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Increasing life span

Annette Piechulek, Anna von Mikecz
At present, the majority of investigations concerning nanotoxicology in the nematode C. elegans address short-term effects. While this approach allows for the identification of uptake pathways, exposition and acute toxicity, nanoparticle-organism interactions that manifest later in the adult life of C. elegans are missed. Here we show that a microhabitat composed of liquid S-medium and live bacteria in microtiter wells prolongs C. elegans longevity and is optimally suited to monitor chronic eNP-effects over the entire life span (about 34 days) of the nematode...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Carlos E Rivera-Tavarez
The deterioration of physical and mental capabilities is inevitable with aging. Some hereditary factors cannot be changed, but other external factors can be manipulated to provide our body with better weapons to improve quality of life as we age. Different cellular pathways leading to cell deterioration and aging usually act through excessive oxidative damage and chronic inflammation. Suppression of inflammation is the most important driver of successful longevity and increases in importance with advancing age...
November 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Carlos E Rivera-Tavarez
Aging is an inevitable multifactorial process. Advances in health care and technology have led to an increase on expected life span that can reach an average of 90 years in the next few decades. Lifestyle changes that include activity, nutrition, stress management, and alternatives low-impact exercises like yoga and tai chi can help us modify some of these age-related changes and lead to an increase in the health span and quality of life of the older adults.
November 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Salman M Tajuddin, Mike A Nalls, Alan B Zonderman, Michele K Evans
BACKGROUND: While the mortality rate is declining in the United States, the life expectancy gap among different population groups suggests a need to identify biomarkers to improve early identification of individuals at risk. Red cell distribution width (RDW), a measure of anisocytosis, is an emerging biomarker of chronic disease morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. However, little is known about its association with mortality risk in younger adults. The objectives of this study were to investigate the association between RDW and overall and cause-specific mortality risk, and to identify novel determinants of RDW level...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
David J Button, Graeme T Lloyd, Martín D Ezcurra, Richard J Butler
Mass extinctions have profoundly impacted the evolution of life through not only reducing taxonomic diversity but also reshaping ecosystems and biogeographic patterns. In particular, they are considered to have driven increased biogeographic cosmopolitanism, but quantitative tests of this hypothesis are rare and have not explicitly incorporated information on evolutionary relationships. Here we quantify faunal cosmopolitanism using a phylogenetic network approach for 891 terrestrial vertebrate species spanning the late Permian through Early Jurassic...
October 10, 2017: Nature Communications
Diana M Willmes, Anica Kurzbach, Christine Henke, Grit Zahn, Alexander Heifetz, Jens Jordan, Stephen L Helfand, Andreas L Birkenfeld
The regulation of metabolic processes by the Indy (I'm Not Dead Yet) (SLC13A5/NaCT) gene was revealed through studies in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. Reducing the expression of Indy in these species extended their life span by a mechanism resembling caloric restriction, without reducing food intake. In D. melanogaster, mutating the Indy gene reduced body fat content, insulin-like proteins and reactive oxygen species production. Subsequent studies indicated that Indy encodes a citrate transporter located on the cell plasma membrane...
October 4, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Takenori Inomata, Alireza Mashaghi, Jiaxu Hong, Takeshi Nakao, Reza Dana
Corneal thickness is tightly regulated by its boundary endothelial and epithelial layers. The regulated set-point of corneal thickness likely shows inter-individual variations, changes by age, and response to stress. Using anterior segment-optical coherence tomography, we measure murine central corneal thickness and report on body size scaling of murine central corneal thickness during aging. For aged-matched mice, we find that corneal thickness depends on sex and strain. To shed mechanistic insights into these anatomical changes, we measure epithelial layer integrity and endothelial cell density during the life span of the mice using corneal fluorescein staining and in vivo confocal microscopy, respectively and compare their trends with that of the corneal thickness...
2017: PloS One
Jing Liu, Qingqing Song, Yanwei Huang, Wu Sun, Dingqiang Lu, Bo Zhou
R-lipoic acid (ALA), a powerful antioxidant valuable for the treatment of diabetes and its complications, has been reported to exhibit an antiplatelet activity in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of ALA on platelets in vivo. Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats were intravenously administered with low-dose ALA (20 mg/kg/d), high-dose ALA (80 mg/kg/d) and saline, respectively. Platelets count and bone marrow smear were evaluated and the expressions of markers related to apoptosis and autophagy were measured...
October 6, 2017: Platelets
Sofie L Valk, Boris C Bernhardt, Fynn-Mathis Trautwein, Anne Böckler, Philipp Kanske, Nicolas Guizard, D Louis Collins, Tania Singer
Although neuroscientific research has revealed experience-dependent brain changes across the life span in sensory, motor, and cognitive domains, plasticity relating to social capacities remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the targeted mental training of different cognitive and social skills can induce specific changes in brain morphology, we collected longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data throughout a 9-month mental training intervention from a large sample of adults between 20 and 55 years of age...
October 2017: Science Advances
Chenyin Wang, Valeria Saar, Ka Lai Leung, Liang Chen, Garry Wong
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques consisting of Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles formed by aggregation of hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau. We generated a novel invertebrate model of AD by crossing Aβ1-42 (strain CL2355) with either pro-aggregating tau (strain BR5270) or anti-aggregating tau (strain BR5271) pan-neuronal expressing transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans...
October 2, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
Shahbaz Khan, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed Basra, Irfan Afzal, Muhammad Nawaz, Hafeez Ur Rehman
Wheat is staple food of region, as it contributes 60% of daily caloric intake, but its delayed sowing reduces yield due to short life span. Moringa leaf extract (MLE) is considered to improve growth and development of field crops. Study comprised of two experiments. First experiment, freshly extracted MLE and in combination with growth-promoting substances were stored at two temperature regimes. Chemical analysis, after 1, 2, and 3 months' storage period, showed that phenolics and ascorbic acid concentrations decreased with increasing storage period...
October 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kavisha Arora, Yunjie Huang, Kyushik Mun, Sunitha Yarlagadda, Nambirajan Sundaram, Marco M Kessler, Gerhard Hannig, Caroline B Kurtz, Inmaculada Silos-Santiago, Michael Helmrath, Joseph J Palermo, John P Clancy, Kris A Steinbrecher, Anjaparavanda P Naren
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder in which epithelium-generated fluid flow from the lung, intestine, and pancreas is impaired due to mutations disrupting CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel function. CF manifestations of the pancreas and lung are present in the vast majority of CF patients, and 15% of CF infants are born with obstructed gut or meconium ileus. However, constipation is a significantly underreported outcome of CF disease, affecting 47% of the CF patients, and management becomes critical in the wake of increasing life span of CF patients...
October 5, 2017: JCI Insight
Jason L Sanders, Wensheng Guo, Ellen S O'Meara, Robert C Kaplan, Michael N Pollak, Traci M Bartz, Anne B Newman, Linda P Fried, Anne R Cappola
Background: Disruption of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) increases health and life span in animal models, though this is unconfirmed in humans. If IGF-I stability indicates homeostasis, the absolute level of IGF-I may be less clinically relevant than maintaining an IGF-I setpoint. Methods: Participants were 945 U.S. community-dwelling individuals aged ≥65 years enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study with IGF-I levels at 3-6 timepoints. We examined the association of baseline IGF-I level, trajectory slope, and variability around the trajectory with mortality...
July 23, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Serap Şimşek Yavuz
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare disease, but it is still associated with high mortality and elderly represent a growing proportion of patients with this disease. At the moment, more than one third of the IE patients is over 70 years old in developed countries. Although mean age of patients with endocarditis is still between 40 and 50 years old in our country, it is a fact that more elderly patients with IE will be seen in the coming years because of the prolongation of the life span and the increase in the proportion of the elderly...
September 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Danièlle Gunn-Moore, Oksana Kaidanovich-Beilin, María Carolina Gallego Iradi, Frank Gunn-Moore, Simon Lovestone
Two diseases of the modern world-Alzheimer's and diabetes mellitus-are linked by epidemiology, genetics, and molecular pathogenesis. They may also be linked by the remarkable observation that insulin signaling sets the limits on longevity. In worms, flies, and mice, disrupting insulin signaling increases life span leading some to speculate that caloric restriction might extend life span in man. It is our contention that man is already a long-lived organism, specifically with a remarkably high postfertility life span, and that it is the reason that results in the high prevalence of Alzheimer's and diabetes...
September 30, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Corina Benjet, David Menendez, Yesica Albor, Guilherme Borges, Ricardo Orozco, Maria Elena Medina-Mora
In recent years, Mexico has seen one of the largest increases in suicide rates worldwide, especially among adolescents and young adults. This study uses data from the 1,071 respondents who participated in a two-wave longitudinal study when they were between 12 and 17 years of age, and again when they were between 19 and 26 years of age. The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed suicidal behavior and DSM-IV mental disorders. We used Cox regressions to evaluate which sociodemographic and psychiatric factors and life events predicted the incidence and remission of suicide ideation, plan, and attempt throughout the 8-year span...
October 3, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Mengxiong Pan, Peng Wang, Chengcai Zheng, Hongxia Zhang, Siyang Lin, Bei Shao, Qichuan Zhuge, Kunlin Jin
Compelling evidence indicates that factors in the blood can profoundly reverse aging-related impairments, as exposure of aged mice to young blood rejuvenates adult stem cell function, improves cognition, and ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy. Systemic factors from mice can also extend the life span of a partner exposed to a lethal treatment or disease. These findings suggest that the systemic milieu of a healthy young partner may be beneficial for an aged organism. However, it is unknown whether a healthy young systemic milieu can improve functional recovery after ischemic stroke...
October 2017: Aging and Disease
Martin Enge, H Efsun Arda, Marco Mignardi, John Beausang, Rita Bottino, Seung K Kim, Stephen R Quake
As organisms age, cells accumulate genetic and epigenetic errors that eventually lead to impaired organ function or catastrophic transformation such as cancer. Because aging reflects a stochastic process of increasing disorder, cells in an organ will be individually affected in different ways, thus rendering bulk analyses of postmitotic adult cells difficult to interpret. Here, we directly measure the effects of aging in human tissue by performing single-cell transcriptome analysis of 2,544 human pancreas cells from eight donors spanning six decades of life...
October 5, 2017: Cell
Matthew Alcusky, Christine M Ulbrict, Kate L Lapane
OBJECTIVE: To synthesize research comparing post-stroke health outcomes between patients rehabilitated in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) and inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs). Secondly, to evaluate relationships between facility characteristics and outcomes. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and CINAHL searches spanned January 1, 1998 to October 6, 2016 and encompassed MeSH and free-text keywords for stroke, IRF/SNF, and study outcomes. Human and English limits were used...
September 28, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Lei Zheng, Luqing Pan, Pengfei Lin, Jingjing Miao, Xiufen Wang, Yufei Lin, Jiangyue Wu
Hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) spill in the marine environment is an issue of growing concern, and it will mostly continue to do so in the future owing to the increase of high chemical traffic. Nevertheless, the effects of HNS spill on marine environment, especially on aquatic organisms are unclear. Consequently, it is emergent to provide valuable information for the toxicities to marine biota caused by HNS spill. Accordingly, the acute toxicity of three preferential HNS and sub-lethal effects of acrylonitrile on Brachionus plicatilis were evaluated...
October 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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