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Zhen-Yu Guan, Chao-Wei Huang, Mei-Ching Huang, Chih-Yu Wu, Hui-Yu Liu, Shih-Torng Ding, Hsien-Yeh Chen
Multifunctional biomaterial surfaces can be created by controlling the competing adsorption of multiple proteins. To demonstrate this concept, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and fibronectin were adsorbed to the hydrophobic surface of polychloro-para-xylylene. The resulting adsorption properties on the surface depended on the dimensional and steric characteristics of the selected protein molecule, the degree of denaturation of the adsorbed proteins, the associated adsorption of interphase water molecules within the protein layers, and the aggregation of proteins in a planar direction with respect to the adsorbent surface...
October 11, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Koichi Ichikawa, Yoichi Ohta, Kenji Mamoto, Shigekazu Mizokawa, Yukihide Minoda, Yuuki Imai, Kunio Takaoka, Hiroaki Nakamura
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) strongly induce the recruitment and differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells into mature osteoblasts, but also directly and indirectly stimulate differentiation of osteoclast progenitor cells and acceleration of mature osteoclasts function leading excessive bone resorption. Bisphosphonates, such as zoledronate (ZOL), inhibit osteoclasts function and osteoclasts mediated bone resorption. The short or middle term effect of BMPs and bisphosphonates on bone formation were previously reported, but there was no study that argue about the long term effect of bisphosphonates on BMP-induced bone anabolism...
October 13, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shao-Yong Xu, Shu-Fen Li, Guo-Xin Ni
BACKGROUND Although tendinopathy is common, its underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the possible pathogenesis of tendinopathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, a total of 24 rats were randomly and evenly divided into a control (CON) group and a strenuous treadmill running (STR) group. Animals in the STR group were subjected to a 12-week treadmill running protocol. Subsequently, all Achilles tendons were harvested to perform histological observation or biochemical analyses...
October 15, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Marco Antonio Alarcón, Karla Tatiana Diaz, Luisiana Aranda, Emilio Alfredo Cafferata, Clovis Mariano Faggion, Alberto Monje
PURPOSE: The use of biologic agents is emerging in bone regeneration procedures due to their ability to increase cellular events in wound healing and therefore to obtain more predictable outcomes. Hence, the aim of the present study was to critically evaluate the methodology of systematic reviews investigating biologic agents in promoting bone formation and implant site development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search for systematic reviews with and without meta-analyses was performed in Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane database, as well as in journals with high impact factors in periodontics and implant dentistry...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Shang-You Yang, Nora Strong, Xuan Gong, Michael H Heggeness
BACKGROUND: Stem cell-involved tissue engineering has gained dramatic attention as a therapeutic strategy for tissue regeneration including bone repair. However, the currently available possibilities to use embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPCs) face potential ethical issues, as well as risks of malignant transformation and immune rejection. Recently identified peripheral nerve-derived adult pluripotent cells (NEDAPS) that quickly proliferate after exposure to BMP-2 or nerve trauma and exhibit many embryonic stem cell characteristics may provide an attractive source cells for a variety of regenerative therapies...
October 10, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Wei Wei, Biao-Fang Wei, Jian Cai, Wei He, Lin Wan, Ying Guan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore the efficacy of Fu-Yuan Capsule in the healing of fractures of the lower end of the radius in a rabbit model. METHODS: After establishing a rabbit fracture model, all animals were randomly divided into the model group (n = 24), the Fu-Yuan Capsule group (n = 24), and the Shenyang Hongyao group (n = 24). The X-ray was applied to observe the course of fracture healing at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after treatment. Haematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining were used to determine the histological change and the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)...
October 14, 2016: Pharmacology
Xuan Wen, Xiaogang Li, Yubing Tang, Junzhou Tang, Siru Zhou, Yangli Xie, Jingyuan Guo, Jing Yang, Xiaolan Du, Nan Su, Lin Chen
Chondrogenesis can regulate bone formation. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3, highly expressed in chondrocytes, is a negative regulator of bone growth. To investigate whether chondrocyte FGFR3 regulates osteogenesis, thereby contributing to postnatal bone formation and bone remodeling, mice with conditional knockout of Fgfr3 in chondrocytes (mutant, MUT) were generated. MUT mice displayed overgrowth of bone with lengthened growth plates. Bone mass of MUT mice was significantly increased at both 1 and 4 months of age...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Daniel S Thoma, Jae-Kook Cha, Vitor M Sapata, Ronald E Jung, Juerg Hüsler, Ui-Won Jung
OBJECTIVES: To test whether or not one of two biological mediators (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF-BB)) is superior to the other and compared with control groups for bone regeneration around implants based on histomorphometrical outcome measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Box-type defects (10 × 5 × 5 mm) were prepared on the buccal sides of the left and right edentulous ridge in ten mongrel dogs...
October 10, 2016: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Satoru Otsuru, Kathleen M Overholt, Timothy S Olson, Ted J Hofmann, Adam J Guess, Victoria M Velazquez, Takashi Kaito, Massimo Dominici, Edwin M Horwitz
Despite years of extensive investigation, the cellular origin of heterotopic ossification (HO) has not been fully elucidated. We have previously shown that circulating bone marrow-derived osteoblast progenitor cells, characterized by the immunophenotype CD45-/CD44+/CXCR4+, contributed to the formation of heterotopic bone induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. In contrast, other reports have demonstrated the contribution of CD45+ hematopoietic derived cells to HO. Therefore, in this study, we developed a novel triple transgenic mouse strain that allows us to visualize CD45+ cells with red fluorescence and mature osteoblasts with green fluorescence...
October 7, 2016: Bone
Kae Sian Tay, Anupreet Bassi, William Yeo, Wai Mun Yue
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: There is no current literature comparing outcomes of patients with and without lumbar scoliosis having neurological symptoms undergoing Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (MIS TLIF) technique. PURPOSE: To determine whether associated lumbar scoliosis will result in different clinical, radiological and operative outcomes in patients undergoing focal MISTLIF for neurogenic symptoms, without specific correction of the scoliosis...
October 7, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Felix Sellberg, Erik Berglund, Martin Ronaghi, Gabriel Strandberg, Helena Löf, Pehr Sommar, Norbert Lubenow, Folke Knutson, David Berglund
BACKGROUND: Platelet lysate is a readily available source of growth factors, and other mediators, which has been used in a variety of clinical applications. However, the product remains poorly standardized and the present investigation evaluates the composition of platelet lysate obtained from either fresh or stored pathogen-inactivated platelet units. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Platelet pooled units (n = 10) were obtained from healthy blood donors and tested according to standard procedures...
September 28, 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Ashwini Rahul Akkineni, Tilman Ahlfeld, Anja Lode, Michael Gelinsky
Three-dimensional extrusion of two different biomaterials in a core/shell (c/s) fashion has gained much interest in the last couple of years as it allows for fabricating constructs with novel and interesting properties. We now demonstrate that combining high concentrated (16.7 wt%) alginate hydrogels as shell material with low concentrated, soft biopolymer hydrogels as core leads to mechanically stable and robust 3D scaffolds. Alginate, chitosan, gellan gum, gelatin and collagen hydrogels were utilized successfully as core materials-hydrogels which are too soft for 3D plotting of open-porous structures without an additional mechanical support...
October 7, 2016: Biofabrication
Q Schick Auh, Kyung Ran Park, Hyung Mun Yun, Hyun Chang Lim, Ga Hyun Kim, Dong Sung Lee, Youn Chul Kim, Hyuncheol Oh, Eun Cheol Kim
Although sulfuretin, the major flavonoid of Rhus verniciflua Stokes, has a variety of biological actions, its in vitro and in vivo effects on osteogenic potential remain poorly understood. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of sulfuretin on in vitro osteoblastic differentiation and the underlying signal pathway mechanisms in primary cultured osteoblasts and on in vivo bone formation using critical-sized calvarial defects in mice. Sulfuretin promoted osteogenic differentiation of primary osteoblasts, with increased ALP activity and mineralization, and upregulated differentiation markers, including ALP, osteocalcin, and osteopontin, in a concentration-dependent manner...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Kallyanashis Paul, Andrew R Padalhin, Nguyen Thuy Ba Linh, Boram Kim, Swapan Kumar Sarkar, Byong Taek Lee
A bipotential polyelectrolyte complex with biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) powder dispersion provides an excellent option for protein adsorption and cell attachment and can facilitate enhanced bone regeneration. Application of the bipotential polyelectrolyte complex embedded in a spongy scaffold for faster healing of large segmental bone defects (LSBD) can be a promising endeavor in tissue engineering application. In the present study, a hollow scaffold suitable for segmental long bone replacement was fabricated by the sponge replica method applying the microwave sintering process...
2016: PloS One
N Wang, J Zhang, J X Yang
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimulates osteoclast differentiation and suppresses osteoblast differentiation, leading to bone loss and decreased bone mass in local inflammation areas in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The growth factor progranulin (PGRN) is expressed in various types of cells and play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and arthritis by blocking TNF-α. Here, we investigated the role of PGRN in blocking TNF-α-mediated inhibition of osteoblast differentiation and the regulatory mechanism...
September 9, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Keerthi Atluri, Joun Lee, Denise Seabold, Satheesh Elangovan, Aliasger K Salem
PURPOSE: Commercially pure titanium (CpTi) and its alloys possess favorable mechanical and biologic properties for use as implants in orthopedics and dentistry. However, failures in osseointegration still exist and are common in select individuals with risk factors such as smoking. Therefore, in this study, a proposal was made to enhance the potential for osseointegration of CpTi discs by coating their surfaces with nanoplexes comprising polyethylenimine (PEI) and plasmid DNA (pDNA) encoding bone morphogenetic protein-2 (pBMP-2)...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Shuji Oishi, Yasuhiro Shimizu, Jun Hosomichi, Yoichiro Kuma, Hideyuki Maeda, Hisashi Nagai, Risa Usumi-Fujita, Sawa Kaneko, Naoki Shibutani, Jun-Ichi Suzuki, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Takashi Ono
Intermittent hypoxia (IH) recapitulates morphological changes in the maxillofacial bones in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Recently, we found that IH increased bone mineral density (BMD) in the inter-radicular alveolar bone (reflecting enhanced osteogenesis) in the mandibular first molar (M1) region in the growing rats, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway to assess the effect of IH by testing the null hypothesis of no significant differences in the mRNA-expression levels of relevant factors associated with the HIF pathway, between control rats and growing rats with IH...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Gazelle J Crasto, Norbert Kartner, Nikita Reznik, Michael V Spatafora, Hanje Chen, Ross Williams, Peter N Burns, Cameron Clokie, Morris F Manolson, Sean A F Peel
Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) is used clinically to enhance implant-mediated bone regeneration. However, there are risks associated with the high rhBMP-2 dose that is required in the implant to mitigate diffusional loss over the therapeutic timespan. On-demand, localized control over delivery of rhBMP-2, days after implantation, would therefore be an attractive solution in the area of bone repair and reconstruction, yet this has posed a significant challenge, with little data to support in vivo efficacy to date...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Ujjal K Bhawal, Ryoichiro Uchida, Noboru Kuboyama, Tetsuo Asakura, Koichi Hiratuska, Norihiro Nishiyama
Existing scaffolds cannot adequately satisfy the simultaneous requirements for the regeneration of bone. The challenge remains of how to improve the integration of newly formed bone with the surrounding tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two silk fibroin scaffolds, a hexafluoro isopropanol-based silk fibroin (HFIP-F) and an aqueous-based silk fibroin (A-F), for their osteoinductive potentials in large critical size bone defects in vivo. β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was used as a positive control...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Hagen Schmal, Anke Bernstein, Matthias J Feucht, Benjamin Erdle, Jan M Pestka, That Minh Pham, Eva Johanna Kubosch
Background. Intra-articular infections can rapidly lead to osteoarthritic degradation. The aim of this clinical biomarker analysis was to investigate the influence of inflammation on cartilage destruction and metabolism. Methods. Patients with acute joint infections were enrolled in a prospective clinical trial and the cytokine composition of effusions (n = 76) was analyzed. Characteristics of epidemiology and disease severity were correlated with levels of cytokines with known roles in cartilage turnover and degradation...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
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