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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642064/the-genetic-basis-of-deafness-in-populations-of-african-descent
#1
REVIEW
Jason R Rudman, Rosemary I Kabahuma, Sara E Bressler, Yong Feng, Susan H Blanton, Denise Yan, Xue-Zhong Liu
Hearing loss is the most common sensorineural disorder worldwide and is associated with more than 1000 mutations in more than 90 genes. While mutations in genes such as GJB2 (gap-junction protein β 2) and GJB6 (gap-junction protein β 6) are highly prevalent in Caucasian, Asian, and Middle Eastern populations, they are rare in both native African populations and those of African descent. The objective of this paper is to review the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology and genetics of hearing loss in African populations with a focus on native sub-Saharan African populations...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533294/type-2-diabetes-demystifying-the-global-epidemic
#2
Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Rajendra Pradeepa, Shashank R Joshi, Viswanathan Mohan
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has attained the status of a global pandemic, spreading from affluent industrialized nations to the emerging economies of Asia, Latin America, and Africa. There is significant global variation in susceptibility to T2D, with Pacific Islanders, Asian Indians, and Native Americans being considerably more prone to develop the disorder. Although genetic factors may play a part, the rapidity with which diabetes prevalence has risen among these populations reflects the far-ranging and rapid socioeconomic changes to which they have been exposed over the past few decades...
June 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463883/htlv-1-infection-and-disease-in-spain
#3
Carmen de Mendoza, Estrella Caballero, Antonio Aguilera, Silvia Requena, Raúl Ortiz de Lejarazu, María Pirón, Rocío González, Ana Jiménez, Lourdes Roc, Ana Treviño, Rafael Benito, Miriam Fernández-Alonso, Aitziber Aguinaga, Carmen Rodríguez, Juan García-Costa, Lidia Blanco, José M Ramos, Enrique Calderón, José M Eirós, Silvia Sauleda, Pablo Barreiro, Vicente Soriano
: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is a neglected disease despite roughly 15 million people are chronically infected worldwide. Lifelong less than 10% of carriers develop life-threatening diseases, mostly a subacute myelopathy known as tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) and a lymphoproliferative disorder named adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). HTLV-1 is efficiently transmitted perinatally (breastfeeding), sexually (more from male to female) and parenterally (transfusions, injection drug use and transplants)...
May 1, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329668/stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-in-us-adults
#4
Derek Y Hsu
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are life-threatening disorders. The incidences, mortality and cost of SJS and TEN in US adults are not well-characterized. We analyzed data from the 2009-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, containing a representative 20% sample of all hospitalizations in the US. SJS, SJS/TEN and TEN were identified by a validated algorithm using ICD-9- CM codes. The mean incidences of SJS, SJS/TEN and TEN were 9.3, 1.6, and 1.9 per million people per year, respectively...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292501/indian-health-service-pharmacists-engaged-in-opioid-safety-initiatives-and-expanding-access-to-naloxone
#5
Hillary Duvivier, Samantha Gustafson, Morgan Greutman, Tenzin Jangchup, Ashlee Knapp Harden, Aimee Reinhard, Keith Warshany
OBJECTIVE: To develop effective pharmacy-based interventions to mitigate harm from opioid use disorders. Programs include responsible opioid prescribing, expanded access to medication-assisted treatment (MAT), naloxone, and community interventions. SETTING: Clinical pharmacists practicing at Indian Health Service (IHS) locations in the Southwest, Midwest, and Great Lakes regions. These pharmacists serve culturally diverse American Indian populations throughout the United States and interface with tribal and federal programs to impact the opioid epidemic in Indian Country...
March 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236017/correlates-of-motivational-interviewing-use-among-substance-use-treatment-programs-serving-american-indians-alaska-natives
#6
Daniel Dickerson, Laurie A Moore, Traci Rieckmann, Calvin D Croy, Kamilla Venner, Jacquelene Moghaddam, Rebekah Gueco, Douglas K Novins
Motivational interviewing (MI) offers a treatment modality that can help meet the treatment needs of American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) with substance use disorders. This report presents results from a national survey of 192 AI/AN substance abuse treatment programs with regard to their use of MI and factors related to its implementation, including program characteristics, workforce issues, clinician perceptions of MI, and how clinicians learned about MI. Sixty-six percent of programs reported having implemented the use of MI in their programs...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198537/racial-discrimination-associated-with-higher-diastolic-blood-pressure-in-a-sample-of-american-indian-adults
#7
Zaneta M Thayer, Irene V Blair, Dedra S Buchwald, Spero M Manson
OBJECTIVES: Hypertension prevalence is high among American Indians (AIs). AIs experience a substantial burden of interpersonal racial discrimination, which in other populations has been associated with higher blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to understand whether racial discrimination experiences are associated with higher blood pressure in AIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the Everyday Discrimination Scale to evaluate the relationship between discrimination and measured blood pressure among 77 AIs from two reservation communities in the Northern Plains...
May 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142382/predictors-of-hospital-length-and-cost-of-stay-in-a-national-sample-of-adult-patients-with-psychotic-disorders
#8
Melissa L Bessaha, Martha Shumway, Melissa Edmondson Smith, Charlotte L Bright, George J Unick
OBJECTIVE: This study examined effects of patient-level and hospital-level characteristics on length and cost of hospital stays among adult patients with psychotic disorders. METHODS: A subsample of 677,684 adult patients with a primary diagnosis of a psychotic disorder was drawn from the 2003-2011 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample. A nationally representative survey design and census data were used to calculate hospitalization rates...
February 1, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134463/review-pharmacogenetics-of-alcoholism-treatment-implications-of-ethnic-diversity
#9
Anita Cservenka, Megan M Yardley, Lara A Ray
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pharmacogenetic studies of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have suggested that the efficacy of treatments for AUD is, in part, influenced by the genetic background of an individual. Since the frequency of alleles associated with pharmacotherapy for AUD varies by ancestral background, the effectiveness of medications used to treat AUD may vary among different populations. The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing pharmacogenetic studies of treatments for AUD in individuals of European, East Asian, African, and American Indian/Alaska Native ancestry...
November 4, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129438/association-between-lifetime-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-past-year-alcohol-use-disorder-among-american-indians-alaska-natives-and-non-hispanic-whites
#10
Marc A Emerson, Roland S Moore, Raul Caetano
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder disproportionately impact certain populations including American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIAN). While PTSD and alcohol use disorder have been studied both separately and in tandem, less is known about the association in AIAN. The objective was to examine the association between lifetime PTSD and past year alcohol use disorder among AIAN and non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). METHODS: Data come from the 2012 to 2013 U...
March 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125307/chinese-translation-of-the-coma-recovery-scale-revised
#11
Haibo Di, Minhui He, Ying Zhang, Lijuan Cheng, Fuyan Wang, Yunzhi Nie, Wangshan Huang, Steven Laureys, Caroline Schnakers
BACKGROUND: Misdiagnosis rate is high in patients with disorders of consciousness, potentially leading to an inappropriate clinical management of these patients. Sensitive standardised rating scales offer some protections from these diagnostic errors. In this context, the use of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) has strongly been recommended by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. OBJECTIVE: Here, we present the work that has been performed to translate this important diagnostic tool in Chinese...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111843/whole-genome-sequence-study-of-cannabis-dependence-in-two-independent-cohorts
#12
Ian R Gizer, Chris Bizon, David A Gilder, Cindy L Ehlers, Kirk C Wilhelmsen
Recent advances in genome wide sequencing techniques and analytical methods allow for more comprehensive examinations of the genome than microarray-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The present report provides the first application of whole genome sequencing (WGS) to identify low frequency variants involved in cannabis dependence across two independent cohorts. The present study used low-coverage whole genome sequence data to conduct set-based association and enrichment analyses of low frequency variation in protein-coding regions as well as regulatory regions in relation to cannabis dependence...
January 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072836/pre-migration-trauma-exposure-and-mental-health-functioning-among-central-american-migrants-arriving-at-the-us-border
#13
Allen Keller, Amy Joscelyne, Megan Granski, Barry Rosenfeld
In recent years, increasing numbers of families and individuals have arrived at the U.S. border from Central America, in particular, from Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala. This study sought to examine pre-migration trauma exposure and current mental health functioning of migrant families arriving at the U.S. border from the Northern Triangle region, with specific attention to the reasons offered for leaving their home country and the frequency with which migrant families appear to satisfy legal criteria for asylum We interviewed 234 adults in McAllen, Texas, using a structured interview and standardized questionnaires to assess exposure to trauma prior to migration, reasons for leaving their home country and symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032813/effects-of-the-circle-of-life-hiv-prevention-program-on-marijuana-use-among-american-indian-middle-school-youths-a-group-randomized-trial-in-a-northern-plains-tribe
#14
Nancy L Asdigian, Nancy Rumbaugh Whitesell, Ellen M Keane, Alicia C Mousseau, Carol E Kaufman
BACKGROUND: Early substance use threatens many American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, as it is a risk factor for maladaptive use and adverse health outcomes. Marijuana is among the first substances used by AI/AN youth, and its use becomes widespread during adolescence. Interventions that delay or reduce marijuana use hold the promise of curbing substance disorders and other health risk disparities in AI/AN populations. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effectiveness of the Circle of Life (COL) program in reducing marijuana use among young AI adolescents...
December 29, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019654/drinking-alcohol-use-disorder-and-treatment-access-and-utilization-among-u-s-racial-ethnic-groups
#15
Patrice A C Vaeth, Meme Wang-Schweig, Raul Caetano
Data from approximately 140 articles and reports published since 2000 on drinking, alcohol use disorder (AUD), correlates of drinking and AUD, and treatment needs, access, and utilization were critically examined and summarized. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates alcohol-related disparities across U.S. racial/ethnic groups. American Indians/Alaska Natives generally drink more and are disproportionately affected by alcohol problems, having some of the highest rates for AUD. In contrast, Asian Americans are less affected...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998373/sleep-quality-in-an-adult-american-indian-community-sample
#16
Cindy L Ehlers, Derek N Wills, Philip Lau, David A Gilder
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies have found that insufficient sleep (< 7 h/night) is more common among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN). In this study we sought to identify specific demographic, clinical, and cultural factors that may be associated with reduced sleep quality in an American Indian community sample. METHODS: Information on demography along with personal medical, psychiatric, and drinking history was obtained using the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930893/severe-snakebite-envenoming-in-intensive-care
#17
REVIEW
Jiří Valenta, Zdeněk Stach, Pavel Michálek
Snakebites by exotic venomous snakes can cause serious or even life-threatening envenoming. In Europe and North America most victims are breeders, with a few snakebites from wild native American rattlesnakes. The envenomed victims may present in organ and/or system failure with muscle paralysis, respiratory failure, circulatory instability, acute kidney injury, severe coagulation disorder, and local disability - compartment syndrome and necrosis. Best managed by close collaboration between clinical toxicology and intensive care, most severe envenomings are managed primarily by intensive care physicians...
2016: Prague Medical Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929321/social-communication-questionnaire-scoring-procedures-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-the-prevalence-of-potential-social-communication-disorder-in-asd
#18
Lucy Barnard-Brak, David M Richman, Steven Randall Chesnut, Todd D Little
In analyzing data from the National Database for Autism Research, we utilized Mokken scaling techniques as a means of creating a more effective and efficient screening procedure for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) via the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). With a sample of 1,040, approximately 80% (n = 827) of the sample were males while approximately 20% (n = 213) were females. In regard to ethnicity, approximately 68% of the sample were White/Caucasian, while 7% were African American, 16% were Hispanic, 4% were Asian, and 1% were Native American or American Indian...
December 2016: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881059/natural-products-with-antiplatelet-action
#19
Gabriela Elisa Hirsch, Paulo Ricardo Nazário Viecili, Amanda Spring de Almeida, Sabrina Nascimento, Fernando Garcez Porto, Juliana Otero, Aline Schmidt, Brenda da Silva, Mariana Migliorini Parisi, Jonatas Zeni Klafke
BACKGROUND: Complex hemostatic mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology of various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Among them, dysregulation of platelet activity is linked to the progression of atherosclerosis and mainly involves platelet aggregation and a decrease in blood flow in the vascular endothelium. The major platelet activation pathways mediated by agonists involve the arachidonic acid pathway, adenosine diphosphate pathway, serotonin pathway, nitric oxide pathway, and action of free radicals on molecules involved in platelet aggregation...
November 23, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879543/enzymopenic-congenital-methemoglobinemia-in-children-of-the-republic-of-sakha-yakutia
#20
Tatiana E Burtseva, Tatiana N Ammosova, Natalia N Protopopova, Svetlana Y Yakovleva, Maya P Slobodchikova
Type I congenital methemoglobinemia is an autosomal recessive disorder. A high frequency of congenital methemoglobinemia has been reported among Native Americans inhabiting the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. Other rare cases of congenital methemoglobinemia of types I and II have been reported in Japan and other countries. In Russia-namely, in Yakutia-a high frequency of type I congenital methemoglobinemia has been reported. In 2009, the Consultation Polyclinic of the Pediatric Center in Yakutsk city established a registry of children with congenital methemoglobinemia...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
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