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Native American disorders

Gabriela Elisa Hirsch, Paulo Ricardo Nazário Viecili, Amanda Spring de Almeida, Sabrina Nascimento, Fernando Garcez Porto, Juliana Otero, Aline Schmidt, Brenda da Silva, Mariana Migliorini Parisi, Jonatas Zeni Klafke
BACKGROUND: Complex hemostatic mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology of various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Among them, dysregulation of platelet activity is linked to the progression of atherosclerosis and mainly involves platelet aggregation and a decrease in blood flow in the vascular endothelium. The major platelet activation pathways mediated by agonists involve the arachidonic acid pathway, adenosine diphosphate pathway, serotonin pathway, nitric oxide pathway, and action of free radicals on molecules involved in platelet aggregation...
November 23, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Tatiana E Burtseva, Tatiana N Ammosova, Natalia N Protopopova, Svetlana Y Yakovleva, Maya P Slobodchikova
Type I congenital methemoglobinemia is an autosomal recessive disorder. A high frequency of congenital methemoglobinemia has been reported among Native Americans inhabiting the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. Other rare cases of congenital methemoglobinemia of types I and II have been reported in Japan and other countries. In Russia-namely, in Yakutia-a high frequency of type I congenital methemoglobinemia has been reported. In 2009, the Consultation Polyclinic of the Pediatric Center in Yakutsk city established a registry of children with congenital methemoglobinemia...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Carlos Blanco, Wilson M Compton, Tulshi D Saha, Benjamin I Goldstein, W June Ruan, Boji Huang, Bridget F Grant
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to present 12-month and lifetime prevalence, correlates, comorbidity, treatment and disability of DSM-5 bipolar I disorder. METHODS: Nationally representative U.S. adult sample (N = 36,309), the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions - III. RESULTS: Prevalences of 12-month and lifetime DSM-5 bipolar I disorder were 1.5% and 2.1% and did not differ between men (1...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Li-Tzy Wu, He Zhu, Marvin S Swartz
BACKGROUND: The United States is experiencing an opioid overdose epidemic. Treatment use data from diverse racial/ethnic groups with opioid use disorder (OUD) are needed to inform treatment expansion efforts. METHODS: We examined demographic characteristics and behavioral health of persons aged ≥12 years that met criteria for past-year OUD (n=6,125) in the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=503,101). We determined the prevalence and correlates of past-year use of alcohol/drug use treatment and opioid-specific treatment to inform efforts for improving OUD treatment...
December 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Paul Owusu Donkor, Ying Chen, Liqin Ding, Feng Qiu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ligusticum species (Umbelliferae) have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, Korean folk medicine and Native American medicine for their medicinal and nutritional value. Decoctions of the rhizomes are used in treatment and prophylaxis of migraine, anaemia and cardiovascular conditions including stroke. AIM OF STUDY: This review is intended to fully compile the constituents of locally and traditionally used Ligusticum species, present their bioactivities and highlight potential leads for future drug design, and thus, provide a reference for further research and application of these species...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Brianna E Pollock, Jenny Macfie, L Christian Elledge
We report on the treatment and successful outcome of a 58-year-old Native American male with a history of complex trauma presenting with dissociative identity disorder (DID) and major depressive disorder. The treatment included a trauma-informed phase-based psychotherapy as recommended by the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation for treating DID. We assessed symptoms at baseline and at three additional time points over the course of 14 months. We utilized the Reliable Change Index to examine statistically significant change in symptoms over the course of treatment...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
K G Chartier, N S Thomas, K S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Both a family history of alcoholism and migration-related factors like US v. foreign nativity increase the risk for developing alcohol use disorders in Hispanic Americans. For this study, we integrated these two lines of research to test whether the relationship between familial alcoholism and alcohol dependence changes with successive generations in the United States. METHOD: Data were from the waves 1 and 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)...
September 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Catherine Mary Hill, Annette Carroll, Dagmara Dimitriou, Johanna Gavlak, Kate Heathcote, Veline L'Esperance, Ana Baya, Rebecca Webster, Maria Pushpanathan, Romola Starr Bucks
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To compare polysomnographic parameters in high altitude (HA) native Andean children with low altitude (LA) native peers in order to explain the nocturnal oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) instability reported in HA native children and to study the effect on sleep quality. METHODS: Ninety-eight healthy children aged 7-10 y and 13-16 y were recruited at LA (500 m) or HA (3650 m) above sea level. Physical examination was undertaken and genetic ancestry determined from salivary DNA to determine proportion of European ancestry, a risk factor for poor HA adaptation...
September 9, 2016: Sleep
Laura N Medford-Davis, Rohan Shah, Danielle Kennedy, Emilie Becker
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine characteristics associated with potentially preventable pediatric admissions as defined by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. METHODS: The Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File, an administrative database of hospital admissions, identified 747 040 pediatric admissions ages 0 to 17 years to acute care facilities between 2005 and 2008. Potentially preventable admissions included 5 diagnoses: asthma, perforated appendicitis, diabetes, gastroenteritis, and urinary tract infection...
October 2016: Hospital Pediatrics
Mary-Anne Enoch, Bernard J Albaugh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Genetic and environmental predictors for alcohol use disorder (AUD) are both important in the general population. As a group, American Indian and Alaskan Native individuals (AI/AN) are at increased risk for alcohol-related morbidity /mortality, early onset problem drinking and AUD. METHODS: Alcohol consumption behaviors amongst AI/AN tribes, environmental stressors and genetic studies in AI/AN and European-ancestry individuals are reviewed followed by an analysis of unique difficulties for undertaking research with AI/AN...
September 6, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Sharon M Smith, Rise B Goldstein, Bridget F Grant
This study examined the prevalence, correlates and psychiatric comorbidity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a nationally representative sample of U.S. veterans using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (n = 3119 veteran respondents). The overall prevalence of lifetime PTSD was 6.9%. Lifetime PTSD prevalence was higher among veterans who were female (13.2%), aged 18-29 years (15...
November 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Daniel J Taylor, Kristi E Pruiksma, Willie J Hale, Kevin Kelly, Douglas Maurer, Alan L Peterson, Jim Mintz, Brett T Litz, Douglas E Williamson
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, correlates, and predictors of insomnia in US Army personnel prior to deployment. METHODS: Cross-sectional cohort design assessing insomnia and other psychosocial variables in active duty service members (n = 4,101), at Fort Hood, Texas, prior to military deployment. Insomnia was defined as an Insomnia Severity Index ≥ 15. RESULTS: The prevalence of insomnia was 19.9%. Enlisted personnel were five times more likely to report insomnia than officers (odds ratio [OR] = 5...
October 1, 2016: Sleep
Traci Rieckmann, Laurie A Moore, Calvin D Croy, Douglas K Novins, Gregory Aarons
American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) experience major disparities in accessing quality care for mental health and substance use disorders. There are long-standing concerns about access to and quality of care for AIANs in rural and urban areas including the influence of staff and organizational factors, and attitudes toward evidence-based treatment for addiction. We conducted the first national survey of programs serving AIAN communities and examined workforce and programmatic differences between clinics located in urban/suburban (n=50) and rural (n=142) communities...
September 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Andrew T Ozga, Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan, Raúl Y Tito, Alexandra J Obregon-Tito, Morris W Foster, Gloria Tallbull, Paul Spicer, Christina G Warinner, Cecil M Lewis
OBJECTIVES: There is a major ascertainment bias in microbiome research, with individuals of predominately European ancestry living within metropolitan areas dominating most studies. Here we present a study of the salivary microbiome within a North American Indian community. This research is the culmination of four years of collaboration and community engagement with Cheyenne & Arapaho (C&A) tribal members from western Oklahoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using 16S rRNA gene amplification and next-generation sequencing, we generated microbial taxonomic inventories for 37 individuals representing five towns within the C&A tribes...
October 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Tulshi D Saha, Bradley T Kerridge, Risë B Goldstein, S Patricia Chou, Haitao Zhang, Jeesun Jung, Roger P Pickering, W June Ruan, Sharon M Smith, Boji Huang, Deborah S Hasin, Bridget F Grant
OBJECTIVE: The authors present 12-month and lifetime prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, and treatment of nonmedical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) and DSM-5 NMPOU disorder (NMPOUD). METHODS: Data were derived from the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III) (N = 36,309). RESULTS: Prevalences of 12-month and lifetime NMPOU were 4.1% and 11.3%, exceeding rates in the 2001-2002 NESARC (1...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Audrey L Jones, Maria K Mor, John P Cashy, Adam J Gordon, Gretchen L Haas, James H Schaefer, Leslie R M Hausmann
BACKGROUND: Patient-Centered Medical Homes (PCMH) may be effective in managing care for racial/ethnic minorities with mental health and/or substance use disorders (MHSUDs). How such patients experience care in PCMH settings is relatively unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine racial/ethnic differences in experiences with primary care in PCMH settings among Veterans with MHSUDs. DESIGN: We used multinomial regression methods to estimate racial/ethnic differences in PCMH experiences reported on a 2013 national survey of Veterans Affairs patients...
December 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Li-Tzy Wu, He Zhu, Marvin S Swartz
BACKGROUND: Minority groups generally experience more disparities than whites in behavioral healthcare use. The population of racial/ethnic groups is growing faster than whites. Given increased concerns of cannabis use (CU) and its associations with health conditions, we examined national trends in cannabis use disorder (CUD) among adults aged ≥18 by race/ethnicity. METHODS: Data were from the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=340,456). We compared CU patterns and the conditional prevalence of CUD among cannabis users by race/ethnicity to understand racial/ethnic variations in CUD...
August 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Joanna G Katzman, Chris Fore, Snehal Bhatt, Nina Greenberg, Julie Griffin Salvador, George C Comerci, Christopher Camarata, Lisa Marr, Rebecca Monette, Sanjeev Arora, Andrea Bradford, Denise Taylor, Jenny Dillow, Susan Karol
We examined the benefits of a collaboration between the Indian Health Service and an academic medical center to address the high rates of unintentional drug overdose in American Indians/Alaska Natives. In January 2015, the Indian Health Service became the first federal agency to mandate training in pain and opioid substance use disorder for all prescribing clinicians. More than 1300 Indian Health Service clinicians were trained in 7 possible 5-hour courses specific to pain and addiction. We noted positive changes in pre- and postcourse knowledge, self-efficacy, and attitudes as well as thematic responses showing the trainings to be comprehensive, interactive, and convenient...
August 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Shearwood McClelland, Bryan J Marascalchi, Peter G Passias, Themistocles S Protopsaltis, Anthony K Frempong-Boadu, Thomas J Errico
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study OBJECTIVE.: To assess factors potentially impacting the operative approach chosen for CSM patients on a nationwide level. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is one of the most common spinal disorders treated by spine surgeons, with operative management consisting of three approaches: anterior-only, posterior-only, or combined anterior-posterior. It is unknown whether the operative approach used differs based on patient demographics and/or insurance status...
May 18, 2016: Spine
Krim K Lacey, Dawne M Mouzon, Ishtar O Govia, Niki Matusko, Ivy Forsythe-Brown, Jamie M Abelson, James S Jackson
BACKGROUND: Lower rates of substance abuse are found among Black Americans compared to Whites, but little is known about differences in substance abuse across ethnic groups within the black population. OBJECTIVES: We examined prevalence rates of substance abuse among Blacks across three geographic regions (US, Jamaica, Guyana). The study also sought to ascertain whether length of time, national context and major depressive episodes (MDE) were associated with substance abuse...
July 28, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
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