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Reticular formation disorders

Soufiane Boucetta, Ali Salimi, Mahsa Dadar, Barbara E Jones, D Louis Collins, Thien Thanh Dang-Vu
Characterized by dream-enactment motor manifestations arising from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is frequently encountered in Parkinson's disease (PD). Yet the specific neurostructural changes associated with RBD in PD patients remain to be revealed by neuroimaging. Here we identified such neurostructural alterations by comparing large samples of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in 69 PD patients with probable RBD, 240 patients without RBD and 138 healthy controls, using deformation-based morphometry (p < 0...
2016: Scientific Reports
Meral E Kızıltan, Ayşegül Gündüz, Tülin Coşkun, Şakir Delil, Nevin Pazarcı, Çiğdem Özkara, Naz Yeni
Cortical reflex myoclonus is a typical feature of progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME) in which it is accompanied by other types of mostly drug-resistant seizures and progressive neurological signs. Although PME is characterized by cortical hyperexcitability, studies have demonstrated atrophy and degenerative changes in the brainstem in various types of PME. Thus, we have questioned whether any stimuli may trigger a hyperactive response of brainstem reticular formation in PME and investigated the startle reflex in individuals with PME...
May 11, 2016: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Laurent Goetz, Brigitte Piallat, Manik Bhattacharjee, Hervé Mathieu, Olivier David, Stéphan Chabardès
UNLABELLED: The mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF) is formed by the pedunculopontine and cuneiform nuclei, two neuronal structures thought to be key elements in the supraspinal control of locomotion, muscle tone, waking, and REM sleep. The role of MRF has also been advocated in modulation of state of arousal leading to transition from wakefulness to sleep and it is further considered to be a main player in the pathophysiology of gait disorders seen in Parkinson's disease. However, the existence of a mesencephalic locomotor region and of an arousal center has not yet been demonstrated in primates...
May 4, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Camila França Campos, Silvia Dantas Cangussú, Ana Luiza Cassin Duz, Christiane Teixeira Cartelle, Maria de Lourdes Noviello, Vanja Maria Veloso, Maria Terezinha Bahia, Camila Megale Almeida-Leite, Rosa Maria Esteves Arantes
We developed a novel murine model of long-term infection with Trypanosoma cruzi with the aim to elucidate the pathogenesis of megacolon and the associated adaptive and neuromuscular intestinal disorders. Our intent was to produce a chronic stage of the disease since the early treatment should avoid 100% mortality of untreated animals at acute phase. Treatment allowed animals to be kept infected and alive in order to develop the chronic phase of infection with low parasitism as in human disease. A group of Swiss mice was infected with the Y strain of T...
2016: PloS One
Peter J Waller, Felipe Gándara, Omar M Yaghi
Linking organic molecules by covalent bonds into extended solids typically generates amorphous, disordered materials. The ability to develop strategies for obtaining crystals of such solids is of interest because it opens the way for precise control of the geometry and functionality of the extended structure, and the stereochemical orientation of its constituents. Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a new class of porous covalent organic structures whose backbone is composed entirely of light elements (B, C, N, O, Si) that represent a successful demonstration of how crystalline materials of covalent solids can be achieved...
December 15, 2015: Accounts of Chemical Research
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
Precise evaluation of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) is important for diagnosis, prediction of prognosis, and management of patients with disorders of impaired consciousness. In the current study, we attempted to reconstruct the direct neural pathway between the brainstem reticular formation (RF) and the cerebral cortex in normal subjects, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty-one healthy subjects were recruited for this study. DTIs were performed using a sensitivity-encoding head coil at 1...
October 8, 2015: Neuroscience Letters
W Michael Panneton, Qi Gan, Michael Ariel
Although musculoskeletal pain disorders are common clinically, the central processing of muscle pain is little understood. The present study reports on central neurons activated by injections of algesic solutions into the gastrocnemius muscle of the rat, and their subsequent localization by c-Fos immunohistochemistry in the spinal cord and brainstem. An injection (300 μl) of an algesic solution (6% hypertonic saline, pH 4.0 acetate buffer, or 0.05% capsaicin) was made into the gastrocnemius muscle and the distribution of immunolabeled neurons compared to that obtained after control injections of phosphate buffered saline [pH 7...
2015: PloS One
Carl L Faingold, Hal Blumenfeld
Improved therapy of brain disorders can be achieved by focusing on neuronal networks, utilizing combined pharmacological and stimulation paradigms guided by neuroimaging. Neuronal networks that mediate normal brain functions, such as hearing, interact with other networks, which is important but commonly neglected. Network interaction changes often underlie brain disorders, including epilepsy. "Conditional multireceptive" (CMR) brain areas (e.g., brainstem reticular formation and amygdala) are critical in mediating neuroplastic changes that facilitate network interactions...
October 2015: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Tülin Coşkun, Meral Kiziltan, Ayşegül Gündüz, Şakir Delil, Naz Yeni, Çiğdem Özkara
PURPOSE: Progressive myoclonic epilepsies (PME) include a heterogeneous group of disorders. The brainstem is involved in these disorders, as demonstrated by neuroimaging and autopsy studies. The blink reflex (BR) is characteristically elicited after supraorbital electrical stimulation. The BR has two components, an ipsilateral R1 and bilateral R2 (R2 and R2c). The central generator of the BR is the brainstem. In this study, we aimed to investigate the functional status of the brainstem using the BR in PME cases with different etiological factors...
July 2015: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Mark M G Walton, Michael J Mustari
Strabismus is a common disorder, characterized by a chronic misalignment of the eyes and numerous visual and oculomotor abnormalities. For example, saccades are often highly disconjugate. For humans with pattern strabismus, the horizontal and vertical disconjugacies vary with eye position. In monkeys, manipulations that disturb binocular vision during the first several weeks of life result in a chronic strabismus with characteristics that closely match those in human patients. Early onset strabismus is associated with altered binocular sensitivity of neurons in visual cortex...
August 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
Yu-Chen Chen, Xiaowei Li, Lijie Liu, Jian Wang, Chun-Qiang Lu, Ming Yang, Yun Jiao, Feng-Chao Zang, Kelly Radziwon, Guang-Di Chen, Wei Sun, Vijaya Prakash Krishnan Muthaiah, Richard Salvi, Gao-Jun Teng
Hearing loss often triggers an inescapable buzz (tinnitus) and causes everyday sounds to become intolerably loud (hyperacusis), but exactly where and how this occurs in the brain is unknown. To identify the neural substrate for these debilitating disorders, we induced both tinnitus and hyperacusis with an ototoxic drug (salicylate) and used behavioral, electrophysiological, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques to identify the tinnitus-hyperacusis network. Salicylate depressed the neural output of the cochlea, but vigorously amplified sound-evoked neural responses in the amygdala, medial geniculate, and auditory cortex...
2015: ELife
Kun Wang, Tianyu Miao, Wenxin Lu, Jinzhi He, Bomiao Cui, Jiyao Li, Yan Li, Liying Xiao
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of oral mucosa of unknown cause. Microbial infection and dysimmunity appear to play important roles in its pathogenesis. In this study, differences in genetic profiling of salivary microbial communities in two subtypes of OLP and healthy controls were evaluated by means of PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Additionally, ELISA was used to investigate the possible role of Th17 in lesion formation by detecting two related cytokines IL-17 and IL-23 in the saliva of OLP patients...
March 2015: Microbiology and Immunology
Joseph E Faust, Tanvi Desai, Avani Verma, Idil Ulengin, Tzu-Lin Sun, Tyler J Moss, Miguel A Betancourt-Solis, Huey W Huang, Tina Lee, James A McNew
Fusion of tubular membranes is required to form three-way junctions found in reticular subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum. The large GTPase Atlastin has recently been shown to drive endoplasmic reticulum membrane fusion and three-way junction formation. The mechanism of Atlastin-mediated membrane fusion is distinct from SNARE-mediated membrane fusion, and many details remain unclear. In particular, the role of the amphipathic C-terminal tail of Atlastin is still unknown. We found that a peptide corresponding to the Atlastin C-terminal tail binds to membranes as a parallel α helix, induces bilayer thinning, and increases acyl chain disorder...
February 20, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Duncan A A MacLaren, Tamara Markovic, Stewart D Clark
Sensorimotor gating is the state-dependent transfer of sensory information into a motor system. When this occurs at an early stage of the processing stream it enables stimuli to be filtered out or partially ignored, thereby reducing the demands placed on advanced systems. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) is the standard measure of sensorimotor gating. A brainstem-midbrain circuitry is widely viewed as mediating both PPI and ASR. In this circuitry, the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) integrates sensory input and cortico-basal ganglia output and, via presumed cholinergic signaling, inhibits ASR-generating neurons within the reticular formation...
November 2014: European Journal of Neuroscience
M Strupp, O Kremmyda, C Adamczyk, N Böttcher, C Muth, C W Yip, T Bremova
An impairment of eye movements, or nystagmus, is seen in many diseases of the central nervous system, in particular those affecting the brainstem and cerebellum, as well as in those of the vestibular system. The key to diagnosis is a systematic clinical examination of the different types of eye movements, including: eye position, range of eye movements, smooth pursuit, saccades, gaze-holding function and optokinetic nystagmus, as well as testing for the different types of nystagmus (e.g., central fixation nystagmus or peripheral vestibular nystagmus)...
September 2014: Journal of Neurology
R Coveñas, J González-Fuentes, E Rivas-Infante, M J Lagartos-Donate, S Cebada-Sánchez, M M Arroyo-Jiménez, R Insausti, P Marcos
Perinatal asphyxia and hypoxia are common causes of morbidity in neonates. Prenatal birth associated with hypoxemia often results in several disorders because of the lack of oxygen in the brain. Survival rates from perinatal hypoxia have improved, but appropriate treatments for recovery are still limited, with great impact on patients, their families, society in general and health systems. The aim of this work is to contribute to a better understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying the brainstem responses to hypoxia...
June 20, 2014: Neuroscience
R Akhavan-Sigari, M Abili, V Rohde, H Tezval
OBJECTIVE: To provide the first insights into the potential role of skull base chordoma, which causes brainstem compression in and around Barrington's nucleus and its effect on the micturition center. Chordoma is a rare malignant bone tumor that originates from the remnants of the embryonic notochord, which normally forms and dissolves during early fetal development. Although it is a slowly growing tumor, it displays local invasive growth. METHODS: Urodynamic testing of 22 symptomatic patients was performed...
April 2014: Urology
Ji-Hoon Suh, Dongkyu Kim, Hyemin Kim, David M Helfman, Jin-Ho Choi, Beom Hee Lee, Han-Wook Yoo, Yong-Mahn Han
Menkes disease (MD) is a copper-deficient neurodegenerative disorder that manifests severe neurologic symptoms such as seizures, lethargic states, and hypotonia. Menkes disease is due to a dysfunction of ATP7A, but the pathophysiology of neurologic manifestation is poorly understood during embryonic development. To understand the pathophysiology of neurologic symptoms, molecular and cellular phenotypes were investigated in Menkes disease-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (MD-iPSCs). MD-iPSCs were generated from fibroblasts of a Menkes disease patient...
February 14, 2014: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
M B Pavlova, N A Dyuzhikova, N V Shiryaeva, Yu N Savenko, A I Vaido
The effects of long-term mental and pain stress on H3Ser10 histone phosphorylation in neurons of the the sensorimotor corex and midbrain reticular formation were studied 24 h, 2 weeks, and 2 months after exposure of rats differing by the nervous system excitability. Rats with high excitability threshold exhibited higher basal level of H3Ser10 histone phosphorylation in the midbrain reticular formation neurons than rats with low excitability threshold. The sensorimotor cortical neurons of the two strains did not differ by this parameter...
July 2013: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
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