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Increasing life span

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526997/nafld-as-a-sexual-dimorphic-disease-role-of-gender-and-reproductive-status-in-the-development-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-inherent-cardiovascular-risk
#1
REVIEW
Stefano Ballestri, Fabio Nascimbeni, Enrica Baldelli, Alessandra Marrazzo, Dante Romagnoli, Amedeo Lonardo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spans steatosis through nonalcoholic steatohepatis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with striking systemic features and excess cardiovascular and liver-related mortality. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and multifactorial. Endocrine derangements are closely linked with dysmetabolic traits. For example, in animal and human studies, female sex is protected from dysmetabolism thanks to young individuals' ability to partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triacylglycerol, and to sex-specific browning of white adipose tissue...
May 19, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524126/-impact-of-sagittal-balance-parameters-on-life-quality-in-elderly-and-senile-patients-after-surgery-for-degenerative-lumbar-spine-stenosis
#2
V S Klimov, I I Vasilenko, A V Evsyukov, E V Amelina
INTRODUCTION: As the life span and proportion of people over 65 years increase, the incidence of degenerative lumbar spine stenosis grows proportionally. Various parameters of the spinopelvic relationships are used to predict surgical treatment outcomes in patients with degenerative spine diseases. There are no unified protocols for evaluation, in terms of the sagittal balance, of surgical treatment outcomes in elderly patients. PURPOSE: To study the impact of sagittal balance parameters on the life quality of elderly and senile patients after surgery for degenerative stenosis of the lumbar spine...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522532/higher-predation-risk-for-insect-prey-at-low-latitudes-and-elevations
#3
Tomas Roslin, Bess Hardwick, Vojtech Novotny, William K Petry, Nigel R Andrew, Ashley Asmus, Isabel C Barrio, Yves Basset, Andrea Larissa Boesing, Timothy C Bonebrake, Erin K Cameron, Wesley Dáttilo, David A Donoso, Pavel Drozd, Claudia L Gray, David S Hik, Sarah J Hill, Tapani Hopkins, Shuyin Huang, Bonny Koane, Benita Laird-Hopkins, Liisa Laukkanen, Owen T Lewis, Sol Milne, Isaiah Mwesige, Akihiro Nakamura, Colleen S Nell, Elizabeth Nichols, Alena Prokurat, Katerina Sam, Niels M Schmidt, Alison Slade, Victor Slade, Alžběta Suchanková, Tiit Teder, Saskya van Nouhuys, Vigdis Vandvik, Anita Weissflog, Vital Zhukovich, Eleanor M Slade
Biotic interactions underlie ecosystem structure and function, but predicting interaction outcomes is difficult. We tested the hypothesis that biotic interaction strength increases toward the equator, using a global experiment with model caterpillars to measure predation risk. Across an 11,660-kilometer latitudinal gradient spanning six continents, we found increasing predation toward the equator, with a parallel pattern of increasing predation toward lower elevations. Patterns across both latitude and elevation were driven by arthropod predators, with no systematic trend in attack rates by birds or mammals...
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520940/age-differences-in-self-continuity-converging-evidence-and-directions-for-future-research
#4
Corinna E Löckenhoff, Joshua L Rutt
Life-span development is inherently linked to the perception of time and associated temporal construals. Such concepts are multi-faceted in nature and have important practical implications in areas such as time management, financial planning, or medical choices. A large body of research has documented age-related limitations in global time horizons, but age differences in other aspects of temporal construal are comparatively poorly understood. The present article draws attention to developmental trajectories of self-continuity, defined as perceived associations of one's present self with past and future selves...
June 1, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515235/insulin-like-growth-factor-signaling-regulates-developmental-trajectory-associated-with-diapause-in-embryos-of-the-annual-killifish-austrofundulus-limnaeus
#5
S Cody Woll, Jason E Podrabsky
Annual killifishes exhibit a number of unique life history characters including the occurrence of embryonic diapause, unique cell movements associated with dispersion and subsequent reaggregation of the embryonic blastomeres, and a short post-embryonic life span. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling is known to play a role in the regulation of metabolic dormancy in a number of animals but has not been explored in annual killifishes. The abundance of IGF proteins during development, and the developmental effects of blocking IGF signaling by pharmacological inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF1R) were explored in embryos of the annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus Blocking of IGF signaling in embryos that would normally escape entrance into diapause resulted in a phenotype that was remarkably similar to embryos entering diapause...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511176/aging-and-the-inevitable-limit-to-human-life-span
#6
Jan Vijg, Eric Le Bourg
There is a long-lasting debate about a natural limit to human life span, and it has been argued that the maximum reported age at death, which has not increased for ca 25 years, fluctuates around 115 years, even if some persons live beyond this age. We argue that the close connection of species-specific longevity with life history strategies explains why human life span is limited and cannot reach the considerably longer life spans of several other species.
May 17, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509825/vascularized-pedicle-bone-grafting-from-the-cuboid-for-talar-osteonecrosis-results-of-a-novel-salvage-procedure
#7
James A Nunley, Kamran S Hamid
BACKGROUND: Osteonecrosis of the talar body represents a complex clinical challenge with treatment options currently limited to core decompression, vascularized and nonvascularized bone-grafting, total talar replacement, and hindfoot arthrodesis. Vascularized pedicle bone-grafting from the cuboid to the talus is a potential alternative to contemporary operative options for replacement of necrotic talar tissue with viable bone. We aimed to analyze functional and radiographic outcomes of vascularized pedicle bone-grafting from the cuboid for the treatment of talar osteonecrosis in a consecutive series of patients spanning a 12-year period...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508832/disease-characteristics-and-treatment-attributes-of-patients-admitted-to-the-oncology-ward-of-a-tertiary-care-government-hospital
#8
Virender Suhag, B S Sunita, Pankaj Vats, Arti Sarin, A K Singh, Mayuri Jain
BACKGROUND: The burden of oncology patients in the most developing countries including India has witnessed a steady, progressive, and significant upward trend attributed mainly to increased life span, availability of better imaging modalities, increased awareness, and lifestyle and environmental changes. The management of such patients in government setup often presents lots of challenges such as advanced stage of presentation, existence of medical comorbid conditions, scarcity of beds, and long multimodal treatment often complicated with therapy-induced toxicities...
January 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505478/dose-assessment-in-environmental-radiological-protection-state-of-the-art-and-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
Karolina Stark, José M Goméz-Ros, Jordi Vives I Batlle, Elisabeth Lindbo Hansen, Karine Beaugelin-Seiller, Lawrence A Kapustka, Michael D Wood, Clare Bradshaw, Almudena Real, Corynne McGuire, Thomas G Hinton
Exposure to radiation is a potential hazard to humans and the environment. The Fukushima accident reminded the world of the importance of a reliable risk management system that incorporates the dose received from radiation exposures. The dose to humans from exposure to radiation can be quantified using a well-defined system; its environmental equivalent, however, is still in a developmental state. Additionally, the results of several papers published over the last decade have been criticized because of poor dosimetry...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504536/a-signal-detection-analysis-of-eyewitness-identification-across-the-adult-lifespan
#10
Melissa F Colloff, Kimberley A Wade, John T Wixted, Elizabeth A Maylor
Middle-aged and older adults are frequently victims and witnesses of crime, but knowledge of how identification performance changes over the adult life span is sparse. The authors asked young (18-30 years), middle-aged (31-59 years), and older (60-95 years) adults (N = 2,670) to watch a video of a mock crime and to attempt to identify the culprit from a fair lineup (in which all of the lineup members matched the appearance of the suspect) or an unfair lineup (in which the suspect stood out). They also asked subjects to provide confidence ratings for their identification decisions...
May 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496186/an-ancient-selective-sweep-linked-to-reproductive-life-history-evolution-in-sockeye-salmon
#11
Andrew J Veale, Michael A Russello
Study of parallel (or convergent) phenotypic evolution can provide important insights into processes driving sympatric, ecologically-mediated divergence and speciation, as ecotype pairs may provide a biological replicate of the underlying signals and mechanisms. Here, we provide evidence for a selective sweep creating an island of divergence associated with reproductive behavior in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), identifying a series of linked single nucleotide polymorphisms across a ~22,733 basepair region spanning the leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 9 gene exhibiting signatures of divergent selection associated with stream- and shore-spawning in both anadromous and resident forms across their pan-Pacific distribution...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486590/activation-induced-autophagy-is-preserved-in-cd4-t-cells-in-familial-longevity
#12
Yotam Raz, Ignacio Guerrero-Ros, Andrea Maier, P Eline Slagboom, Gil Atzmon, Nir Barzilai, Fernando Macian
As with many other tissues and organs, the immune system is also affected by age. Immunosenescence is characterized by a decreased ability of immune cells to mount a productive response upon exposure to new antigens. Several studies have reported that members of families with exceptional longevity show improved immune function, which might contribute to the increased life- and health-span observed in those families. Autophagy is a catabolic process that delivers cytoplasmic material to the lysosomes for degradation...
May 9, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481235/survival-analysis-of-coal-workers-pneumoconiosis-cwp-patients-in-a-state-owned-mine-in-the-east-of-china-from-1963-to-2014
#13
Lei Han, Qianqian Gao, Jingjin Yang, Qiuyun Wu, Baoli Zhu, Hengdong Zhang, Bangmei Ding, Chunhui Ni
To investigate the mortality probability, life expectancy of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), and related factors of life expectancy, a total of 495 patients with CWP were diagnosed and reported from 1963 to 2014 in a state-owned mine in the east of China. The life table method, log rank method, and Cox regression model were used for survival analysis. 95 out of 495 CWP died during this period. The mortality rate was 19.19%. The average life span was 12.1 (0.0-33.2) years and average death age was 57.4 (33...
May 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478952/antioxidant-cytotoxic-and-antineoplastic-effects-of-carissa-carandas-linn-leaves
#14
Marina Khatun, M Rowshanul Habib, M Ahasanur Rabbi, Ruhul Amin, M Farhadul Islam, M Nurujjaman, M Rezaul Karim, M Habibur Rahman
For scientific clarification of some traditional uses, this study was designed to explore the antioxidant, cytotoxic and antineoplastic properties of leaf extract of Carissa carandas Linn., a traditional medicinal plant of Bangladesh. The methanol extract of Carissa carandas leaves (MELC) was applied on DPPH and ABTS experiments to determine its antioxidant activity. In vitro the cytotoxic effect of MELC was evaluated against colonic adenocarcinoma cell lines (SW-480 and SW-48) whereas in vivo its antineoplastic property was tested against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)...
May 3, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476618/identification-of-repaglinide-as-a-therapeutic-drug-for-glioblastoma-multiforme
#15
Zui Xuan Xiao, Ruo Qiao Chen, Dian Xing Hu, Xiao Qiang Xie, Shang Bin Yu, Xiao Qian Chen
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive brain tumor with a median survival time of only 14 months after treatment. It is urgent to find new therapeutic drugs that increase survival time of GBM patients. To achieve this goal, we screened differentially expressed genes between long-term and short-term survived GBM patients from Gene Expression Omnibus database and found gene expression signature for the long-term survived GBM patients. The signaling networks of all those differentially expressed genes converged to protein binding, extracellular matrix and tissue development as revealed in BiNGO and Cytoscape...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475902/longitudinal-associations-of-experiences-of-adversity-and-socioeconomic-disadvantage-during-childhood-with-labour-force-participation-and-exit-in-later-adulthood
#16
A E Fahy, S A Stansfeld, M Smuk, D Lain, M van der Horst, S Vickerstaff, C Clark
The Extending Working Lives (EWL) agenda seeks to sustain employment up to and beyond traditional retirement ages. This study examined the potential role of childhood factors in shaping labour force participation and exit among older adults, with a view to informing proactive interventions early in the life-course to enhance individuals' future capacity for extending their working lives. Childhood adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage have previously been linked to ill-health across the life-span and sickness benefit in early adulthood...
June 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472021/vital-signs-racial-disparities-in-age-specific-mortality-among-blacks-or-african-americans-united-states-1999-2015
#17
Timothy J Cunningham, Janet B Croft, Yong Liu, Hua Lu, Paul I Eke, Wayne H Giles
BACKGROUND: Although the overall life expectancy at birth has increased for both blacks and whites and the gap between these populations has narrowed, disparities in life expectancy and the leading causes of death for blacks compared with whites in the United States remain substantial. Understanding how factors that influence these disparities vary across the life span might enhance the targeting of appropriate interventions. METHODS: Trends during 1999-2015 in mortality rates for the leading causes of death were examined by black and white race and age group...
May 5, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471214/genetic-and-environmental-sources-of-individual-differences-in-views-on-aging
#18
Anna E Kornadt, Christian Kandler
Views on aging are central psychosocial variables in the aging process, but knowledge about their determinants is still fragmental. Thus, the authors investigated the degree to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in various domains of views on aging (wisdom, work, fitness, and family), and whether these variance components vary across ages. They analyzed data from 350 monozygotic and 322 dizygotic twin pairs from the Midlife Development in the U.S. (MIDUS) study, aged 25-74...
May 4, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470873/bmp9-induces-osteogenesis-and-adipogenesis-in-the-immortalized-human-cranial-suture-progenitors-from-the-patent-sutures-of-craniosynostosis-patients
#19
Dongzhe Song, Fugui Zhang, Russell R Reid, Jixing Ye, Qiang Wei, Junyi Liao, Yulong Zou, Jiaming Fan, Chao Ma, Xue Hu, Xiangyang Qu, Liqun Chen, Li Li, Yichun Yu, Xinyi Yu, Zhicai Zhang, Chen Zhao, Zongyue Zeng, Ruyi Zhang, Shujuan Yan, Tingting Wu, Xingye Wu, Yi Shu, Jiayan Lei, Yasha Li, Wenwen Zhang, Jia Wang, Michael J Lee, Jennifer Moriatis Wolf, Dingming Huang, Tong-Chuan He
The cranial suture complex is a heterogeneous tissue consisting of osteogenic progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow and suture mesenchyme. The fusion of cranial sutures is a highly coordinated and tightly regulated process during development. Craniosynostosis is a congenital malformation caused by premature fusion of cranial sutures. While the progenitor cells derived from the cranial suture complex should prove valuable for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying suture development and pathogenic premature suture fusion, primary human cranial suture progenitors (SuPs) have limited life span and gradually lose osteoblastic ability over passages...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470872/how-long-do-centenarians-survive-life-expectancy-and-maximum-life-span
#20
Karin Modig, Tomas Andersson, James Vaupel, Roland Rau, Anders Ahlbom
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore the pattern of mortality above the age of 100 years. In particular, we aimed to examine whether Scandinavian data support the theory that mortality reaches a plateau at particularly old ages. Whether the maximum length of life increases with time was also investigated. METHODS: The analyses were based on individual level data on all Swedish and Danish centenarians born from 1870 to 1901; in total 3006 men and 10 963 women were included...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
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