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Substance dependent

A C Sampaio, R J Mendes, P G Castro, A M Silva
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are used as carriers for drug delivery, and are high biocompatible and designed to endure in the host organism. Despite its current industrial production is low, many of these substances are available on the market, and much more are in the production pipeline. As a result, many of them will end in aquatic systems raising the question whether they can pose a risk to aquatic biota and the associated ecological processes. Microbial decomposers of plant litter, play a key role in forested streams being responsible for the energy flow between terrestrial and aquatic environments...
October 21, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Michael F Regner, Naomi Saenz, Keeran Maharajh, Dorothy J Yamamoto, Brianne Mohl, Korey Wylie, Jason Tregellas, Jody Tanabe
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that compared to healthy controls, long-term abstinent substance dependent individuals (SDI) will differ in their effective connectivity between large-scale brain networks and demonstrate increased directional information from executive control to interoception-, reward-, and habit-related networks. In addition, using graph theory to compare network efficiencies we predicted decreased small-worldness in SDI compared to controls. METHODS: 50 SDI and 50 controls of similar sex and age completed psychological surveys and resting state fMRI...
2016: PloS One
Hendrik Treutler, Steffen Neumann
Mass spectrometry is a key analytical platform for metabolomics. The precise quantification and identification of small molecules is a prerequisite for elucidating the metabolism and the detection, validation, and evaluation of isotope clusters in LC-MS data is important for this task. Here, we present an approach for the improved detection of isotope clusters using chemical prior knowledge and the validation of detected isotope clusters depending on the substance mass using database statistics. We find remarkable improvements regarding the number of detected isotope clusters and are able to predict the correct molecular formula in the top three ranks in 92 % of the cases...
October 20, 2016: Metabolites
Ryoko Shimada, Miho Fujita, Masahiro Yuasa, Hiromi Sawamura, Toshiaki Watanabe, Ayaka Nakashima, Kengo Suzuki
In the present study, the effects of Euglena and paramylon on hyperglycemia were examined in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF; type 2 diabetes mellitus model) rats. OLETF rats were fed an AIN-93 M diet containing cellulose, Euglena, or paramylon for 10 weeks. Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were used as nondiabetic controls. An oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 0 and 10 weeks. OLETF control rats were obese because of bulimia and showed abdominal fat accumulation and hyperglycemia...
October 24, 2016: Food & Function
Gilad Yahav, Eran Barnoy, Nir Roth, Lior Turgeman, Dror Fixler
Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is an essential tool in many scientific fields such as biology and medicine thanks to the known advantages of the fluorescence lifetime (FLT) over the classical fluorescence intensity (FI). However, the frequency domain (FD) FLIM technique suffers from its strong dependence on the reference and its compliance to the sample. In this paper, we suggest a new way to calculate the FLT by using the crossing point (CRPO) between the modulation and phase FLTs measured over several light emitting diode (LED) DC currents values instead of either method alone...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
Eun-Ah Kim, Ha Kyung Lee, Jung Hyun Choi
This study investigated the effects of the freezing and thawing that accompany the warming process on the composition of the soil organic matter in the dissolved and colloidal fractions. Temperate soil samples were incubated in a refrigerator at 2 °C for 4 weeks and compared with those frozen at -20 °C in the second week followed by thawing at 2 °C to study a freeze-thaw effect with minimal effect from the thawing temperature. The freeze-thaw group was compared with those incubated at 25 °C in the last week to investigate a warming effect after thawing...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Randi Grønnestad, Gro D Villanger, Anuschka Polder, Kit M Kovacs, Christian Lydersen, Bjørn M Jenssen, Katrine Borgå
The role of milk in the transfer of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to offspring is not well known in wildlife. Eight PFASs were quantified in plasma and milk in mother-pup pairs of hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) during the nursing period, and the role of milk in the transfer process was analyzed. Hooded seal was chosen because of its short lactation period (3-4 d), during which the pup feeds only on milk. Placental or lactation transfer would thus be the only source of PFAS in the pup. Of the 8 PFASs analyzed (Σ8 PFAS), 7 were found in all samples; therefore, milk is a source to PFASs in pups...
October 23, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
H Mielke, E Di Consiglio, R Kreutz, F Partosch, E Testai, U Gundert-Remy
A physiologically based human kinetic model (PBHKM) was used to predict the in vivo ibuprofen dose leading to the same concentration-time profile as measured in cultured human hepatic cells (Truisi et al. in Toxicol Lett 233(2):172-186, 2015). We parameterized the PBHKM with data from an in vivo study. Tissue partition coefficients were calculated by an algorithm and also derived from the experimental in vitro data for the liver. The predicted concentration-time profile in plasma was in excellent agreement with human experimental data when the liver partition coefficient was calculated by the algorithm (3...
October 21, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Lufeng Zhang, Haiyan Qin, Wanwan Cui, Yang Zhou, Jianxiu Du
The development of new detection methods for proteases activity assay is important in clinical diagnostics and drug development. In this work, a simple, label-free, and turn-on fluorescent sensor was fabricated for trypsin, a protease produced in the pancreas. Cytochrome c, a natural substance of trypsin, could be selectively cleaved by trypsin into heme-peptide fragment. The produced heme-peptide fragment exhibited an intensive catalytic role on the H2O2-mediated the oxidation of thiamine to form strong fluorescent thiochrome...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
B Hehlen, M Al-Sabbagh, A Al-Zein, J Hlinka
The fluctuations of electric polarization in a disordered ferroelectric substance, relaxor crystal PbMg_{1/3}Nb_{2/3}O_{3} (PMN), were studied using a nonlinear inelastic light-scattering technique, hyper-Raman scattering, within a 5-100  cm^{-1} spectral interval and in a broad temperature range from 20 to 900 K. The split ferroelectric mode reveals a local anisotropy of up to about 400 K. Spectral anomalies observed at higher temperatures are explained as due to avoided crossing of the single primary polar soft mode with a temperature-independent, nonpolar spectral feature near 45  cm^{-1}, known from Raman scattering...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Abdullah Turhan, Simone Onrust, Peter Ten Klooster, Marcel Pieterse
AIMS: To test effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs (HSD) program on tobacco and alcohol use in Dutch secondary special education (SE) schools, and whether this depends on subtypes of SE-schools and the level of implementation. DESIGN: In a quasi-experimental design with baseline and post-treatment follow-up 35 classes (N = 363) were allocated arbitrarily or depending on teacher motivation to either intervention condition (N = 205) or usual curriculum (N = 158)...
October 21, 2016: Addiction
Mutlu Mete, Unal Sakoglu, Jeffrey S Spence, Michael D Devous, Thomas S Harris, Bryon Adinoff
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have yielded significant advances in the understanding of neural processes relevant to the development and persistence of addiction. However, these advances have not explored extensively for diagnostic accuracy in human subjects. The aim of this study was to develop a statistical approach, using a machine learning framework, to correctly classify brain images of cocaine-dependent participants and healthy controls. In this study, a framework suitable for educing potential brain regions that differed between the two groups was developed and implemented...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Adeyemi S Adeleye, Arturo A Keller
The implications of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the environment are often investigated using pristine particles. However, there are several biogenic and geogenic materials in natural waters that interact with and modify the surface of ENMs, thereby influencing their fate and effects. Here we studied the influence of soluble extracellular polymeric substances (sEPS) produced by freshwater and marine algae on the surface properties and fate of three commercial TiO2 nanoparticles (nTiO2) with different coatings...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Andreas Arendt, El-Sayed Baz, Monika Stengl
The circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach Rhyparobia (Leucophaea) maderae is located in the accessory medulla (AME). Ipsi- and contralateral histaminergic compound eyes are required for photic entrainment. Light pulses delayed locomotor activity rhythms during the early night and advanced during the late night. Thus, different neuronal pathways might relay either light-dependent delays or advances to the clock. Injections of neuroactive substances combined with running-wheel assays suggested that GABA, PDF, myoinhibitory peptides (MIPs), and orcokinins (ORCs) are part of both entrainment pathways, while allatotropin (AT) only delayed locomotor rhythms at the early night...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Yu Sun, Jesper Østergaard
Efficient drug delivery is dependent on the drug substance dissolving in the body fluids, being released from dosage forms and transported to the site of action. A fundamental understanding of the interplay between the physicochemical properties of the active compound and pharmaceutical excipients defining formulation behavior after exposure to the aqueous environments and pharmaceutical performance is critical in pharmaceutical development, manufacturing and quality control of drugs. UV imaging has been explored as a tool for qualitative and quantitative characterization of drug dissolution and release with the characteristic feature of providing real-time visualization of the solution phase drug transport in the vicinity of the formulation...
October 20, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Aimee N C Campbell, Audrey J Brooks, Martina Pavlicova, Mei-Chen Hu, Mary A Hatch-Maillette, Donald A Calsyn, Susan Tross
HIV transmission often occurs through heterosexual high-risk sex. Even in the era of HIV combination prevention, promoting condom use, and understanding condom barriers, remain priorities, especially among substance-dependent individuals. Men and women (N=729) in outpatient drug treatment participated in a five-session gender-specific risk reduction group or one-session HIV Education group. Condom barriers (Motivation, Partner-related, Access/Availability, Sexual experience) were assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up...
2016: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
A G Dimitrov
The membrane transporters (pumps and co-transporters) are the main players in maintaining the cell homeostasis. Models of various types, each with their own drawbacks, describe transporter behavior. The aim of this study is to find the link between the biophysically based and empirical models to face and solve their specific problems. Instead of decreasing the number of states and using few complex rate constants as is usually done, we use the number of states as great as possible. Then, each transition in the cycle can represent an elementary process and we can apply the mass action law, according to which if rate constants depend on concentrations the dependence is linear...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Hai-Juan Liu, Hua Yan, Jun Yan, Hao Li, Liang Chen, Li-Ren Han, Xiao-Fei Yang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a significant amount of bone loss, which results in osteoporosis (OP). The neuropeptide substance P (SP) and SP receptors may play important roles in the pathogenesis of OP after SCI. To identify the roles of SP in the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell derived osteoblasts (BMSC-OB) in SCI rats, we investigated the expression of neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R) in BMSC-OB and the effects of SP on bone formation by development of BMSC-OB cultures. Sixty young male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: SHAM and SCI...
2016: PloS One
Lu Cao, Mingui Fu, Santosh Kumar, Anil Kumar
Methamphetamine (METH), a commonly used controlled substance, is known to exacerbate neuropathological dysfunction in HIV-infected individuals. The neuropathological manifestation results from cell death or dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS) wherein autophagy is expected to have an important role. Autophagy is generally considered protective during deprivation/stress. However, excessive autophagy can be destructive, leading to autophagic cell death. This study was designed to investigate if METH and HIV-1 gp120 interact to induce autophagy in SVGA astrocytes, and whether autophagy is epiphenomenal or it has a role in METH- and gp120-induced cytotoxicity...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Rachel Sayko Adams, John D Corrigan, Beth A Mohr, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
This study examines whether the relationship between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-deployment binge drinking is independent of screening positive for mental health problems among male and female service members. Data are from the Substance Use and Psychological Injury Combat Study of Army members returning from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq in fiscal years 2008-2011. The sample consists of 240,694 male and 26,406 female active duty members who completed initial and follow-up questionnaires. The initial questionnaire, completed at the end of deployment, included screens for TBI and mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, harmful thoughts)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
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