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Increasing life span

Giuseppe Taino, Lorenzo Bordini, Marcello Imbriani
OBJECTIVES: The continuous scientific advances against neoplastic diseases affecting all areas of oncology biomedical research. Age is an extremely important factor in cancer development, since the incidence of cancer increases significantly with age. Because of aging of the Italian population, although the incidence is kept constant, the number of cancer diagnosis is inevitably going to increase over time only to increasing age. METHODS: Survival after the diagnosis of cancer is one of the main indicators that allow to evaluate the effectiveness of the health system against the cancer disease...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Noreen Goldman, Dana A Glei, Maxine Weinstein
Although there is little dispute about the impact of the US opioid epidemic on recent mortality, there is less consensus about whether trends reflect increasing despair among American adults. The issue is complicated by the absence of established scales or definitions of despair as well as a paucity of studies examining changes in psychological health, especially well-being, since the 1990s. We contribute evidence using two cross-sectional waves of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study to assess changes in measures of psychological distress and well-being...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
A Silva-Palacios, M Ostolga-Chavarría, C Zazueta, M Königsberg
Increase in life-span is commonly related with age-related diseases and with gradual loss of genomic, proteomic and metabolic integrity. Nrf2 (Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-p45 derived factor 2) controls the expression of genes whose products include antioxidant proteins, detoxifying enzymes, drug transporters and numerous cytoprotective proteins. Several experimental approaches have evaluated the potential regulation of the transcription factor Nrf2 to enhance the expression of genes that contend against accumulative oxidative stress and promote healthy aging...
June 15, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Cheng-Xu Wu, Jian-Feng Liu, Xue-Yuan Di, Mao-Fa Yang
A pheromone-mediated mating disruption is a vital tool in the management of insect population dynamics that not only prevents mating but also delays mating in the target insect. Here, we examined the effect of delayed mating on the longevity and reproductive performance of the global pest, Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Delayed mating was imposed on both sexes simultaneously, males only, and females only. The results showed that a 30-40% reduction in the successful mating rate of S. litura was caused by 7-d delay in mating...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Stuart J Ritchie, Elliot M Tucker-Drob
Intelligence test scores and educational duration are positively correlated. This correlation could be interpreted in two ways: Students with greater propensity for intelligence go on to complete more education, or a longer education increases intelligence. We meta-analyzed three categories of quasiexperimental studies of educational effects on intelligence: those estimating education-intelligence associations after controlling for earlier intelligence, those using compulsory schooling policy changes as instrumental variables, and those using regression-discontinuity designs on school-entry age cutoffs...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Tobias Franiel, René Aschenbach, Sarah Trupp, Thomas Lehmann, Friedrich-Carl von Rundstedt, Marc-Oliver Grimm, Ulf Teichgräber
PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical outcomes and possible MR imaging predictors of clinical success after prostatic artery embolization (PAE) with 250-μm hydrogel particles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a span of 1.5 years, 30 patients with moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms were included in a prospective, nonrandomized study. Embolization of at least one prostatic artery was considered as technical success. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL), peak urinary flow rate (Qmax ), residual urine volume, prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen level, and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) were recorded at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months after PAE...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
Carol Anne Nichols, Kathleen Alexander
Wildlife activity patterns tend to be defined by terms such as diurnal and nocturnal that might not fully depict the complexity of a species' life history strategy and behavior in a given system. These activity pattern categories often influence the methodological approaches employed, including the temporal period of study (daylight or nighttime). We evaluated banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) behavior in Northern Botswana through the use of remote sensing cameras at active den sites in order to characterize early morning behavior for this diurnal species...
2018: PloS One
Yusheng Lin, Xiaolian Caia, Guiping Wang, Gang Ouyang, Hong Cao
Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC) is a rare human disease, with limited effective treatment options. Most cases of NPC disease are associated with inactivating mutations of the NPC1 gene. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the NPC1 pathogenesis remain poorly defined. This is partly due to the lack of a suitable animal model to monitor the disease progression. In this study, we used CRISPR to construct an NPC1-/- zebrafish model, which faithfully reproduced the cardinal pathological features of this disease...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Dóra Juhász, Dezső Németh
Background and purpose: Introduction - Mental health has crucial role in our life. Cognitive changes or decline can lead to many difficulties in daily routine of older people (e.g. organization of daily activities), which can, consequently, influence their well-being. Therefore it is an important question, which cognitive abilities are affected by age-related decline. Methods: In our study we aimed to investigate the changes of cognitive abilities in healthy older adults between 61 and 85 years of age compared to the performance of younger adults...
March 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Azam Bolhassani
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the most serious stage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The combinatorial anti-retroviral therapy (cART) is widely used in suppressing HIV-1 infection and enhancing life span of infected patients to a significant level. However, delivery of therapeutic molecules is still a major challenge in vivo. The studies showed that the anti-HIV drugs delivered via nano-carriers could be selectively accumulated in infected cells accompanied by low side effects...
June 8, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Na Li, Zhao Yang, Qing Li, Zhen Yu, Xu Chen, Jia-Cheng Li, Bo Li, Shang-Lei Ning, Min Cui, Jin-Peng Sun, Xiao Yu
The somatostatin (SST)-secreting cells were mainly distributed in the pancreatic islets, brain, stomach and intestine in mammals and have many physiological functions. In particular, the SST-secreting δ cell is the third most common cell type in the islets of Langerhans. Recent studies have suggested that dysregulation of paracrine interaction between the pancreatic δ cells and β cells results in impaired glucose homeostasis and contributes to diabetes development. However, direct evidence of the functional importance of SST cells in glucose homeostasis control is still lacking...
June 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Joachim Bervoets, Lisa M Jonkman, Sandra Mulkens, Hein de Vries, Gerjo Kok
BACKGROUND: Executive functions are higher cognitive control functions, which are essential to physical and psychological well-being, academic performance, and healthy social relationships. Executive functions can be trained, albeit without broad transfer, to this date. Broad transfer entails the translation of improved cognitive functions to daily life (behaviors). The intervention Train your Mind was designed to train executive functions among elementary school children aged 9 to 11 years, and obtain broad transfer in terms of enhanced physical activity, healthy eating, and socioemotional regulation...
June 7, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Manisha Pandey, Hira Choudhury, Ong Cai Yeun, Hoh Mei Yin, Tan Win Lynn, Celine Lee Yen Tine, Ng Sin Wi, Kelly Chau Chui Yen, Cheng Swee Phing, Prashant Kesharwani, Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra, Bapi Gorain
BACKGROUND: Targeting chemotherapeutic agents to the tumor tissues and achieving accumulation with ideal release behavior for desired therapy requires an ideal treatment strategy to inhibit division of rapid growing cancerous cells and as an outcome improve patient's quality of life. However, majority of the available anticancer therapies are well known for their systemic toxicities and multidrug resistance. METHODS: Application of nanotechnology in medicine have perceived a great evolution during past few decades...
June 5, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Kirsten K Ness, James L Kirkland, Maria Monica Gramatges, Zhaoming Wang, Mondira Kundu, Kelly McCastlain, Xiujie Li-Harms, Jinghui Zhang, Tamar Tchkonia, Saskia Martine Francesca Pluijm, Gregory T Armstrong
The improvement in survival of childhood cancer observed across the past 50 years has resulted in a growing acknowledgment that simply extending the lifespan of survivors is not enough. It is incumbent on both the cancer research and the clinical care communities to also improve the health span of survivors. It is well established that aging adult survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk of chronic health conditions, relative to the general population. However, as the first generation of survivors age into their 50s and 60s, it has become increasingly evident that this population is also at risk of early onset of physiologic aging...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
S D Ling, A Davey, S E Reeves, S Gaylard, P L Davies, R D Stuart-Smith, G J Edgar
Pollution increasingly impacts healthy functioning of marine ecosystems globally. Here we quantify concentrations of major pollutant types (heavy metals/sewage/petrochemicals/plastics) as accumulated within marine sediments on and/or immediately adjacent to shallow reefs for 42 sites spanning coastal population centres across south-eastern Australia. Gradients in pollutants were revealed, but few pollutants co-varied, while increasing wave exposure ostensibly diluted concentrations of all pollutants except microplastics...
May 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Patrizia Morciano, Francesca Cipressa, Antonella Porrazzo, Giuseppe Esposito, Maria Antonella Tabocchini, Giovanni Cenci
Deep underground laboratories (DULs) were originally created to host particle, astroparticle or nuclear physics experiments requiring a low-background environment with vastly reduced levels of cosmic-ray particle interference. More recently, the range of science projects requiring an underground experiment site has greatly expanded, thus leading to the recognition of DULs as truly multidisciplinary science sites that host important studies in several fields, including geology, geophysics, climate and environmental sciences, technology/instrumentation development and biology...
June 4, 2018: Radiation Research
Gabrielle Garon-Carrier, Michel Boivin, Jean-Pascal Lemelin, Yulia Kovas, Sophie Parent, Jean R Séguin, Frank Vitaro, Richard E Tremblay, Ginette Dionne
Little is known about the development of number knowledge (NK) and the antecedents of low-persistent NK profiles in early childhood. We documented the developmental trajectories of NK across the transition from preschool to elementary school, their predictive validity with respect to later math achievement, and the child and family early-life factors associated with low NK profiles. Children's NK was assessed four times at regular intervals between the ages 4 and 7 years in a large, representative population-based sample...
June 2018: Journal of School Psychology
Ashley Murray, Sophia A Hussen, Lauren Toledo, LaTeshia Thomas-Seaton, Scott Gillespie, Chanda Graves, Rana Chakraborty, Madeline Y Sutton, Andres F Camacho-Gonzalez
HIV continuum of care analyses in Georgia during 2013 revealed that 82% of adolescents and adults living with HIV knew their diagnosis and that 75% were linked to care. However, of all persons in Georgia living with HIV in 2014, only 60% had at least one HIV care visit, and just 48% were retained in care. Understanding barriers for HIV testing, linkage, and retention in youth may strengthen HIV-related encounters and improve patient outcomes. We conducted 17 qualitative focus groups with HIV-positive and -negative youth, ages 18-24 years, from the Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area...
June 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Fang Yun Lim, Tae Hyung Won, Nicholas Raffa, Joshua A Baccile, Jen Wisecaver, Antonis Rokas, Frank C Schroeder, Nancy P Keller
Microbial secondary metabolites, including isocyanide moieties, have been extensively mined for their repertoire of bioactive properties. Although the first naturally occurring isocyanide (xanthocillin) was isolated from the fungus Penicillium notatum over half a century ago, the biosynthetic origins of fungal isocyanides remain unknown. Here we report the identification of a family of isocyanide synthases (ICSs) from the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus Comparative metabolomics of overexpression or knockout mutants of ICS candidate genes led to the discovery of a fungal biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) that produces xanthocillin ( xan )...
May 29, 2018: MBio
Peter Helfer, Thomas R Shultz
In long-term potentiation (LTP), one of the most studied types of neural plasticity, synaptic strength is persistently increased in response to stimulation. Although a number of different proteins have been implicated in the sub-cellular molecular processes underlying induction and maintenance of LTP, the precise mechanisms remain unknown. A particular challenge is to demonstrate that a proposed molecular mechanism can provide the level of stability needed to maintain memories for months or longer, in spite of the fact that many of the participating molecules have much shorter life spans...
May 29, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
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