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Tibia geometry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421261/-positive-and-negative-predictors-of-long-term-results-after-an-osteotomy-around-the-knee-joint
#1
S Hinterwimmer
A frequently asked question in the context of any surgical procedure, including an osteotomy around the knee joint, is "which parameters are in favor of a therapeutic success in this special case?" If the analysis of the leg geometry is in favor of an osteotomy, then the patient must be assessed further, taking into account the joint status and patient's condition. Positive outcome predictors for long-term success of an osteotomy around the knee, especially for a valgus osteotomy at the tibia are a tibial bone varus angle (TBVA) > 3-5°, knee joint range of motion > 100° flexion, male sex, and a BMI < 30...
April 18, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384358/similarities-in-trabecular-hypertrophy-with-site-specific-differences-in-cortical-morphology-between-men-and-women-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Janina M Patsch, Sazan Rasul, Florian A Huber, Karoline Leitner, Anita Thomas, Roland Kocijan, Stephanie Boutroy, Michael Weber, Heinrich Resch, Franz Kainberger, Claudia Schüller-Weidekamm, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer
The goal of our study was to investigate interactions between sex and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with regard to morphology of the peripheral skeleton. We recruited 85 subjects (mean age, 57±11.4 years): women with and without T2DM (n = 17; n = 16); and men with and without T2DM (n = 26; n = 26). All patients underwent high-resolution, peripheral, quantitative, computed tomography (HR-pQCT) imaging of the ultradistal radius (UR) and tibia (UT). Local bone geometry, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone microarchitecture were obtained by quantitative analysis of HR-pQCT images...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371842/correlation-analysis-of-cortical-geometry-of-tibia-and-humerus-of-white-leghorns-using-clinical-quantitative-computed-tomography-and-microcomputed-tomography-scans1
#3
P Regmi, A G Cox, C I Robison, D M Karcher
Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (QCT) has been used in poultry bone research in recent years to analyze cortical and cross-sectional geometry. For QCT to be used as a standard research tool for analysis of bones of laying hens (cortical thickness <2 mm), the accuracy of the scans must be assessed. The primary difference between the QCT and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is image resolution. Image resolution is inversely related to the pixel size. The aim of the current study was to correlate the cortical parameters measured using clinical CT scans with the measurements from micro-CT, the current gold standard...
March 24, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341899/cortical-microstructure-compensates-for-smaller-bone-size-in-young-caribbean-hispanic-versus-non-hispanic-white-men
#4
M D Walker, A Kepley, K Nishiyama, B Zhou, E Guo, T L Nickolas
Hispanic men have smaller bone size but thicker and denser cortices compared to white men, leading to similar mechanical competence. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to assess differences in vBMD and microarchitecture in young Caribbean Hispanic (n = 30) and non-Hispanic Caucasian (n = 30) men. METHODS: We measured areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the spine, total hip (TH), femoral neck (FN), and forearm by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bone geometry, mass, microarchitecture, and mechanical competence by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT), individual trabecula segmentation (ITS), and finite element analysis (FEA)...
March 24, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326606/physical-activity-sedentary-time-and-bone-strength-from-childhood-to-early-adulthood-a-mixed-longitudinal-hr-pqct-study
#5
Leigh Gabel, Heather M Macdonald, Lindsay Nettlefold, Heather A McKay
Bone strength is influenced by bone geometry, density, and bone microarchitecture, which adapt to increased mechanical loads during growth. Physical activity (PA) is essential for optimal bone strength accrual; however, less is known about how sedentary time influences bone strength and its determinants. Thus, our aim was to investigate the prospective associations between PA, sedentary time, and bone strength and its determinants during adolescence. We used HR-pQCT at distal tibia (8% site) and radius (7% site) in 173 girls and 136 boys (aged 9 to 20 years at baseline)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323146/hypogonadal-men-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-have-smaller-bone-size-and-lower-bone-turnover
#6
Georgia Colleluori, Lina Aguirre, Richard Dorin, David Robbins, Dean Blevins, Yoann Barnouin, Rui Chen, Clifford Qualls, Dennis T Villareal, Reina Armamento-Villareal
INTRODUCTION: Both hypogonadism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are associated with increased fracture risk. Emerging data support the negative effect of low testosterone on glucose metabolism, however, there is little information on the bone health of hypogonadal men with diabetes. We evaluated the bone mineral density (BMD), bone geometry and bone turnover of hypogonadal men with T2D compared to hypogonadal men without diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study, men 40-74years old, with average morning testosterone (done twice) of<300ng/dl...
March 16, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256308/precision-of-second-generation-high-resolution-peripheral-quantitative-computed-tomography-intra-and-intertester-reproducibilities-and-factors-involved-in-the-reproducibility-of-cortical-porosity
#7
Ko Chiba, Narihiro Okazaki, Ayako Kurogi, Yusaku Isobe, Akihiko Yonekura, Masato Tomita, Makoto Osaki
High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) was upgraded to a second generation in 2014 with higher spatial resolution, faster scan time, and a different measurement algorithm. The purpose of this study was to investigate the precision of the second-generation HR-pQCT. The distal radius and tibia of 15 healthy men and women (age range of 20-74 yr, 8 men and 7 women) were scanned by second-generation HR-pQCT, and their geometry, bone mineral density (BMD), and the microstructure of trabecular and cortical bones were evaluated...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255659/an-intact-fibula-may-contribute-to-allow-early-weight-bearing-in-surgically-treated-tibial-plateau-fractures
#8
Ion Carrera, Pablo Eduardo Gelber, Gaetan Chary, Mireia Gomez Masdeu, Miguel A González Ballester, Juan Carlos Monllau, Jerome Noailly
PURPOSE: The role of the proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) in tibial plateau fractures is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess, with finite-element (FE) calculations, differences in interfragmentary movement (IFM) in a split fracture of lateral tibial plateau, with and without intact fibula. It was hypothesized that an intact fibula could positively contribute to the mechanical stabilization of surgically reduced lateral tibial plateau fractures. METHODS: A split fracture of the lateral tibial plateau was recreated in an FE model of a human tibia...
March 3, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250247/long-term-wheel-running-can-prevent-deterioration-of-bone-properties-in-diabetes-mellitus-model-rats
#9
A Minematsu, T Hanaoka, D Takeshita, Y Takada, S Okuda, H Imagita, S Sakata
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of long-term wheel-running on tibia bone properties in T2DM Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. METHODS: Ten five-week-old male OLETF rats were used as experimental animals and 5 Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats as controls. Half of OLETF rats performed daily voluntary wheel-running for 17 months (OLETF-EXE), while neither the remainder of OLETF nor LETO rats had exercise. At the end of experiment, in addition to serum biochemical and bone formation/resorption marker analyses, bone mass, trabecular bone microarchitecture and cortical bone geometry were analyzed in left tibia, and bone mechanical strength of right tibia was measured...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224178/the-role-of-body-weight-on-bone-in-anorexia-nervosa-a-hr-pqct-study
#10
Jacob Frølich, Stinus Hansen, Laura Al-Dakhiel Winkler, Andreas K Andresen, Anne Pernille Hermann, René K Støving
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased risk of fracture. The aim of this study was to assess bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), trabecular microarchitecture and estimated failure load in weight-bearing vs. non-weight-bearing bones in AN. We included twenty-five females with AN, and twenty-five female controls matched on age and height. Bone geometry, vBMD and trabecular microarchitecture were assessed using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography of the distal radius and tibia...
February 21, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125900/geometry-of-the-valgus-knee-contradicting-the-dogma-of-a-femoral-based-deformity
#11
Helge Eberbach, Julian Mehl, Matthias J Feucht, Gerrit Bode, Norbert P Südkamp, Philipp Niemeyer
BACKGROUND: Realignment osteotomies of valgus knee deformities are usually performed at the distal femur, as valgus alignment is considered to be a femoral-based deformity. This dogma, however, has not been proven in a large patient population. Valgus malalignment may also be caused by a tibial deformity or a combined tibial and femoral deformity. PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were (1) to analyze the coronal geometry of patients with valgus malalignment and identify the location of the underlying deformity and (2) to investigate the proportion of cases that require realignment osteotomy at the tibia, the femur, or both locations to avoid an oblique joint line...
March 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096061/connexin37-deficiency-alters-organic-bone-matrix-cortical-bone-geometry-and-increases-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#12
Rafael Pacheco-Costa, Jay R Kadakia, Emily G Atkinson, Joseph M Wallace, Lilian I Plotkin, Rejane D Reginato
Deletion of connexin (Cx) 37 in mice leads to increased cancellous bone mass due to defective osteoclast differentiation. Paradoxically; however, Cx37-deficient mice exhibit reduced cortical thickness accompanied by higher bone strength, suggesting a contribution of Cx37 to bone matrix composition. Thus, we investigated whether global deletion of Cx37 alters the composition of organic bone extracellular matrix. Five-month-old Cx37(-/-) mice exhibited increased marrow cavity area, and periosteal and endocortical bone surface resulting in higher total area in tibia compared to Cx37(+/+) control mice...
January 16, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077394/metal-backed-versus-all-polyethylene-unicompartmental-knee-arthroplasty-proximal-tibial-strain-in-an-experimentally-validated-finite-element-model
#13
C E H Scott, M J Eaton, R W Nutton, F A Wade, S L Evans, P Pankaj
OBJECTIVES: Up to 40% of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) revisions are performed for unexplained pain which may be caused by elevated proximal tibial bone strain. This study investigates the effect of tibial component metal backing and polyethylene thickness on bone strain in a cemented fixed-bearing medial UKA using a finite element model (FEM) validated experimentally by digital image correlation (DIC) and acoustic emission (AE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of ten composite tibias implanted with all-polyethylene (AP) and metal-backed (MB) tibial components were loaded to 2500 N...
January 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057526/even-with-rehydration-preservation-in-ethanol-influences-the-mechanical-properties-of-bone-and-how-bone-responds-to-experimental-manipulation
#14
Evan O Vesper, Max A Hammond, Matthew R Allen, Joseph M Wallace
Typically, bones are harvested at the time of animal euthanasia and stored until mechanical testing. However, storage methods are not standardized, and differential effects on mechanical properties are possible between methods. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects that two common preservation methods (freezing wrapped in saline-soaked gauze and refrigerating ethanol fixed samples) have on bone mechanical properties in the context of an in vitro ribosylation treatment designed to modify mechanical integrity...
April 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032184/unique-effects-of-energy-versus-estrogen-deficiency-on-multiple-components-of-bone-strength-in-exercising-women
#15
E A Southmayd, R J Mallinson, N I Williams, D J Mallinson, M J De Souza
Many female athletes are energy and/or estrogen deficient, but the independent effects on bone health have not been isolated. Energy deficiency was detrimental at the tibia while estrogen deficiency was detrimental at the radius. Nutrition must be considered alongside menstrual recovery when addressing compromised bone health in female athletes. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to describe volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone geometry, and estimated bone strength in exercising women (n = 60) grouped according to energy status (energy replete (EnR: n = 30) vs...
December 28, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923624/a-novel-3d-approach-for-determination-of-frontal-and-coronal-plane-tibial-slopes-from-mr-imaging
#16
Amirhesam Amerinatanzi, Rodney Summers, Kaveh Ahmadi, Vijay K Goel, Timothy E Hewett, Edward Nyman
BACKGROUND: The proximal tibia is geometrically complex, asymmetrical, and variable, is heavily implicated in arthrokinematics of the knee joint, and thus a contributor to knee pathologies such as non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Medial, lateral, and coronal tibial slopes are anatomic parameters that may increase predisposition to knee injuries, but the extent to which each contributes has yet to be fully realized. Previously, two-dimensional methods have quantified tibial slopes, but more reliable 3D methods may prove advantageous...
March 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894941/one-year-of-abaloparatide-a-selective-peptide-activator-of-the-pth1-receptor-increased-bone-mass-and-strength-in-ovariectomized-rats
#17
Aurore Varela, Luc Chouinard, Elisabeth Lesage, Robert Guldberg, Susan Y Smith, Paul J Kostenuik, Gary Hattersley
Abaloparatide is a novel 34 amino acid peptide selected to be a potent and selective activator of the parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTHR1) signaling pathway. The effects of 12months of abaloparatide treatment on bone mass, bone strength and bone quality was assessed in osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats. SD rats were subjected to OVX or sham surgery at 6months of age and left untreated for 3months to allow OVX-induced bone loss. Eighteen OVX rats were sacrificed after this bone depletion period, and the remaining OVX rats received daily s...
February 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882612/relationship-between-geometry-of-the-extensor-mechanism-of-the-knee-and-risk-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury
#18
Josh C Carter, Daniel R Sturnick, Pamela M Vacek, Michael J DeSarno, Erin C Argentieri, James R Slauterbeck, Robert J Johnson, Bruce D Beynnon
The complex inter-segmental forces that are developed across an extended knee by body weight and contraction of the quadriceps muscle group transmits an anteriorly directed force on the tibia that strain the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). We hypothesized that a relationship exists between geometry of the knees extensor mechanism and the risk of sustaining a non-contact ACL injury. Geometry of the extensor mechanism was characterized using MRI scans of the knees of 88 subjects that suffered their first non-contact ACL injury and 88 matched control subjects with normal knees that were on the same team...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871101/morphomics-of-the-talus
#19
David Gorman, Ebram Handy, Sikui Wang, Annette L Irwin, Stewart Wang
Previous studies of frontal crash databases reported that ankle fractures are among the most common lower extremity fractures. While not generally life threatening, these injuries can be debilitating. Laboratory research into the mechanisms of ankle fractures has linked dorsiflexion with an increased risk of tibia and fibula malleolus fractures. However, talus fractures were not produced in the laboratory tests and appear to be caused by more complex loading of the joint. In this study, an analysis of the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the years 2004-2013 was conducted to investigate foot-ankle injury rates in front seat occupants involved in frontal impact crashes...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846265/sexual-dimorphism-of-the-human-tibia-through-time-insights-into-shape-variation-using-a-surface-based-approach
#20
Hana Brzobohatá, Václav Krajíček, Zdeněk Horák, Jana Velemínská
In this paper we present a three-dimensional (3D) morphometrical assessment of human tibia sexual dimorphism based on whole bone digital representation. To detect shape-size and shape differences between sexes, we used geometric morphometric tools and colour-coded surface deviation maps. The surface-based methodology enabled analysis of sexually dimorphic features throughout the shaft and articular ends of the tibia. The overall study dataset consisted of 183 3D models of adult tibiae from three Czech population subsets, dating to the early medieval (9-10th century) (N = 65), early 20th century (N = 61) and 21st-century (N = 57)...
2016: PloS One
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