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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222689/long-term-quantitative-evaluation-of-muscle-and-bone-wasting-induced-by-botulinum-toxin-in-mice-using-microcomputed-tomography
#1
Hélène Libouban, Claude Guintard, Nicolas Minier, Eric Aguado, Daniel Chappard
Muscle and bone masses are highly correlated and muscles impose large loads on bone. Muscle wasting that accompanies bone loss has been poorly investigated. 21 female mice were spread into seven groups. At day 0, 18 mice received Botulinum toxin (BTX) injection in the quadriceps muscle to induce paralysis of the right hind limb; the left contralateral side was used as control. Mice were sacrificed at 7, 14, 21, 28, 56 and 90 days post-injection. A remaining group was sacrificed at day 0. Trabecular bone volume was determined by microcomputed tomography (microCT) at the distal femur and tibia proximal metaphyses on both sides...
December 8, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213295/trabecular-architecture-in-the-forelimb-epiphyses-of-extant-xenarthrans-mammalia
#2
Eli Amson, Patrick Arnold, Anneke H van Heteren, Aurore Canoville, John A Nyakatura
Background: Bone structure has a crucial role in the functional adaptations that allow vertebrates to conduct their diverse lifestyles. Much has been documented regarding the diaphyseal structure of long bones of tetrapods. However, the architecture of trabecular bone, which is for instance found within the epiphyses of long bones, and which has been shown experimentally to be extremely plastic, has received little attention in the context of lifestyle adaptations (virtually only in primates)...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203221/distal-femoral-physeal-crush-injury-with-metaphyseal-comminution-a-report-of-two-cases-and-a-new-perspective-to-physeal-injury
#3
Prateek Behera, Nirmal Raj Gopinathan, Avinash Kumar, Balaji Saibaba, Pebam Sudesh, Rakesh John
The physis of a long bone may get 'sandwiched' and crushed between the metaphysis and the epiphysis if it is traumatically loaded along its long axis. Such a physeal injury may lead to complications like angular deformities and growth restrictions and hence, management of such injuries requires adequate planning and attentive execution. Two patients with distal femoral physeal crush injury were treated using a ring fixator such that one ring had the wires passing through the epiphysis and the other through the femoral shaft...
September 28, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197578/magnesium-based-bioceramics-in-orthopedic-applications
#4
REVIEW
Maryam Nabiyouni, Theresa Brückner, Huan Zhou, Uwe Gbureck, Sarit B Bhaduri
Magnesium ions are directly involved in numerous biological mechanisms; for example, they play an important part in the regulation of ion channels, DNA stabilization, enzyme activation and stimulation of cell growth and proliferation. This alkaline earth metal has gained great popularity in orthopedic applications in recent years. Magnesium-based bioceramics include a large group of magnesium containing compounds such as oxides, phosphates and silicates, that are involved in orthopedic applications like bone cements, bone scaffolds or implant coatings...
November 29, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184339/bone-health-in-patients-with-epilepsy-a-community-based-pilot-nested-case-control-study
#5
Shweta Singla, Sandeep Kaushal, Shalini Arora, Gagandeep Singh
Background: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) adversely affect bone health and there are reports describing association of alternations of bone and mineral metabolism in epileptic patients. Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the bone profile (bone mineral parameters and bone mineral density [BMD]) of patients with epilepsy and compare them to their age-, gender-, and socioeconomic status-matched healthy controls in a community. Materials and Methods: This was a nested case-control study conducted in fifty individuals, which included 25 cases (age above 18 years and on AEDs for at least 3 years) for which 25 controls were selected from the same community...
October 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181402/effects-of-rhbmp-2-loaded-titanium-reinforced-collagen-membranes-on-horizontal-bone-augmentation-in-dogs
#6
Ki-Sun Lee, Yu-Sung Jeon, Sang-Wan Shin, Jeong-Yol Lee
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of growth factor loaded collagen membranes on new bone formation during horizontal bone augmentation. Mandibular defects (4 × 4 × 4 mm) were surgically prepared in six male beagle dogs, which were then protected with one of three types of membranes: (1) titanium mesh, (2) titanium reinforced collagen, or (3) rhBMP-2 loaded titanium reinforced collagen. Animals were euthanized 8 and 16 weeks after surgery, and nondecalcified specimens were prepared and histomorphologically investigated to determine the degree of osteogenesis...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162607/computational-study-on-the-effect-of-malalignment-of-the-tibial-component-on-the-biomechanics-of-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-finite-element-analysis
#7
D-S Suh, K-T Kang, J Son, O-R Kwon, C Baek, Y-G Koh
OBJECTIVES: Malalignment of the tibial component could influence the long-term survival of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The object of this study was to investigate the biomechanical effect of varus and valgus malalignment on the tibial component under stance-phase gait cycle loading conditions. METHODS: Validated finite element models for varus and valgus malalignment by 3° and 5° were developed to evaluate the effect of malalignment on the tibial component in TKA...
November 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162229/design-of-experiments-confirms-optimization-of-lithium-administration-parameters-for-enhanced-fracture-healing
#8
Kathak Vachhani, Andrea Pagotto, Yufa Wang, Cari Whyne, Diane Nam
Fracture healing is a lengthy process which fails in 5-10% of cases. Lithium, a low-cost therapeutic used in psychiatric medicine, up-regulates the canonical Wingless pathway crucial for osteoblastic mineralization in fracture healing. A design-of-experiments (DOE) methodology was used to optimize lithium administration parameters (dose, onset time and treatment duration) to enhance healing in a rat femoral fracture model. In the previously completed first stage (screening), onset time was found to significantly impact healing, with later (day 7 vs...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154456/predicting-the-bending-properties-of-long-bones-insights-from-an-experimental-mouse-model
#9
Sarah J Peacock, Brittney R Coats, J Kyle Kirkland, Courtney A Tanner, Theodore Garland, Kevin M Middleton
OBJECTIVES: Analyses of bone cross-sectional geometry are frequently used by anthropologists and paleontologists to infer the loading histories of past populations. To address some underlying assumptions, we investigated the relative roles of genetics and exercise on bone cross-sectional geometry and bending mechanics in three mouse strains: high bone density (C3H/He), low bone density (C57BL/6), and a high-runner strain homozygous for the Myh4(Minimsc) allele (MM). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Weanlings of each strain were divided into exercise (wheel) or control (sedentary) treatment groups for a 7-week experimental period...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145010/the-use-of-hardened-bone-cement-as-an-impaction-grafting-extender-for-revision-hip-arthroplasty
#10
Mark Ruddy, David P FitzPatrick, Kenneth T Stanton
Impaction bone grafting is a method of restoring bone stock to patients who have suffered significant bone loss due to revision total hip surgery. The procedure requires morsellised cancellous bone (MCB) to be impacted into the site of bone loss in order to stabilise the prosthesis with the aim of long term resorption and reintegration of the impacted bone graft. Due to financial cost and the potential to transmit disease, the use of supplementary material, known as an extender, is frequently used to increase the graft material volume...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144380/a-passive-and-wireless-sensor-for-bone-plate-strain-monitoring
#11
Yisong Tan, Jiale Hu, Limin Ren, Jianhua Zhu, Jiaqi Yang, Di Liu
This paper reports on a sensor for monitoring bone plate strain in real time. The detected bone plate strain could be used for judging the healing state of fractures in patients. The sensor consists of a magnetoelastic material, which can be wirelessly connected and passively embedded. In order to verify the effectiveness of the sensor, a tibia-bone plate-screw (TBS) model was established using the finite element analysis method. A variation of the bone plate strain was obtained via this model. A goat hindquarter tibia was selected as the bone fracture model in the experiment...
November 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125652/mini-implants-and-narrow-diameter-implants-as-mandibular-overdenture-retainers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-clinical-and-radiographic-outcomes
#12
REVIEW
Raissa Machado Marcello-Machado, Fernanda Faot, Alessandra Julie Schuster, Gustavo G Nascimento, Altair Antoninha Del Bel Cury
This study reviews the clinical and radiographic outcomes of Mini-implants (MI) and Narrow Diameter Implants (NDI) as mandibular overdenture (MO) retainers. Six databases were consulted for clinical studies that evaluated implants with diameter ≤ 3.5 mm. Data on the MI and NDI for survival and success rate and peri-implant bone loss and were collected and submitted to meta-analysis. Thirty-six studies were included, 24 reporting MI performance and 12 describing NDI results. The MI group comprised data from 1 cross-sectional clinical study, 3 retrospective longitudinal (RL) clinical studies, 13 prospective longitudinal (PL) clinical studies and 7 randomized clinical trials (RCT) with follow-up periods ranging from 1 day to 7 years...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103060/use-of-antibiotic-impregnated-bone-grafts-in-a-rabbit-osteomyelitis-model
#13
Akos Zahar, György Kocsis, Mustafa Citak, Gábor Puskás, Mónika Domahidy, Mária Hajdú, István Antal, Miklós Szendrői
BACKGROUND: Both osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection can be treated surgically with the use of antibiotic loaded bone grafts, as part of local antimicrobial therapy. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate and to report on a novel, biodegradable, long-acting (4-6 weeks) antibiotic-impregnated bone graft (AIBG). A novel drug delivery system, containing vancomycin, was utilized in a rabbit osteomyelitis model in order to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of the antibiotic bone graft...
October 23, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101803/composite-scaffolds-loaded-with-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-the-repair-of-radial-bone-defects-in-rabbit-model
#14
Shi-Qiang Ruan, Jiang Deng, Ling Yan, Wen-Liang Huang
This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of three-dimensional scaffolds of silk fibroin/chitosan/nano-hydroxyapatite (SF/CS/nHA) and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on the repair of long segmental bone defects in rabbits. BMSCs were cultured with SF/CS/nHA in vitro, and cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and Ca2+ content were examined. A 15mm segmental defect in the radius was generated in 12 New Zealand White rabbits, which were divided randomly into three groups (n=4): experimental group with SF/CS/nHA scaffold of induced BMSCs; control group with SF/CS/nHA scaffold; and blank group without any materials...
November 1, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100185/numerical-evaluation-of-bone-remodelling-and-adaptation-considering-different-hip-prosthesis-designs
#15
Ievgen Levadnyi, Jan Awrejcewicz, José Eduardo Gubaua, Jucélio Tomás Pereira
BACKGROUND: The change in mechanical properties of femoral cortical bone tissue surrounding the stem of the hip endoprosthesis is one of the causes of implant instability. We present an analysis used to determine the best conditions for long-term functioning of the bone-implant system, which will lead to improvement of treatment results. METHODS: In the present paper, a finite element method coupled with a bone remodelling model is used to evaluate how different three-dimensional prosthesis models influence distribution of the density of bone tissue...
October 18, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096123/in-vitro-validation-of-a-novel-mechanical-model-for-testing-the-anchorage-capacity-of-pedicle-screws-using-physiological-load-application
#16
Christian Liebsch, Julia Zimmermann, Nicolas Graf, Christoph Schilling, Hans-Joachim Wilke, Annette Kienle
Biomechanical in vitro tests analysing screw loosening often include high standard deviations caused by high variabilities in bone mineral density and pedicle geometry, whereas standardized mechanical models made of PU foam often do not integrate anatomical or physiological boundary conditions. The purpose of this study was to develop a most realistic mechanical model for the standardized and reproducible testing of pedicle screws regarding the resistance against screw loosening and the holding force as well as to validate this model by in vitro experiments...
October 25, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095101/load-transfer-in-the-proximal-femur-and-primary-stability-of-a-cemented-and-uncemented-femoral-stem-an-experimental-study-on-cadaver-femurs
#17
Cathrine H Enoksen, Tina S Wik, Jomar Klaksvik, Astvaldur J Arthursson, Otto S Husby, Nils R Gjerdet
There are principally two fixation methods in total hip arthroplasty, cemented and uncemented. Both methods have in general good long-time survival. Studies comparing cemented and uncemented femoral stems indicate that the cemented stems perform somewhat better, at least in the elderly population. The aim of this study was to compare load transfer and the initial micromotion pattern for an uncemented and a cemented stem. A total of 12 human cadavers were tested in a hip simulator during single leg and stair climbing...
November 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091020/do-clinical-and-radiological-assessments-contribute-to-the-understanding-of-biomaterials-results-from-a-prospective-randomized-sinus-augmentation-split-mouth-trial
#18
Jonas Lorenz, Tadas Korzinskas, Poju Chia, Sarah Al Maawi, Katrin Eichler, Robert Sader, Shahram Ghanaati
The present prospective randomized split-mouth trial reports on the 3-year clinical and radiological follow-up investigation of implants placed 7 months after sinus augmentation with two different bone substitute materials. Aim of the study was to complete the histologic observation of the cellular reactions by analysis of the implants and the volumetric changes of the augmented bone substitute materials. A sinus augmentation split-mouth trial was performed in 14 patients with the synthetic bone substitute material Nanobone® (NB) and the xenogeneic Bio-Oss® (BO)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070779/effects-of-the-antiepileptic-drugs-topiramate-and-lamotrigine-on-bone-metabolism-in-rats
#19
Junkichi Kanda, Nobuo Izumo, Yoshiko Kobayashi, Kenji Onodera, Taketoshi Shimakura, Noriaki Yamamoto, Hideaki E Takahashi, Hiroyuki Wakabayashi
Long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AED) is associated with an elevated risk of bone fracture due to decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Phenytoin has been shown to affect bone metabolism adversely, whereas newly developed AEDs have not been studied. This study evaluated the effects of topiramate and lamotrigine on bone metabolism in rats. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with phenytoin (20 mg/kg), topiramate (5 or 20 mg/kg), or lamotrigine (2 or 10 mg/kg) daily for 12 weeks...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069636/development-and-in-vitro-validation-of-a-simplified-numerical-model-for-the-design-of-a-biomimetic-femoral-stem
#20
Bruno Jetté, Vladimir Brailovski, Charles Simoneau, Mathieu Dumas, Patrick Terriault
BACKGROUND: Dense and stiff metallic femoral stems implanted into femurs for total hip arthroplasties produce a stress shielding effect since they modify the original load sharing path in the bony structure. Consequently, in the long term, the strain adaptive nature of bones leads to bone resorption, implant loosening, and the need for arthroplasty revision. The design of new cementless femoral stems integrating open porous structures can reduce the global stiffness of the stems, allowing them a better match with that of bones and provide their firm fixation via bone ingrowth, and, thus reduce the risk of implantation failure...
October 16, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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