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Increasing life span

Yong Qing Lu, Yang Dai, Xiu Ying Yu, Fu-Lan Yu, Shou Lin Jiang, Zong Yuan Zhou, Fa Jun Chen
In recent years, the two issues of climate change including elevated CO2 etc., and resistance of transgenic Bt crops against non-target insect pests have received widespread attention. Elevated CO2 can affect the herbivorous insects. To date, there is no consensus about the effect of elevated CO2 on the suck-feeding insect pests (non-target insect pests of transgenic Bt crops). Its effects on the suck-feeding behavior have rarely been reported. In this study, CO2 levels were set up in artificial climate chamber to examined the effects of ambient (400 μL·L-1 ) and double-ambient (800 μL·L-1 ) CO2 levels on the suck-feeding behavior, growth, development, and reproduction of the non-target insect pest of transgenic Bt rice, brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Ying Gao, Carl Huber, Bernhard A Sabel
Purpose: To understand the effect of aging on microsaccade functions and brain physiologic responses, we quantified microsaccades and their physiologic correlates (including their interaction with alpha band brain oscillation) in normal subjects of different ages. Methods: Twenty-two normally sighted young (18 to 29 years), 22 middle-aged (31 to 55 years), and 22 elderly subjects (56 to 77 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Dense array EEG and high-resolution eye-tracking data were simultaneously recorded during a fixation task...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Yuli Wang, Raehyun Kim, Samuel S Hinman, Bailey Zwarycz, Scott T Magness, Nancy L Allbritton
The relationship between intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and the surrounding niche environment is complex and dynamic. Key factors localized at the base of the crypt are necessary to promote ISC self-renewal and proliferation, to ultimately provide a constant stream of differentiated cells to maintain the epithelial barrier. These factors diminish as epithelial cells divide, migrate away from the crypt base, differentiate into the postmitotic lineages, and end their life span in approximately 7 days when they are sloughed into the intestinal lumen...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Daniel A Martinez-Perez, Marlene Jimenez-Del-Rio, Carlos Velez-Pardo
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a polyhydroxyphenol constituent of green tea (e.g., Camellia sinensis) with known antioxidant properties. Due to these properties, others have proposed it as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previously, we demonstrated that EGCG prolonged the lifespan and locomotor activity in wild-type Canton-S flies exposed to the neurotoxicant paraquat (PQ), suggesting neuroprotective properties. Both gene mutations and environmental neurotoxicants (e...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Sandra M Florian
Research has shown that having children reduces women's employment; yet, how this effect differs for racial minorities has received less attention. Using random effects models and data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth ( N = 4,526), this study investigates the association between motherhood and employment among Whites, Hispanics, and Blacks over women's entire reproductive span. Results indicate that having children reduces labor force participation primarily by deterring full-time employment. This effect is stronger and lasts longer among Whites, smaller and shorter among Hispanics, and brief among Blacks...
February 2018: Journal of Marriage and the Family
Sankaranarayanan Kaliappan, Donald A Simone, Ratan K Banik
The under-reporting of pain and atypical manifestations of painful syndromes within the elderly population have been well-documented, however, the specific relationship between pain and aging remains ambiguous. Previous studies have reported degenerative changes in primary afferents with aging. In this study, we questioned whether there is any change in the density of primary afferent endings within the epidermis of aged animals. Rats were categorically assessed in four age groups, each representing a key developmental stage across their life span: juvenile (2 months); adult (7 months); aged (18 months); and senescent (24-26 months)...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Miroslava Rakocevic, Fabio Takeshi Matsunaga
Background and Aims: Dynamics in branch and leaf growth parameters, such as the phyllochron, duration of leaf expansion, leaf life span and bud mortality, determine tree architecture and canopy foliage distribution. We aimed to estimate leaf growth parameters in adult Arabica coffee plants based on leaf supporter axis order and position along the vertical profile, considering their modifications related to seasonal growth, air [CO2] and water availability. Methods: Growth and mortality of leaves and terminal buds of adult Arabica coffee trees were followed in two independent field experiments in two sub-tropical climate regions of Brazil, Londrina-PR (Cfa) and Jaguariúna-SP (Cwa)...
April 5, 2018: Annals of Botany
Deborah F Hellmann, Anja Stiller, Christoffer Glaubitz, Sören Kliem
Child maltreatment can severely impair children's emotional and physical well-being as well as their individual development across the life span. In 2011, the Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony (Germany), conducted a nationally representative victim survey on diverse forms of victimizations (N = 11,428). Among other things, experienced and exerted parental violence as well as participants' knowledge regarding the abolition of the parental right of corporal punishment were assessed. Apart from providing current estimates of the prevalence of experienced and exerted parental violence in Germany, we identified specific risk markers for the intergenerational transmission of parental violence...
March 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Alison L Miller, Julie C Lumeng
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to critically review the literature on early life stress in relation to obesity in humans, including the multiple biological and behavioral mechanisms through which early life stress exposure (birth to the age of 5 years) may associate with obesity risk during childhood. METHODS: A review of the literature was conducted to identify studies on associations between early childhood stress and risk for obesity and the mechanisms of association...
April 14, 2018: Obesity
Pankaj Kumar Singh, Akshay Nag, Preeti Arya, Ritu Kapoor, Akshay Singh, Rajdeep Jaswal, Tilak Raj Sharma
Rice is one of the important crops grown worldwide and is considered as an important crop for global food security. Rice is being affected by various fungal, bacterial and viral diseases resulting in huge yield losses every year. Deployment of resistance genes in various crops is one of the important methods of disease management. However, identification, cloning and characterization of disease resistance genes is a very tedious effort. To increase the life span of resistant cultivars, it is important to understand the molecular basis of plant host-pathogen interaction...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rui Liu, Ashleigh King, Philippe Bouillet, David M Tarlinton, Andreas Strasser, Jörg Heierhorst
The proapoptotic BH3-only protein BIM ( Bcl2l11 ) plays key roles in the maintenance of multiple hematopoietic cell types. In mice, germline knockout or conditional pan-hematopoietic deletion of Bim results in marked splenomegaly and significantly increased numbers of B cells. However, it has remained unclear whether these abnormalities reflect the loss of cell-intrinsic functions of BIM within the B lymphoid lineage and, if so, which stages in the lifecycle of B cells are most impacted by the loss of BIM. Here, we show that B lymphoid-specific conditional deletion of Bim during early development (i...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xian Duo Zhang, Jia Yun Sun, Yuan Yuan You, Jian Bo Song, Zhi Min Yang
RNA helicases play crucial roles in RNA splicing, transport, editing and degradation, protein translation initiation and siRNA-mediated gene silencing. However, knowledge about their functionality in rapeseed (Brassica napus) is rare. In the study, we identified and annotated 271 RNA helicase genes from B. napus using bioinformatics and high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Three subfamilies DEAD-box, DEAH-box, or DExD/H-box have been identified. One hundred and ninety-five RNA helicases were confirmed by RNA-seq and 49 were identified to differentially respond to cadmium (Cd) stress (> 1...
April 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Stefanie Staats, Kai Lüersen, Anika E Wagner, Gerald Rimbach
Drosophila melanogaster has been widely used in the biological sciences as a model organism. Drosophila has a relatively short life span of 60-80 days, which makes it attractive for life span studies. Moreover, approximately 60% of the fruit fly genes are orthologs to mammals. Thus, metabolic and signal transduction pathways are highly conserved. Maintenance and reproduction of Drosophila do not require sophisticated equipment and are rather cheap. Furthermore, there are fewer ethical issues involved in experimental Drosophila research compared with studies in laboratory rodents, such as rats and mice...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Benjamin French, Sachiyo Funamoto, Hiromi Sugiyama, Ritsu Sakata, John Cologne, Harry M Cullings, Kiyohiko Mabuchi, Dale L Preston
In the Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors, differences in urbanicity between high-dose and low-dose survivors could confound the association between radiation dose and adverse outcomes. We obtained data on the pre-bombing population distribution in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and quantified the impact of adjustment for population density on radiation risk estimates for mortality (1950-2003) and incident solid cancer (1958-2009). Population density ranged from 4,671-14,378 and 5,748-19,149 people/km2 in urban regions of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Lisa Huang, Jazmin Turner, Nicole J Brandt
The older adult population continues to steadily increase. Largely attributed to longer life spans and aging of the Baby Boomer generation, continued growth of this population is expected to affect a multitude of challenging public health concerns. Specifically, falls in older adults are prevalent but overlooked concerns. Health care providers are well-positioned to provide valuable interventions in this aspect. An interdisciplinary, team-based approach of health care providers is required to maximize falls prevention through patient-centered and collaborative care...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
Joshua Krissansen-Totton, Giada N Arney, David C Catling
The early Earth's environment is controversial. Climatic estimates range from hot to glacial, and inferred marine pH spans strongly alkaline to acidic. Better understanding of early climate and ocean chemistry would improve our knowledge of the origin of life and its coevolution with the environment. Here, we use a geological carbon cycle model with ocean chemistry to calculate self-consistent histories of climate and ocean pH. Our carbon cycle model includes an empirically justified temperature and pH dependence of seafloor weathering, allowing the relative importance of continental and seafloor weathering to be evaluated...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jacob Johansson, Åke Brännström, Johan A J Metz, Ulf Dieckmann
An organism's life history is closely interlinked with its allocation of energy between growth and reproduction at different life stages. Theoretical models have established that diminishing returns from reproductive investment promote strategies with simultaneous investment into growth and reproduction (indeterminate growth) over strategies with distinct phases of growth and reproduction (determinate growth). We extend this traditional, binary classification by showing that allocation-dependent fecundity and mortality rates allow for a large diversity of optimal allocation schedules...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Giovanni Forzieri, Alessandra Bianchi, Filipe Batista E Silva, Mario A Marin Herrera, Antoine Leblois, Carlo Lavalle, Jeroen C J H Aerts, Luc Feyen
Extreme climatic events are likely to become more frequent owing to global warming. This may put additional stress on critical infrastructures with typically long life spans. However, little is known about the risks of multiple climate extremes on critical infrastructures at regional to continental scales. Here we show how single- and multi-hazard damage to energy, transport, industrial, and social critical infrastructures in Europe are likely to develop until the year 2100 under the influence of climate change...
January 2018: Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions
Jun Chul Park, Min-Chul Lee, Deok-Seo Yoon, Jeonghoon Han, Moonkoo Kim, Un-Ki Hwang, Jee-Hyun Jung, Jae-Seong Lee
To understand the adverse outcome in response to bisphenol A and its analogs bisphenol F and S (BPA, BPF, and BPS), we examined acute toxicity, life parameter, and defensome in the marine rotifer Brachionus koreanus. Among the bisphenol analogs, BPA showed the highest acute toxicity and then BPF and BPS, accordingly in the view of descending magnitude of toxicity. In life parameters including life span and reproduction, BPA, BPF, and BPS were found to cause adverse effect. Both intracellular ROS level and GST activity were significantly increased (P < 0...
March 22, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Kyle Christie, Sharon Y Strauss
Understanding the relative roles of intrinsic and extrinsic reproductive barriers, and their interplay within the geographic context of diverging taxa, remains an outstanding challenge in the study of speciation. We conducted a comparative analysis of reproductive isolation in California Jewelflowers (Streptanthus, s.l., Brassicaceae) by quantifying potential barriers to gene flow at multiple life history stages in 39 species pairs spanning five million years of evolutionary divergence. We quantified nine potential pre- and postzygotic barriers and explored patterns of reproductive isolation in relation to genetic distance...
March 30, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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