Cys; "...", variable residue numbers), are extensively distributed in a variety of multicellular organisms (plants, fungi and invertebrates) and essentially involved in immunity as microbicidal agents. This framework is a prerequisite for forming a cystine-stabilized α-helix and β-sheet (CSαβ) fold, in which the two invariant motifs, Cys[2]X3Cys[3]/Cys[5]X1Cys[6], are key determinants of fold formation...
December 2, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912176/novel-designed-vmct1-analogs-with-increased-antimicrobial-activity
#7
Cibele Nicolaski Pedron, Marcelo Der Torossian Torres, Julia Aparecida da Silva Lima, Pedro Ismael Silva, Fernanda Dias Silva, Vani Xavier Oliveira
Antimicrobial peptides are biologically active molecules produced by a wide range of organisms as an essential component of the innate immune response. They have recently attracted great interest, since they have antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. VmCT1 is a cationic peptide from the venom of Vaejovis mexicanus smithi scorpions, which presents antibacterial activity and tends to helical structures. Its analogs were synthesized, characterized and the conformational studies were performed by circular dichroism...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910930/design-of-a-hydroxyapatite-binding-antimicrobial-peptide-with-improved-retention-and-antibacterial-efficacy-for-oral-pathogen-control
#8
Zhi-Bin Huang, Xin Shi, Jing Mao, Shi-Qiang Gong
Controlling and reducing the formation of pathogenic biofilm on tooth surface is the key to the prevention and treatment of the biofilm-associated oral diseases. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), considered as possible future alternatives for conventional antibiotics, have been extensively studied for the control of bacterial infection. Due to the rapid dilution and degradation by human saliva, AMP preparations designed for oral use with longer retention and higher efficacy are in urgent need. To this end, a hydroxyapatite (HAp)-binding antimicrobial peptide (HBAMP), which is based on the fusion of a specific HAp-binding heptapeptide (HBP7) domain and a broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide (KSLW) domain, has been developed in our laboratory...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909427/biocombinatorial-synthesis-of-novel-lipopeptides-by-com-domain-mediated-reprogramming-of-the-plipastatin-nrps-complex
#9
Hongxia Liu, Ling Gao, Jinzhi Han, Zhi Ma, Zhaoxin Lu, Chen Dai, Chong Zhang, Xiaomei Bie
Both donors and acceptors of communication-mediating (COM) domains are essential for coordinating intermolecular communication within nonribosomal peptides synthetases (NRPSs) complexes. Different sets of COM domains provide selectivity, allowing NRPSs to utilize different natural biosynthetic templates. In this study, novel lipopeptides were synthesized by reprogramming the plipastatin biosynthetic machinery. A Thr-to-Asp point mutation was sufficient to shift the selectivity of the donor COM domain of ppsB toward that of ppsD...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908847/homeostasis-of-the-gut-barrier-and-potential-biomarkers
#10
Jerry M Wells, Robert J Brummer, Muriel Derrien, Thomas T MacDonald, Freddy Troost, Patrice D Cani, Vassilia Theodorou, Jan Dekker, Agnes Méheust, Willem M de Vos, Annick Mercenier, Arjen Nauta, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of sIgA and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With exception of sIgA the expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of symbionts inhabiting the human intestine...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908581/sonodynamic-inactivation-of-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria-using-a-rose-bengal-antimicrobial-peptide-conjugate
#11
David Costley, Heather Nesbitt, Nigel Ternan, James Dooley, Ying-Ying Huang, Michael R Hamblin, Anthony P McHale, John F Callan
Combating antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious public health challenges facing society today. The development of new antibiotics or alternative techniques that can help combat antimicrobial resistance is being prioritised by many governments and stakeholders across the globe. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy is one such technique that has received considerable attention but is limited by the inability of light to penetrate through human tissue, reducing its effectiveness when used to treat deep-seated infections...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907988/kr12-peptide-associated-with-cyclodextrin-antimicrobial-and-antitumor-activities
#12
Karina I R Teixeira, Maria E Cortés, Robson A S Santos, Flávio Oliveira, Ruben D Sinisterra
The aim of this study was to determine the physical properties and antimicrobial and antiproliferative effects of the KR12 peptide complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (Hp-βCd) in vitro. The KR12:Hp-βCd composition was evaluated for particle size and its zeta (ζ)-potential in the presence and absence of cells. Antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis for the peptide alone or associated was evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentration...
December 1, 2016: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903451/fatty-acid-synthase-plays-a-positive-role-in-shrimp-immune-responses-against-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-infection
#13
Hongliang Zuo, Jiefeng Gao, Jia Yuan, Hengwei Deng, Linwei Yang, Shaoping Weng, Jianguo He, Xiaopeng Xu
Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is an important enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fatty acids. In this study, the role of the FAS gene from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvFAS) in immune responses against Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection was studied. The expression of LvFAS could be up-regulated upon infection of V. parahaemolyticus and stimulation of lipopolysaccharide and poly (I:C). The promoter of LvFAS was predicted to harbor a NF-κB binding site and dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that the NF-κB family proteins Relish, sRelish and Dorsal could activate the transcription of LvFAS...
November 26, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903232/solution-structure-and-expression-profile-of-an-insect-cytokine-manduca-sexta-stress-response-peptide-2
#14
Lynn Goss Schrag, Xiaolong Cao, Alvaro Ivan Herrera, Yang Wang, Haobo Jiang, Om Prakash
Manduca sexta stress response peptide-2 (SRP2) is predicted to be a 25-residue peptide (FGVKDGKCPSGRVRRLGICVPDDDY), which may function as an insect cytokine to regulate immune responses. Produced as an inactive precursor, endogenous proSRP2 is probably converted to active SRP2 by limited proteolysis in response to invading pathogens, along with prophenoloxidase and pro-Spätzle activation. In addition to immunity, SRP2 may control head morphogenesis or other developmental processes in the lepidopteran insect...
November 21, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902417/lantibiotics-produced-by-actinobacteria-and-their-potential-applications-a-review
#15
Karen Gomes, Rafael Silva Duarte, Maria do Carmo de Freire Bastos
The phylum Actinobacteria, which comprises a great variety of Gram-positive bacteria with a high G+C content in their genomes, is known for its large production of bioactive compounds, including those with antimicrobial activity. Among the antimicrobials, bacteriocins, ribosomally-synthesized peptides, represent an important arsenal of potential new drugs to face the increasing prevalence of resistance to antibiotics among microbial pathogens. The actinobacterial bacteriocins form a heterogeneous group of substances that is difficult to adapt to most proposed classification schemes...
November 22, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901075/membrane-core-specific-antimicrobial-action-of-cathelicidin-ll-37-peptide-switches-between-pore-and-nanofibre-formation
#16
Mahdi Shahmiri, Marta Enciso, Christopher G Adda, Brian J Smith, Matthew A Perugini, Adam Mechler
Membrane-disrupting antimicrobial peptides provide broad-spectrum defence against localized bacterial invasion in a range of hosts including humans. The most generally held consensus is that targeting to pathogens is based on interactions with the head groups of membrane lipids. Here we show that the action of LL-37, a human antimicrobial peptide switches the mode of action based on the structure of the alkyl chains, and not the head groups of the membrane forming lipids. We demonstrate that LL-37 exhibits two distinct interaction pathways: pore formation in bilayers of unsaturated phospholipids and membrane modulation with saturated phospholipids...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900840/peptoid-efficacy-against-polymicrobial-biofilms-determined-by-using-propidium-monoazide-modified-quantitative-pcr
#17
Yu Luo, Hannah L Bolt, Gabriela A Eggimann, Danny F McAuley, Ronan McMullan, Tanya Curran, Mei Zhou, Professor Colin A B Jahoda, Steven L Cobb, Fionnuala T Lundy
Biofilms containing Candida albicans are responsible for a wide variety of clinical infections. The protective effects of the biofilm matrix, the low metabolic activity of microorganisms within a biofilm and their high mutation rate, significantly enhance the resistance of biofilms to conventional antimicrobial treatments. Peptoids are peptide-mimics that share many features of host defence antimicrobial peptides but have increased resistance to proteases and therefore have better stability in vivo. The activity of a library of peptoids was tested against monospecies and polymicrobial bacterial/fungal biofilms...
November 7, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900727/antimicrobial-activity-and-stability-of-the-d-amino-acid-substituted-derivatives-of-antimicrobial-peptide-polybia-mpi
#18
Yanyan Zhao, Min Zhang, Shuai Qiu, Jiayi Wang, Jinxiu Peng, Ping Zhao, Ranran Zhu, Hailin Wang, Yuan Li, Kairong Wang, Wenjin Yan, Rui Wang
Antimicrobial peptide has the potential to be developed as new kind of antimicrobial agents with novel action mechanism. However, the susceptibility to protease is a drawback for potential peptides to be clinical used. D-amino acid substitution can be one way to increase the proteolytic stability of peptides. In the present study, we synthesized the D-lysines substituted analog (D-lys-MPI) and the D-enantiomer of polybia-MPI (D-MPI) to improve the proteolytic resistance of polybia-MPI. Our results showed that, the stability of its D-amino acid partially substituted analog D-lys-MPI was increased...
December 2016: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899793/bacterial-proteases-untapped-antimicrobial-drug-targets
#19
REVIEW
Elizabeth Culp, Gerard D Wright
Bacterial proteases are an extensive collection of enzymes that have vital roles in cell viability, stress response and pathogenicity. Although their perturbation clearly offers the potential for antimicrobial drug development, both as traditional antibiotics and anti-virulence drugs, they are not yet the target of any clinically used therapeutics. Here we describe the potential for and recent progress in the development of compounds targeting bacterial proteases with a focus on AAA+ family proteolytic complexes and signal peptidases (SPs)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898891/behavior-and-inflammation-of-the-rumen-and-cecum-in-holstein-bulls-fed-high-concentrate-diets-with-different-concentrate-presentation-forms-with-or-without-straw-supplementation
#20
M Devant, G B Penner, S Marti, B Quintana, F Fábregas, A Bach, A Arís
Twenty-four individually housed Holstein bulls (395 ± 7.3 kg BW and 252 ± 3.1 d age) were exposed to a 2 × 2 factorial design (meal vs. pellets; with vs. without straw) to evaluate the effect of concentrate form and provision of straw in finishing diets on behavior and expression of rumen and cecum epithelium genes related to inflammation and behavior. Concentrate and straw consumption were recorded monthly and behavior (self-grooming, social, oral nonnutritive, tongue rolling, eating, drinking, ruminating, and lying) was recorded every two weeks...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
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