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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645856/the-impact-of-radiation-on-the-development-of-lung-cancer
#1
Lingling Li, Tianhai Tian, Xinan Zhang
Environment factors such as radiation play an important role in the incidence of lung cancer. In spite of substantial efforts in experimental study and mathematical modeling, it is still a significant challenge to estimate lung cancer risk from radiation. To address this issue, we propose a stochastic model to investigate the impact of radiation on the development of lung cancer. The proposed three-stage model with clonal expansion is used to match the data of the male and female patients in the Osaka Cancer Registry (OCR) and Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642880/longitudinal-patterns-of-stability-and-change-in-tenacious-goal-pursuit-and-flexible-goal-adjustment-among-older-people-over-a-9-year-period
#2
Guillaume Martinent, Nathalie Bailly, Claude Ferrand, Kamel Gana, Caroline Giraudeau, Michèle Joulain
Using the dual-process model of assimilative-tenacity (TGP) and accommodative-flexibility (FGA), the study aims to identify trajectories of TGP and FGA over five time points within a 9-year period, explore the relationships between the trajectories of TGP and FGA, and explore if participants from distinct TGP and FGA trajectories differed in indicators of well-being and depression. Latent class growth analysis was used in a five-wave longitudinal design among an older population of 747 participants over 65 years...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641361/maternal-alcohol-use-disorder-and-risk-of-child-contact-with-the-justice-system-in-western-australia-a-population-cohort-record-linkage-study
#3
Katherine Hafekost, David Lawrence, Colleen O'Leary, Carol Bower, James Semmens, Stephen R Zubrick
BACKGROUND: Early contact with the justice system is associated with a multitude of negative outcomes across the life course. This includes an increased risk of ongoing justice contact, social disadvantage and marginalization, and mental health and substance use issues. Children whose mothers have an alcohol use disorder may be at risk of early justice system contact, and we sought to quantify this relationship in a Western Australian cohort. METHODS: This population cohort study made use of linked administrative data...
June 22, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638409/differential-fasting-plasma-glucose-and-ketone-body-levels-in-ghrko-versus-3xtg-ad-mice-a-potential-contributor-to-aging-related-cognitive-status
#4
Chelsea M Griffith, Lauren N Macklin, Andrzej Bartke, Peter R Patrylo
Cognitive function declines with age and appears to correlate with decreased cerebral metabolic rate (CMR). Caloric restriction, an antiaging manipulation that extends life-span and can preserve cognitive function, is associated with decreased glucose uptake, decreased lactate levels, and increased ketone body (KB) levels in the brain. Since the majority of brain nutrients come from the periphery, this study examined whether the capacity to regulate peripheral glucose levels and KB production differs in animals with successful cognitive aging (growth hormone receptor knockouts, GHRKOs) versus unsuccessful cognitive aging (the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease)...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638339/nutritional-and-pharmacological-strategies-to-regulate-microglial-polarization-in-cognitive-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Emiliano Peña-Altamira, Sabrina Petralla, Francesca Massenzio, Marco Virgili, Maria L Bolognesi, Barbara Monti
The study of microglia, the immune cells of the brain, has experienced a renaissance after the discovery of microglia polarization. In fact, the concept that activated microglia can shift into the M1 pro-inflammatory or M2 neuroprotective phenotypes, depending on brain microenvironment, has completely changed the understanding of microglia in brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia polarization is particularly important in aging since an increased inflammatory status of body compartments, including the brain, has been reported in elderly people...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631809/anabolic-steroids-for-treating-pressure-ulcers
#6
REVIEW
Cho Naing, Maxine A Whittaker
BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers, also known as bed sores, pressure sores or decubitus ulcers develop as a result of a localised injury to the skin or underlying tissue, or both. The ulcers usually arise over a bony prominence, and are recognised as a common medical problem affecting people confined to a bed or wheelchair for long periods of time. Anabolic steroids are used as off-label drugs (drugs which are used without regulatory approval) and have been used as adjuvants to usual treatment with dressings, debridement, nutritional supplements, systemic antibiotics and antiseptics, which are considered to be supportive in healing of pressure ulcers...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630896/the-gh-receptor-exon-3-deletion-is-a-marker-of-male-specific-exceptional-longevity-associated-with-increased-gh-sensitivity-and-taller-stature
#7
Danny Ben-Avraham, Diddahally R Govindaraju, Temuri Budagov, Delphine Fradin, Peter Durda, Bing Liu, Sandy Ott, Danielle Gutman, Lital Sharvit, Robert Kaplan, Pierre Bougnères, Alex Reiner, Alan R Shuldiner, Pinchas Cohen, Nir Barzilai, Gil Atzmon
Although both growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling were shown to regulate life span in lower organisms, the role of GH signaling in human longevity remains unclear. Because a GH receptor exon 3 deletion (d3-GHR) appears to modulate GH sensitivity in humans, we hypothesized that this polymorphism could play a role in human longevity. We report a linear increased prevalence of d3-GHR homozygosity with age in four independent cohorts of long-lived individuals: 841 participants [567 of the Longevity Genes Project (LGP) (8% increase; P = 0...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624982/towards-ageing-well-use-it-or-lose-it-exercise-epigenetics-and-cognition
#8
Irene Maeve Rea
More and more people are living into the 90s or becoming centenarians. But, the gift of increased 'age span' seldom equates with an improved 'health-span'. Governments across the world are expressing concern about the epidemic of chronic disease, and have responded by initiating policies that make prevention, reduction and treatment of chronic disease, a public health priority. But understanding, how to age long and well, with the avoidance of chronic disease and later life complex disease morbidity is challenging...
June 17, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624821/on-the-social-life-and-motivational-changes-of-aging-monkeys
#9
Julia Fischer
Although nonhuman primates have been used in biomedical research to develop a better understanding of physiological aging processes, their value as models for studying age-related differences in motivation, cognition, and decision-making has only recently been appreciated. This paper reviews the state of the art, with a focus on a recent study on Barbary macaques. A number of studies reported that with increasing age, Old World monkeys spend more time resting, have fewer social partners, and/or spend less time in social interactions, though other studies found no such effects...
June 17, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623424/does-air-pollution-trigger-suicide-a-case-crossover-analysis-of-suicide-deaths-over-the-life-span
#10
Lidia Casas, Bianca Cox, Mariska Bauwelinck, Benoit Nemery, Patrick Deboosere, Tim Steve Nawrot
In addition to underlying health disorders and socio-economic or community factors, air pollution may trigger suicide mortality. This study evaluates the association between short-term variation in air pollution and 10 years of suicide mortality in Belgium. In a bidirectional time-stratified case-crossover design, 20,533 suicide deaths registered between January 1st 2002 and December 31st 2011 were matched by temperature with control days from the same month and year. We used municipality-level air pollution [particulate matter (PM10) and O3 concentrations] data and meteorology data...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620145/hepatic-stroma-educated-regulatory-dcs-suppress-cd8-t-cell-proliferation-in-mice
#11
Qian Wang, Hao He, Dongwei Chen, Chao Wang, Yingping Xu, Wengang Song
Liver dendritic cells (DCs) display immunosuppressive activities and inhibit the CD4+ T cell response. The present study assessed whether and how liver DCs suppress CD8+ T cells. We found that bone marrow-derived mature DCs incubated with liver stromal cells were characterized by a longer life span, reduced CD11c, IA/IE, CD80, CD86, and CD40 expression, and increased CD11b expression. These unique liver stromal cell-educated mature DCs (LSed-DCs) stimulated CD8+ T cells to express CD25 and CD69, but inhibited their proliferation...
June 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620011/dietary-restriction-but-not-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockade-improves-dna-damage-related-vasodilator-dysfunction%C3%A2-in-rapidly-aging-ercc1-%C3%AE-mice
#12
Haiyan Wu, Bibi S van Thiel, Paula Katherine Bautista-Nino, Erwin Reiling, Matej Durik, Frank P J Leijten, Yanto Ridwan, Renata M C Brandt, Harry van Steeg, Martijn E T Dollé, Wilbert P Vermeij, Jan H J Hoeijmakers, Jeroen Essers, Ingrid van der Pluijm, A H Jan Danser, Anton J M Roks
DNA damage is an important contributor to endothelial dysfunction and age-related vascular disease. Recently, we demonstrated in a DNA repair-deficient, prematurely aging mouse model ( Ercc1(∆/-) mice) that dietary restriction (DR) strongly increases life- and health span, including ameliorating endothelial dysfunction, by preserving genomic integrity. In this mouse mutant displaying prominent accelerated, age-dependent endothelial dysfunction we investigated the signaling pathways involved in improved endothelium-mediated vasodilation by DR, and explore the potential role of the renin-angiotensin system ...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616180/sustained-functional-composition-of-pollinators-in-restored-pastures-despite-slow-functional-restoration-of-plants
#13
Marie Winsa, Erik Öckinger, Riccardo Bommarco, Regina Lindborg, Stuart P M Roberts, Johanna Wärnsberg, Ignasi Bartomeus
Habitat restoration is a key measure to counteract negative impacts on biodiversity from habitat loss and fragmentation. To assess success in restoring not only biodiversity, but also functionality of communities, we should take into account the re-assembly of species trait composition across taxa. Attaining such functional restoration would depend on the landscape context, vegetation structure, and time since restoration. We assessed how trait composition of plant and pollinator (bee and hoverfly) communities differ between abandoned, restored (formerly abandoned) or continuously grazed (intact) semi-natural pastures...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614811/effects-of-dehydration-on-brain-functioning-a-life-span-perspective
#14
Nathalie Pross
BACKGROUND: In the last 10 years, there has been an increase in the publication of literature dealing with the effects of mild dehydration on cognition in healthy adults. Fewer studies, leading to less consistent data, involved other age groups. SUMMARY: In healthy young adults refraining from drinking or participating in dehydration protocols, it was found that mild dehydration had no impact on performance, whereas the mood was widely impaired. Several studies have also been conducted in young children either as observational studies or as interventional studies...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614778/the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv1-protease-inhibitor-sanquinavir-activates-autophagy-and-removes-lipids-deposited-in-lipid-droplets
#15
A Polus, M Bociaga-Jasik, U Czech, J Goralska, U Cialowicz, M Chojnacka, M Polus, K Jurowski, A Dembinska-Kiec
Reduction in mortality and increased average life span of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with the risk of unwanted effects, such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia with cardiovascular complications. Antiretroviral therapy may also be associated with lipodystrophy characterized as peripheral lipoatrophy with central fat accumulation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of lipodystrophy caused by ART is important for therapeutic strategy and the prediction of side-effects...
April 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607147/loss-of-the-clock-protein-per2-shortens-the-erythrocyte-life-span-in-mice
#16
Qi Sun, Yue Zhao, Yunxia Yang, Xiao Yang, Minghui Li, Xi Xu, Dan Weng, Junsong Wang, Jianfa Zhang
Cell proliferation and release from the bone marrow have been demonstrated to be controlled by circadian rhythms in both humans and mice. However, it is unclear whether local circadian clocks in the bone marrow influence physiological functions and life span of erythrocytes. Here, we report that loss of the clock gene Per2 significantly decreased erythrocyte life span. Mice deficient in Per2 were more susceptible to acute stresses in the erythrocytes, becoming severely anemic upon phenylhydrazine, osmotic, and H2O2 challenges...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600811/inducible-knockdown-of-pregnancy-associated-plasma-protein-a-gene-expression-in-adult-female-mice-extends-life-span
#17
Laurie K Bale, Sally A West, Cheryl A Conover
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) knockout (KO) mice, generated through homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells, have a significantly increased lifespan compared to wild-type littermates. However, it is unknown whether this longevity advantage would pertain to PAPP-A gene deletion in adult animals. In the present study, we used tamoxifen (Tam)-inducible Cre recombinase-mediated excision of the floxed PAPP-A (fPAPP-A) gene in mice at 5 months of age. fPAPP-A mice, which were either positive (pos) or negative (neg) for Tam-Cre, received Tam treatment with quarterly boosters...
June 9, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599251/trehalose-enhances-the-antitumor-potential-of-methotrexate-against-mice-bearing-ehrlich-ascites-carcinoma
#18
Mohammed A El-Magd, Abeer Khamis, Samah K Nasr Eldeen, Wafaa M Ibrahim, Afrah F Salama
Methotrexate (MTX) is commonly used as a standard chemotherapy for many cancers, however its usage required high doses thereby leading to severe adverse effects. In a trial to find a suitable neoadjuvant therapy to decrease MTX dosage without lowering its chemotherapeutic efficacy, we investigated the antitumor effect of trehalose (TRE) on mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and checked whether TRE can enhance the antitumor potential of MTX. Treatment with TRE induced anti-tumor effects against EAC as reveled by a remarkable decrease in body weight, tumor volume, count of viable tumor cells, expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2 as well as by a significant increase in mean survival time, life span and expression of the apoptotic gene caspase-3...
June 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596550/booster-immunizations-with-dna-plasmids-encoding-her-2-neu-prevent-spontaneous-mammary-cancer-in-her-2-neu-transgenic-mice-over-life-span
#19
Mauro Provinciali, Alessandra Barucca, Fiorenza Orlando, Elisa Pierpaoli
Cancer vaccines are less effective at old than at young age because of immunosenescence. Besides, in preliminary observations we showed that the immunization with HER-2/neu DNA plasmid in transgenic young mice (standard immunization, SI) delays but not abrogate spontaneous mammary tumours progressively appearing during aging. In this study we evaluated whether booster immunizations (BI) of HER-2/neu transgenic mice with HER-2/neu DNA plasmids every 6 (ECD6), 3 (ECD3), or 1.5 (ECD1.5) months after SI induce a protective immunity that could be maintained over life span...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586679/the-deep-sea-under-global-change
#20
Roberto Danovaro, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Antonio Dell'Anno, Paul V R Snelgrove
The deep ocean encompasses 95% of the oceans' volume and is the largest and least explored biome of Earth's Biosphere. New life forms are continuously being discovered. The physiological mechanisms allowing organisms to adapt to extreme conditions of the deep ocean (high pressures, from very low to very high temperatures, food shortage, lack of solar light) are still largely unknown. Some deep-sea species have very long life-spans, whereas others can tolerate toxic compounds at high concentrations; these characteristics offer an opportunity to explore the specialized biochemical and physiological mechanisms associated with these responses...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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