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antimicrobial peptide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726740/cyclic-peptides-as-novel-therapeutic-microbicides-engineering-of-human-defensin-mimetics
#1
REVIEW
Annarita Falanga, Ersilia Nigro, Margherita Gabriella De Biasi, Aurora Daniele, Giancarlo Morelli, Stefania Galdiero, Olga Scudiero
Cyclic peptides are receiving significant attention thanks to their antimicrobial activity and high serum stability, which is useful to develop and design novel antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial peptides appear to be key components of innate defences against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Among the others, defensins possess a strong microbicidial activity. Defensins are cationic and amphipathic peptides with six cysteine residues connected by three disulfide bonds found in plants, insects, and mammals; they are divided in three families: α-, β-, and θ-defensins...
July 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726635/as-cath1-6-novel-cathelicidins-with-potent-antimicrobial-and-immunomodulatory-properties-from-alligator-sinensis-play-pivotal-roles-in-host-anti-microbial-immune-responses
#2
Yan Chen, Shasha Cai, Xue Qiao, Mali Wu, Zhilai Guo, Renping Wang, Yi-Qun Kuang, Haining Yu, Yipeng Wang
Crocodilians are regarded as possessing a powerful immune system. However, the composition and action of crocodilian immune system has remained unclear until now. Cathelicidins, the principal family of host defense peptides, play pivotal roles in vertebrate immune defense against microbial invasions. However, cathelicidins from crocodilians have not been extensively studied to date. In the present study, six novel cathelicidins (As-CATH1~6) were identified and characterized from the endangered Chinese Alligator ( Alligator sinensis )...
July 18, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725637/opportunistic-pathogen-porphyromonas-gingivalis-modulates-danger-signal-atp-mediated-antibacterial-nox2-pathways-in-primary-epithelial-cells
#3
JoAnn S Roberts, Kalina R Atanasova, Jungnam Lee, Gill Diamond, Jeff Deguzman, Chul Hee Choi, Özlem Yilmaz
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major opportunistic pathogen in the etiology of chronic periodontitis, successfully survives in human gingival epithelial cells (GECs). P. gingivalis abrogates the effects of a host danger molecule, extracellular ATP (eATP)/P2X7 signaling, such as the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the mitochondria and NADPH oxidases (NOX) from primary GECs. However, antimicrobial functions of ROS production are thoroughly investigated in myeloid-lineage immune cells and have not been well-understood in epithelial cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725398/phenological-asynchrony-between-host-plant-and-gypsy-moth-reduces-insect-gut-microbiota-and-susceptibility-to-bacillus-thuringiensis
#4
Vyacheslav V Martemyanov, Irina A Belousova, Sergey V Pavlushin, Ivan M Dubovskiy, Nikita I Ershov, Tatyana Y Alikina, Marsel R Kabilov, Victor V Glupov
The phenological synchrony between the emergence of overwintering herbivorous insects and the budding of host plants is considered a crucial factor in the population dynamics of herbivores. However, the mechanisms driving the interactions between the host plant, herbivores, and their pathogens are often obscure. In the current study, an artificially induced phenological asynchrony was used to investigate how the asynchrony between silver birch Betula pendula and gypsy moth Lymantria dispar affects the immunity of the insect to bacteria, its susceptibility to the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis, and the diversity in its midgut microbiota...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725299/role-of-streptococcus-mutans-two-component-systems-in-antimicrobial-peptide-resistance-in-the-oral-cavity
#5
REVIEW
Miki Kawada-Matsuo, Hitoshi Komatsuzawa
Approximately 100 trillion microorganisms exist in the oral cavity. For the commensal bacteria of the oral cavity, it is important to adapt to environmental stimuli, including human- or bacteria-derived antimicrobial agents. Recently, bacterial-specific signal transduction regulatory systems, called two-component systems (TCSs), which appear to be focused on sensing and adapting to the environment, were discovered. Streptococcus mutans is an oral commensal bacteria and is also known as a cariogenic bacteria...
August 2017: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724927/dual-functionality-nanobioconjugates-targeting-intracellular-bacteria-in-cancer-cells-with-enhanced-antimicrobial-activity
#6
Rohini Singh, Smita Patil, Neetu Singh, Shalini Gupta
Bacterial drug resistance has emerged as a serious global threat mandating the development of novel methodologies that allow facile modulation of antimicrobial action in a controlled fashion. Conjugating antibiotics to nanoparticles helps to meet this goal by increasing the drug's overall avidity, bioavailability and easier internalisation into mammalian cells, targeting bacteria that otherwise escape antibacterial action by host cell-localisation. We used polymyxin B sulfate (PMB) and sushi peptide as model drugs against Gram-negative bacteria and established their enhanced antimicrobial activity on Escherichia coli (E...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721833/role-of-nutrients-and-phyto-compounds-in-the-modulation-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#7
Steve Harakeh, Imran Khan, Saad B Almasaudi, Esam I Azhar, Soad Al-Jaouni, Aleksandra Niedzweicki
Antimicrobial resistance is quickly spreading and has become a major public health problem worldwide. If this issue is not resolved, it may cause a shift back to the pre-antibiotics era and infectious disease will again be a serious problem, especially in developing countries. Since the discovery of antibiotics, bacterial resistance has emerged, enabling certain bacteria to withstand antibiotic effects. The emergence of antibiotic resistance is fueled by excessive and improper use of antimicrobial agents, especially in developing countries...
July 18, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719861/stabilized-cationic-dipeptide-capped-gold-silver-nanohybrids-towards-enhanced-antibacterial-and-antifungal-efficacy
#8
Manish Bajaj, Satish K Pandey, Tamanna Nain, Surinder K Brar, Prabhjot Singh, Shivakanksha Singh, Nishima Wangoo, Rohit K Sharma
The nanoparticles of silver/gold and cationic peptides have been recognized as potent antimicrobials for long, but their combined effect has so far not been explored. The present study reports the green synthesis of short cationic dipeptide stabilized AuNPs/AgNPs based nanohybrid materials. It thoroughly investigates the effect of conjugation of short cationic peptides on the antimicrobial properties of metallic nanoparticles. In the context of the antimicrobial evaluation of synthesized nanoconjugates, it was observed that peptide capped AgNPs exhibited higher antimicrobial activity as compared to peptide capped AuNPs as well as native peptides and unconjugated metallic nanoparticles...
July 9, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717895/correlating-uptake-and-activity-of-proline-rich-antimicrobial-peptides-in-escherichia-coli
#9
Luzia Holfeld, Ralf Hoffmann, Daniel Knappe
Increasing death tolls accounted for by antimicrobial drug resistance demand novel antibiotic lead compounds. Among different promising candidate classes, proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) are very favorable due to their intracellular mechanism, i.e., binding to the 70S ribosome and DnaK, after active uptake relying on bacterial transporters like SbmA and MdtM. Studies on peptide internalization as the first step of their complex mode of action rely typically on fluorophore or radioactive labeling and quantification using microscopy, flow cytometry, or radioactivity...
July 17, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717237/fat-binding-capacity-and-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-both-determine-the-effect-of-wheat-bran-fractions-on-adiposity
#10
Francesco Suriano, Laure B Bindels, Joran Verspreet, Christophe M Courtin, Kristin Verbeke, Patrice D Cani, Audrey M Neyrinck, Nathalie M Delzenne
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of different wheat bran fractions on the gut microbiota and fat binding capacity to explain their differential effects on metabolic and inflammatory disorders induced by a western diet (WD) in mice. Wheat bran derived arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS), a crude fraction of wheat bran (WB), or the same wheat bran with reduced particle size (WBs) were added to the WD of mice for 8 weeks. AXOS shifted the gut microbiota composition, blunted Clostridium and Turicibacter genera and strongly promoted Bifidobacterium and Butyricicoccus genera, independently of changes in gut antimicrobial peptide expression...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716396/the-role-of-pilin-protein-of-xenorhabdus-nematophila-against-immune-defense-reactions-of-insects
#11
Reyhaneh Darsouei, Javad Karimi, Gary B Dunphy
Xenorhabdus nematophila is a symbiotic bacterium of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser). It produces several toxic proteins which interfere with the immune system of insects. The current study shows that purified pilin protein could be a virulence trait of X. nematophila. The fifth instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) was injected with purified pilin. Changes in the cellular defenses in terms of total haemocyte counts and granulocyte percentage and humoral factors including total protease, phospholipase A2, and phenoloxidase activities (humoral defense) as well as the expression of the three main antimicrobial peptides attacin, cecropin, and spodoptericin were measured at specific times...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715501/diversity-and-distribution-of-nuclease-bacteriocins-in-bacterial-genomes-revealed-using-hidden-markov-models
#12
Connor Sharp, James Bray, Nicholas G Housden, Martin C J Maiden, Colin Kleanthous
Bacteria exploit an arsenal of antimicrobial peptides and proteins to compete with each other. Three main competition systems have been described: type six secretion systems (T6SS); contact dependent inhibition (CDI); and bacteriocins. Unlike T6SS and CDI systems, bacteriocins do not require contact between bacteria but are diffusible toxins released into the environment. Identified almost a century ago, our understanding of bacteriocin distribution and prevalence in bacterial populations remains poor. In the case of protein bacteriocins, this is because of high levels of sequence diversity and difficulties in distinguishing their killing domains from those of other competition systems...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713774/epic-immune-battles-of-history-neutrophils-vs-staphylococcus-aureus
#13
REVIEW
Fermin E Guerra, Timothy R Borgogna, Delisha M Patel, Eli W Sward, Jovanka M Voyich
Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in human blood and the first line of defense after bacteria have breached the epithelial barriers. After migration to a site of infection, neutrophils engage and expose invading microorganisms to antimicrobial peptides and proteins, as well as reactive oxygen species, as part of their bactericidal arsenal. Ideally, neutrophils ingest bacteria to prevent damage to surrounding cells and tissues, kill invading microorganisms with antimicrobial mechanisms, undergo programmed cell death to minimize inflammation, and are cleared away by macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712894/antimicrobial-and-immunomodulatory-activity-of-host-defense-peptides-clavanins-and-ll-37-in-vitro-an-endodontic-perspective
#14
Stella Maris F Lima, Mirna S Freire, Ana Luisa O Gomes, Ana Paula C Cantuária, Flávia Rodrigues P Dutra, Beatriz S Magalhães, Maurício Gonçalves C Sousa, Ludovico Migliolo, Jeeser A Almeida, Octávio L Franco, Taia Maria B Rezende
Endodontic treatment is mainly based on root canal disinfection and its failure may be motivated by microbial resistance. Endodontic therapy can be benefitted by host defense peptides (HDPs), which are multifunctional molecules that act against persistent infection and inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory activity of several HDPs, namely clavanin A, clavanin A modified (MO) and LL-37, compared to intracanal medication Ca(OH)2. HDPs and Ca(OH)2 were evaluated by: (1) antimicrobial assays against Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis, (2) cytotoxicity assays and (3) cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, interleukin (IL)- 1α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 and nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW 264...
July 13, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712636/human-exoproteome-in-acute-apical-abscesses
#15
Cristiane F Alfenas, Tiago A O Mendes, Humberto J O Ramos, Fernanda P Bruckner, Henrique S Antunes, Isabela N Rôças, José F Siqueira, José C Provenzano
INTRODUCTION: An acute apical abscess is a severe response of the host to massive invasion of the periapical tissues by bacteria from infected root canals. Although many studies have investigated the microbiota involved in the process, information on the host factors released during abscess formation is scarce. The purpose of this study was to describe the human exoproteome in samples from acute apical abscesses. METHODS: Fourteen pus samples were obtained by aspiration from patients with an acute apical abscess...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712131/a-novel-antibacterial-peptide-derived-from-crocodylus-siamensis-hemoglobin-hydrolysate-induces-membrane-permeabilisation-causing-iron-dysregulation-oxidative-stress-and-bacterial-death
#16
J Lueangsakulthai, N Jangpromma, T Temsiripong, J E McKendrick, W Khunkitti, S E Maddocks, S Klaynongsruang
AIMS: A novel antibacterial peptide from Crocodylus siamensis hemoglobin hydrolysate (CHHs) was characterised for antimicrobial activity. METHODS AND RESULTS: CHHs was hydrolysed for 2 h (2h-CHH), 4 h (4h-CHH), 6 h (6h-CHH) and 8 h (8h-CHH). 8h-CHH showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at concentrations of 20, 20, 20 and 10 mg ml(-1) (w/v), respectively. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that 8h-CHH had bactericidal activity against E...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711715/novel-peptide-motifs-from-lysozyme-suppress-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-macrophages-by-antagonizing-toll-like-receptor-and-lps-scavenging-action
#17
Hisham R Ibrahim, Kosuke Hamasaki, Takeshi Miyata
Lysozyme is commonly found in spots where bacterial infections are most likely to enter the body. Earlier we found that lysozyme possesses five antimicrobial peptide motifs in its N-terminal region which can be generated by newborn pepsin. In this study, we explore the role of these peptides in the anti-inflammatory activity of lysozyme. The five peptides, helix1 (H1), helix2 (H2), H1 and H2 connected with a loop (HLH), H2 extended with either 2 β-strands (H2-S12) or 3 β-strands (H2-S13), were synthesized and examined for anti-inflammatory action...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710436/epithelial-derived-il-33-promotes-intestinal-tumorigenesis-in-apc-min-mice
#18
Zhengxiang He, Lili Chen, Fabricio O Souto, Claudia Canasto-Chibuque, Gerold Bongers, Madhura Deshpande, Noam Harpaz, Huaibin M Ko, Kevin Kelley, Glaucia C Furtado, Sergio A Lira
Increased expression of Interleukin (IL)-33 has been detected in intestinal samples of patients with ulcerative colitis, a condition associated with increased risk for colon cancer, but its role in the development of colorectal cancer has yet to be fully examined. Here, we investigated the role of epithelial expressed IL-33 during development of intestinal tumors. IL-33 expression was detected in epithelial cells in colorectal cancer specimens and in the Apc (Min/+) mice. To better understand the role of epithelial-derived IL-33 in the intestinal tumorigenesis, we generated transgenic mice expressing IL-33 in intestinal epithelial cells (V33 mice)...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710255/cathelicidins-inhibit-escherichia-coli-induced-tlr2-and-tlr4-activation-in-a-viability-dependent-manner
#19
Maarten Coorens, Viktoria A F Schneider, A Marit de Groot, Albert van Dijk, Marjolein Meijerink, Jerry M Wells, Maaike R Scheenstra, Edwin J A Veldhuizen, Henk P Haagsman
Activation of the immune system needs to be tightly regulated to provide protection against infections and, at the same time, to prevent excessive inflammation to limit collateral damage to the host. This tight regulation includes regulating the activation of TLRs, which are key players in the recognition of invading microbes. A group of short cationic antimicrobial peptides, called cathelicidins, have previously been shown to modulate TLR activation by synthetic or purified TLR ligands and may play an important role in the regulation of inflammation during infections...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709869/protective-effect-of-bacillopeptidase-cfr5-from-bacillus-subtilis-cfr5-on-cerulein-induced-pancreatitis
#20
G R Sharmila, G Venkateswaran
Bacillopeptidase is a serine peptidase, known for its fibrinolytic activity. However, a very little information is known about its in vivo inflammatory and/or anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, to understand whether bacillopeptidase incorporation can regulate pancreatitis or not, the cerulein-induced pancreatitis model was used, and the role of bacillopeptidase on pancreatitis was studied. In this study, 46 kDa protein was purified from Bacillus subtilis and identified as bacillopeptidase CFR5 (BPC) through MS/MS analysis...
July 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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