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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346365/an-amylase-like-protein-amyd-is-the-major-negative-regulator-for-%C3%AE-glucan-synthesis-in-aspergillus-nidulans-during-the-asexual-life-cycle
#1
Xiaoxiao He, Shengnan Li, Susan Kaminskyj
α-Glucan affects fungal cell-cell interactions and is important for the virulence of pathogenic fungi. Interfering with production of α-glucan could help to prevent fungal infection. In our previous study, we reported that an amylase-like protein, AmyD, could repress α-glucan accumulation in Aspergillus nidulans. However, the underlying molecular mechanism was not clear. Here, we examined the localization of AmyD and found it was a membrane-associated protein. We studied AmyD function in α-glucan degradation, as well as with other predicted amylase-like proteins and three annotated α-glucanases...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343034/bioactivities-of-achillea-phrygia-and-bupleurum-croceum-based-on-the-composition-of-phenolic-compounds-in-vitro-and-in-silico-approaches
#2
Gokhan Zengin, Gizem Bulut, Adriano Mollica, Mehmet Zeki Haznedaroglu, Ahmet Dogan, Abdurrahman Aktumsek
This study presents the effects of the Achillea phrygia Boiss. et Bal. and Bupleurum croceum Fenzl. extracts obtained by different solvents (ethyl acetate, methanol and water) on selected enzyme inhibitory effects and antioxidant ability with screening bioactive compounds. Total and individual bioactive compounds were detected by spectrophotometric and HPLC-DAD techniques. Antioxidant abilities were evaluated by different methods including free radical scavenging (ABTS and DPPH), reducing power (CUPRAC and FRAP), phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating...
March 22, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343030/diagnostic-and-therapeutic-role-of-endoscopic-retrograde-pancreatography-in-the-management-of-traumatic-pancreatic-duct-injury-patients-single-center-experience-for-34-years
#3
Seongyup Kim, Jae Woo Kim, Pil Young Jung, Hye Youn Kwon, Hongjin Shim, Ji Young Jang, Keum Seok Bae
BACKGROUND: Traumatic pancreatic injuries are rare and present diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. We evaluated the usefulness of endoscopic retrograde pancreatography and transpapillary pancreatic stent in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic trauma patients. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 83 pancreas trauma patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde pancreatography for the suspicion of pancreas duct injury between January 1983 and December 2016...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342598/effect-of-undigested-neutral-detergent-fiber-content-of-alfalfa-hay-on-lactating-dairy-cows-feeding-behavior-fiber-digestibility-and-lactation-performance
#4
M Fustini, A Palmonari, G Canestrari, E Bonfante, L Mammi, M T Pacchioli, G C J Sniffen, R J Grant, K W Cotanch, A Formigoni
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 alfalfa hays differing in undigested neutral detergent fiber content and digestibility used as the main forage source in diets fed to high producing cows for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production. Diets were designed to have 2 different amounts of undigestible NDF [high (Hu) and low (Lu)], as determined by 240-h in vitro analysis (uNDF240). Alfalfa hay in vitro digestibility [% of amylase- and sodium sulfite-treated NDF with ash correction (aNDFom)] at 24 and 240 h was 40...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341245/in-vitro-anti-diabetic-activity-of-flavonoids-and-pheophytins-from-allophylus-cominia-sw-on-ptp1b-dppiv-alpha-glucosidase-and-alpha-amylase-enzymes
#5
D G Semaan, J O Igoli, L Young, E Marrero, A I Gray, E G Rowan
BACKGROUND: Ethno-botanical information from diabetic patients in Cuba led to the identification of Allophylus cominia as a possible source of new drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2-DM). EXPERIMENTAL: Chemical characterization of the extracts from A. cominia was carried out using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The extracts were tested for their activity on PTP1B, DPPIV, α-glucosidase enzymes and α-amylase. RESULTS: The flavonoid rich fractions from A...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341177/changes-in-physicochemical-properties-and-in-vitro-starch-digestion-of-native-and-extruded-maize-flours-subjected-to-branching-enzyme-and-maltogenic-%C3%AE-amylase-treatment
#6
Laura Román, Mario M Martínez, Cristina M Rosell, Manuel Gómez
Extrusion is an increasingly used type of processing which combined with enzymatic action could open extended possibilities for obtaining clean label modified flours. In this study, native and extruded maize flours were modified using branching enzyme (B) and a combination of branching enzyme and maltogenic α-amylase (BMA) in order to modulate their hydrolysis properties. The microstructure, pasting properties, in vitro starch hydrolysis and resistant starch content of the flours were investigated. Whereas BMA treatment led to greater number of holes on the granule surface in native samples, B and BMA extruded samples showed rougher surfaces with cavities...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340387/an-exploration-of-the-effect-and-interaction-mechanism-of-bisphenol-a-on-waste-sludge-hydrolysis-with-multi-spectra-isothermal-titration-microcalorimetry-and-molecule-docking
#7
Guangying Hou, Rui Zhang, Xiaoyan Hao, Chunguang Liu
An increasing amount of bisphenol A (BPA) is being produced and used, then discharged into sewage treatment plants and accumulated in sludge or soil, when the sludge is used as fertilizer. Accumulation of BPA in sludge or soil causes poisoning to the enzyme, which affects the biological treatment of sludge and the circulation and conversion of materials in soil. In this research, effect of BPA on sludge hydrolysis is studied from the respect of concentration and components of soluble organic matter in sludge, using three-dimensional fluorescence spectra...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339824/a-phase-i-trial-of-the-mek-inhibitor-selumetinib-azd6244-in-pediatric-patients-with-recurrent-or-refractory-low-grade-glioma-a-pediatric-brain-tumor-consortium-pbtc-study
#8
Anuradha Banerjee, Regina I Jakacki, Arzu Onar-Thomas, Shengjie Wu, Theodore Nicolaides, Tina Young Poussaint, Jason Fangusaro, Joanna Phillips, Arie Perry, David Turner, Michael Prados, Roger J Packer, Ibrahim Qaddoumi, Sridharan Gururangan, Ian F Pollack, Stewart Goldman, Lawrence A Doyle, Clinton F Stewart, James M Boyett, Larry E Kun, Maryam Fouladi
Background.: Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is important for growth of pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs). The aim of this study was to determine the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) and the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of the MEK inhibitor selumetinib in children with progressive LGG. Methods.: Selumetinib was administered orally starting at 33 mg/m2/dose b.i.d., using the modified continual reassessment method. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed during the first course...
February 28, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339688/an-activity-staining-method-on-filtration-paper-enables-high-throughput-screening-of-temperature-sensitive-and-inactive-mutations-of-rice-%C3%AE-amylase-for-improvement-of-rice-grain-quality
#9
Hiromoto Yamakawa, Rieko Hirai-Kimura, Yuriko Nakata, Masaru Nakata, Masaharu Kuroda, Takeshi Yamaguchi
α-Amylase is a starch-hydrolyzing enzyme (EC 3.2.1.1) indispensable for germination of cereal seeds, but it is also expressed during the ripening stage. Previous studies demonstrated that the enzyme is activated in developing rice seeds under extremely hot weather and triggers a loss of grain quality by hindering the accumulation of storage starch in the endosperm. Since inactive or, preferably, heat-labile α-amylases are preferable for breeding premium rice, we developed a method for rapid screening of inactive and temperature-sensitive mutants of the enzyme by combining the random mutagenesis by error-prone PCR and an on-filter activity test of the recombinant enzyme expressed by Escherichia coli...
February 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337878/salivary-cortisol-alpha-amylase-and-immunoglobulin-a-responses-to-a-morning-session-of-basketball-or-volleyball-training-in-boys-aged-14-18-years
#10
A Bruzda-Zwiech, M Konieczka, A Hilt, M Daszkowska, J Grzegorczyk, J Szczepańska
This study investigates whether a single session of routine morning basketball or volleyball training affects saliva levels of cortisol, alpha-amylase (sAA) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in boys aged 14–18 years. Twenty-nine boys who participate in basketball or volleyball training, recruited from the Marcin Gortat’s Athletic Championship School in Lodz, were enrolled in the study. The 90-minute routine exercise program included 15 minutes of warm-up followed by basketball or volleyball practice. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected prior to and immediately after the exercise, and were analysed using ELISA...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336764/anti-hyperglycemic-activity-of-moringa-oleifera-is-partly-mediated-by-carbohydrase-inhibition-and-glucose-fiber-binding
#11
Sohel Bin Azad, Prawej Ansari, Shermin Akter, Saad Mosharraf Hossain, Shofiul Azam, Fahima Faroque Archi, Mahmudul Hasan, Jma Hannan
Background:Moringa oleifera has potential anti-hyperglycemic effects that is reported earlier by different scientific group using animal diabetic models. We aimed to explore the possible mechanism of action of M. oleifera extract through different method. Methods : Primarily we measured Fasting Blood Glucose and performed Glucose Tolerance Test, in type 2 diabetic rats. Further we studied the effect of extracts on pancreatic insulin concentration. Extracts effect on carbohydrate break down was assayed using α-amylase inhibition assays and assay of GI tracts six different segments...
March 23, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336238/hydropneumothorax-due-to-esophageal-rupture
#12
Joseph R Shiber, Emily Fontane, Jin H Ra, Andrew J Kerwin
BACKGROUND: A brief review of the historical aspects of esophageal rupture is presented along with a case and current recommendations for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. CASE REPORT: A 97-year-old woman complained of acute dyspnea without prior vomiting. Chest x-ray study showed a large right pneumothorax with associated effusion. A thoracostomy tube was placed with return of > 1 L turbid fluid with polymicrobial culture and elevated pleural fluid amylase level...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333091/marine-peptides-as-potential-agents-for-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-prospect
#13
REVIEW
En-Qin Xia, Shan-Shan Zhu, Min-Jing He, Fei Luo, Cheng-Zhan Fu, Tang-Bin Zou
An increasing prevalence of diabetes is known as a main risk for human health in the last future worldwide. There is limited evidence on the potential management of type 2 diabetes mellitus using bioactive peptides from marine organisms, besides from milk and beans. We summarized here recent advances in our understanding of the regulation of glucose metabolism using bioactive peptides from natural proteins, including regulation of insulin-regulated glucose metabolism, such as protection and reparation of pancreatic β-cells, enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and influencing the sensitivity of insulin and the signaling pathways, and inhibition of bioactive peptides to dipeptidyl peptidase IV, α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities...
March 23, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332853/correlations-between-lp-pla2-gene-polymorphisms-and-susceptibility-and-severity-of-acute-pancreatitis-in-a-chinese-population
#14
Min Ma, Chun-Xia Zhai, Cai-Xia Sun
OBJECTIVE: This case-control study explored correlations between LP-PLA2 gene polymorphisms (A379V, V279F, and R92H) and susceptibility and severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) in a Chinese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From October 2013 to October 2015, 94 AP patients were chosen as the case group. According to the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score standard, AP patients were divided into a mild AP (MAP) group (n = 46) and severe AP (SAP) group (n = 48)...
March 23, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330225/metagenomics-analysis-of-microbial-communities-associated-with-a-traditional-rice-wine-starter-culture-xaj-pitha-of-assam-india
#15
Sudipta Sankar Bora, Jyotshna Keot, Saurav Das, Kishore Sarma, Madhumita Barooah
This is the first report on the microbial diversity of xaj-pitha, a rice wine fermentation starter culture through a metagenomics approach involving Illumine-based whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing method. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from rice wine starter culture concocted by Ahom community of Assam and analyzed using a MiSeq(®) System. A total of 2,78,231 contigs, with an average read length of 640.13 bp, were obtained. Data obtained from the use of several taxonomic profiling tools were compared with previously reported microbial diversity studies through the culture-dependent and culture-independent method...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330224/transcriptome-wide-mining-suggests-conglomerate-of-genes-associated-with-tuberous-root-growth-and-development-in-aconitum-heterophyllum-wall
#16
Nikhil Malhotra, Hemant Sood, Rajinder Singh Chauhan
Tuberous roots of Aconitum heterophyllum constitute storage organ for secondary metabolites, however, molecular components contributing to their formation are not known. The transcriptomes of A. heterophyllum were analyzed to identify possible genes associated with tuberous root development by taking clues from genes implicated in other plant species. Out of 18 genes, eight genes encoding GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPase), SHAGGY, Expansin, RING-box protein 1 (RBX1), SRF receptor kinase (SRF), β-amylase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and Auxin responsive factor 2 (ARF2) showed higher transcript abundance in roots (13-171 folds) compared to shoots...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325335/an-advance-for-removing-antinutritional-protease-inhibitors-soybean-whey-purification-of-bowman-birk-chymotrypsin-inhibitor-by-combination-of-two-oppositely-charged-polysaccharides
#17
Xingfei Li, Yufei Hua, Yeming Chen, Xiangzhen Kong, Caimeng Zhang, Xiaobin Yu
Two successive and selective coacervations induced by chitosan (Ch) and carrageenan (CG) were applied to remove antinutritional protease inhibitors and purify Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (BBI) from soybean whey. At the first coacervation induced by Ch (66.7, 200, and 510kDa), only Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) and BBI complexed with Ch were extracted, while β-amylase and soybean agglutinin remained in supernatant. The binding constants for the interaction increased on the order Ch-66.7<Ch-200<Ch-510...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325312/structural-and-enzyme-kinetic-studies-of-retrograded-starch-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-amylase-and-consequences-for-intestinal-digestion-of-starch
#18
Hamung Patel, Paul G Royall, Simon Gaisford, Gareth R Williams, Cathrina H Edwards, Frederick J Warren, Bernadine M Flanagan, Peter R Ellis, Peter J Butterworth
Retrograded starch is known to be resistant to digestion. We used enzyme kinetic experiments to examine how retrogradation of starch affects amylolysis catalysed by porcine pancreatic amylase. Parallel studies employing differential scanning calorimetry, infra red spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and NMR spectroscopy were performed to monitor changes in supramolecular structure of gelatinised starch as it becomes retrograded. The total digestible starch and the catalytic efficiency of amylase were both decreased with increasing evidence of retrogradation...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324703/arousal-amplifies-biased-competition-between-high-and-low-priority-memories-more-in-women-than-in-men-the-role-of-elevated-noradrenergic-activity
#19
David Clewett, Michiko Sakaki, Ringo Huang, Shawn E Nielsen, Mara Mather
Recent findings indicate that emotional arousal can enhance memory consolidation of goal-relevant stimuli while impairing it for irrelevant stimuli. According to one recent model, these goal-dependent memory tradeoffs are driven by arousal-induced release of norepinephrine (NE), which amplifies neural gain in target sensory and memory processing brain regions. Past work also shows that ovarian hormones modulate activity in the same regions thought to support NE's effects on memory, such as the amygdala, suggesting that men and women may be differentially susceptible to arousal's dual effects on episodic memory...
February 24, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323908/effects-of-protease-and-non-starch-polysaccharide-enzyme-on-performance-digestive-function-activity-and-gene-expression-of-endogenous-enzyme-of-broilers
#20
Lin Yuan, Mingfa Wang, Xiaotu Zhang, Zhixiang Wang
Three hundred one-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross-308) were fed corn-soybean basal diets containing non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) enzyme and different levels of acid protease from 1 to 42 days of age to investigate the effects of exogenous enzymes on growth performance, digestive function, activity of endogenous digestive enzymes in the pancreas and mRNA expression of pancreatic digestive enzymes. For days 1-42, compared to the control chickens, average daily feed intake (ADFI) and average daily gain (ADG) were significantly enhanced by the addition of NSP enzyme in combination with protease supplementation at 40 or 80 mg/kg (p<0...
2017: PloS One
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