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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921039/clinical-manifestation-and-management-of-adpkd-in-western-countries
#1
REVIEW
Claudia Sommerer, Martin Zeier
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary kidney disease in Western countries. The prevalence is between 2.4/10,000 and 3.9/10,000. ADPKD represents a systemic disease resulting in deterioration in renal function. Until now, mutations in two genes (PKD1 and PKD2) have been identified. Recently, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved the use of the vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan to slow the progression of cyst development and renal insufficiency connected with ADPKD in adult patients with chronic kidney disease stages 1-3 at initiation of treatment with evidence of rapidly progressing disease...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921038/the-clinical-manifestation-and-management-of-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-in-china
#2
REVIEW
Cheng Xue, Chen-Chen Zhou, Ming Wu, Chang-Lin Mei
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic hereditary kidney disease characterized by progressive enlargement of renal cysts. The incidence is 1-2‰ worldwide. Mutations in two genes (PKD1 and PKD2) cause ADPKD. Currently, there is no pharmaceutical treatment available for ADPKD patients in China. Summary: This review focused on advances in clinical manifestation, gene diagnosis, risk factors, and management of ADPKD in China. There is an age-dependent increase in total kidney volume (TKV) and decrease in renal function in Chinese ADPKD patients...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918997/the-curvilinear-effects-of-sexual-orientation-on-young-adult-substance-use
#3
Jamie E Parnes, Ryan L Rahm-Knigge, Bradley T Conner
Alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana are commonly used by adolescents and linked with harmful health-related outcomes (e.g. injury, dependence). Moreover, heavy episodic (binge) drinking predicts more severe consequences. When examined by sexual orientation, highest rates of substance use have been found among bisexual individuals, with lower use at either end of the spectrum. When examined also by sex, this curvilinear trend is maintained among women but not men. These substance use patterns were identified using group differences (i...
November 18, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918706/effects-of-gaba-neural-regulation-and-intrinsic-cardiac-factors-on-heart-rate-variability-in-zebrafish-larvae
#4
Rafael Antonio Vargas
Heart rate (HR) is a periodic activity that is variable over time due to intrinsic cardiac factors and extrinsic neural control, largely by the autonomic nervous system. Heart rate variability (HRV) is analyzed by measuring consecutive beat-to-beat intervals. This variability can contain information about the factors regulating cardiac activity under normal and pathological conditions, but the information obtained from such analyses is not yet fully understood. In this article, HRV in zebrafish larvae was evaluated under normal conditions and under the effect of substances that modify intrinsic cardiac activity and cardiac activity modulated by the nervous system...
December 5, 2016: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918316/cognitive-impairment-and-tramadol-dependence
#5
Medhat M Bassiony, Usama M Youssef, Mervat S Hassan, Ghada M Salah El-Deen, Hayam El-Gohari, Mohamed Abdelghani, Ahmed Abdalla, Dalia H Ibrahim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment is one of the consequences of substance abuse. Tramadol abuse is a public health problem in Egypt. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of cognitive impairment among tramadol-abuse patients and control subjects. METHODS: This study included 100 patients with tramadol abuse and 100 control subjects (matched for age, sex, and education) who were recruited from Zagazig University Hospital, Egypt...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917506/comparative-in-vitro-toxicity-assessment-of-perfluorinated-carboxylic-acids
#6
Cecon T Mahapatra, Nur P Damayanti, Samuel C Guffey, Jennifer S Serafin, Joseph Irudayaraj, Maria S Sepúlveda
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic fluorinated compounds that are highly bioaccumulative and persistent organic pollutants. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), an eight-carbon chain perfluorinated carboxylic acid, was used heavily for the production of fluoropolymers, but concerns have led to its replacement by shorter carbon chain homologues such as perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA). However, limited toxicity data exist for these substitutes. We evaluated the toxicity of PFOA, PFHxA and PFBA on a zebrafish liver cell line and investigated the effects of exposure on cell metabolism...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917494/disturbing-sleep-and-sleepfulness-during-recovery-from-substance-dependence-in-residential-rehabilitation-settings
#7
Sarah Nettleton, Robert Meadows, Joanne Neale
There is evidence that poor sleep mitigates recovery from substance dependence and increases risk of relapse. However, to date research literature is located within biomedical, clinical and psychological paradigms. To complement the extant work, this article offers a sociological exploration of sleep in the context of recovery from dependence on alcohol and/or other drugs. Drawing on qualitative data generated through interviews with 28 men and women living in residential rehabilitation settings in England, we provide a detailed exploration of sleep practices focusing on how these are enacted throughout the night...
December 5, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916960/detection-of-volatile-metabolites-derived-from-garlic-allium-sativum-in-human-urine
#8
Laura Scheffler, Yvonne Sauermann, Anja Heinlein, Constanze Sharapa, Andrea Buettner
The metabolism and excretion of flavor constituents of garlic, a common plant used in flavoring foods and attributed with several health benefits, in humans is not fully understood. Likewise, the physiologically active principles of garlic have not been fully clarified to date. It is possible that not only the parent compounds present in garlic but also its metabolites are responsible for the specific physiological properties of garlic, including its influence on the characteristic body odor signature of humans after garlic consumption...
December 1, 2016: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916716/effects-of-a-non-competitive-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-antagonist-tiletamine-in-adult-zebrafish
#9
Tatiana O Kolesnikova, Sergey L Khatsko, Vadim A Shevyrin, Yuri Yu Morzherin, Allan V Kalueff
Tiletamine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist chemically related to ketamine and phencyclidine. A common veterinary anesthetic drug, tiletamine is currently a Schedule III controlled substance. This compound exerts sedative effects in humans and animals, also having an abuse potential, toxicity and dissociative hallucinogenic properties clinically. However, the neurotropic profile of tiletamine remains poorly understood, necessitating novel models and in-vivo screens, including non-mammalian species...
December 1, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916279/insights-from-preclinical-choice-models-on-treating-drug-addiction
#10
REVIEW
Matthew L Banks, S Stevens Negus
Substance-use disorders are a global public health problem that arises from behavioral misallocation between drug use and more adaptive behaviors maintained by nondrug alternatives (e.g., food or money). Preclinical drug self-administration procedures that incorporate a concurrently available nondrug reinforcer (e.g., food) provide translationally relevant and distinct dependent measures of behavioral allocation (i.e., to assess the relative reinforcing efficacy of the drug) and behavioral rate (i.e., to assess motor competence)...
December 1, 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916138/alcohol-exposure-differentially-effects-anti-tumor-immunity-in-females-by-altering-dendritic-cell-function
#11
Matthew G Thompson, Flor Navarro, Lennox Chitsike, Luis Ramirez, Elizabeth J Kovacs, Stephanie K Watkins
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a critical component of anti-tumor immunity due to their ability to induce a robust immune response to antigen (Ag). Alcohol was previously shown to reduce DC ability to present foreign Ag and promote pro-inflammatory responses in situations of infection and trauma. However the impact of alcohol exposure on generation of an anti-tumor response, especially in the context of generation of an immune vaccine has not been examined. In the clinic, DC vaccines are typically generated from autologous blood, therefore prior exposure to substances such as alcohol may be a critical factor to consider regarding the effectiveness in generating an immune response...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915431/time-dependent-postmortem-redistribution-of-morphine-and-its-metabolites-in-blood-and-alternative-matrices-application-of-ct-guided-biopsy-sampling
#12
Sandra N Staeheli, Dominic Gascho, Lars C Ebert, Thomas Kraemer, Andrea E Steuer
Interpretation of postmortem morphine concentrations in forensic toxicology provides several pitfalls such as missing information on tolerance, analyte stability, or postmortem redistribution (PMR). Recently, it had been shown that computed tomography (CT)-guided collection of biopsies using a robotic arm (virtobot) provides a valuable strategy for systematic studies on time-dependent PMR. Using this technique, time-dependent PMR of morphine and its metabolites was investigated in 12 cases. At admission to the institute (t1), femoral and heart blood (right ventricle) as well as biopsies from the right lung, the right kidney, liver, spleen, and muscle tissue were collected...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915237/placental-morphology-in-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#13
Marlene Tai, Anna Piskorski, Jennifer C W Kao, Lynn A Hess, Suzanne M de la Monte, Füsun Gündoğan
AIMS: Maternal alcohol drinking adversely affects pregnancy outcome. Although fetal health and development are highly dependent upon the integrity of placentation, little is known about placental morphology following gestational exposure to alcohol in humans. METHODS: In this clinical study, subjects were recruited between 2010 and 2013 from an outpatient substance abuse and mental health treatment center for women. Data collected included maternal age, substance abuse history, comorbidities, pregnancy outcomes, gestational age at delivery, birth weight and placental weight...
December 3, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913580/responding-to-challenges-for-people-with-psychotic-illness-updated-evidence-from-the-survey-of-high-impact-psychosis
#14
REVIEW
Vera A Morgan, Anna Waterreus, Vaughan Carr, David Castle, Martin Cohen, Carol Harvey, Cherrie Galletly, Andrew Mackinnon, Patrick McGorry, John J McGrath, Amanda L Neil, Suzy Saw, Johanna C Badcock, Debra L Foley, Geoff Waghorn, Sarah Coker, Assen Jablensky
OBJECTIVE: The objective is to summarise recent findings from the 2010 Australian Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP) and examine their implications for future policy and planning to improve mental health, physical health and other circumstances of people with a psychotic disorder. METHODS: Survey of High Impact Psychosis collected nationally representative data on 1825 people with psychotic illness. Over 60 papers have been published covering key challenges reported by participants: financial problems, loneliness and social isolation, unemployment, poor physical health, uncontrolled symptoms of mental illness, and lack of stable, suitable housing...
December 1, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913103/ontogeny-aging-and-gender-related-changes-in-hepatic-multidrug-resistant-protein-genes-in-rats
#15
Qiong-Ni Zhu, Wei-Yu Hou, Shang-Fu Xu, Yuan-Fu Lu, Jie Liu
: Multidrug resistance proteins (Mrps) are efflux transporters playing important roles in endogenous substances and xenobiotics transport out of the liver. Children, elderly, gender and physio-pathological conditions could influence their expression and result in changes in drug disposition. AIM: This study was aimed to examine the development-, ageing-, and sex-dependent changes in Mrp1-4 and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (Abcg2) gene expressions in livers of rats...
November 29, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911073/reducing-risky-alcohol-use-what-health-care-systems-can-do
#16
Amity E Quinn, Mary Brolin, Maureen T Stewart, Brooke Evans, Constance Horgan
Risky, non-dependent alcohol use is prevalent in the United States, affecting 25% of adults (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014b). Massachusetts has higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking than most states (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015). Serious physical, social, and economic consequences result. Excessive alcohol use contributes to cancer, cardiovascular disease, sleep disorders, birth defects, motor vehicle injuries, and suicide, and it complicates management of chronic illnesses (Green, McKnight-Eily, Tan, Mejia, & Denny, 2016; Laramee et al...
April 27, 2016: Issue Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909988/predicting-the-abuse-liability-of-entactogen-class-new-and-emerging-psychoactive-substances-via-preclinical-models-of-drug-self-administration
#17
Shawn M Aarde, Michael A Taffe
Animal models of drug self-administration are currently the gold standard for making predictions regarding the relative likelihood that a recreational drug substance will lead to continued use and addiction. Such models have been found to have high predictive accuracy and discriminative validity for a number of drug classes including ethanol, nicotine, opioids, and psychostimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Members of the entactogen class of psychostimulants (drugs that produce an "open mind state" including feelings of interpersonal closeness, intimacy and empathy) have been less frequently studied in self-administration models...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909823/gelatin-microspheres-containing-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-or-substance-p-repair-bone-defects-in-osteoporotic-rabbits
#18
Jianghao Chen, Wei Liu, Jinxiu Zhao, Cong Sun, Jie Chen, Kaijin Hu, Linlin Zhang, Yuxiang Ding
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the therapeutic effect of gelatin microspheres containing different concentrations of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or substance P on repairing bone defects in a rabbit osteoporosis model. RESULTS: Gelatin microspheres containing different concentrations of CGRP or substance P promoted osteogenesis after 3 months in a rabbit osteoporotic bone defective model. From micro-computed tomography imaging results, 10 nM CGRP was optimal for increasing the trabecular number and decreasing the trabecular bone separation degree; similar effects were observed with the microspheres containing 1 µM substance P...
December 1, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908240/new-fluorescent-macrolide-derivatives-for-studying-interactions-of-antibiotics-and-their-analogs-with-the-ribosomal-exit-tunnel
#19
A G Tereshchenkov, A V Shishkina, V V Karpenko, V A Chertkov, A L Konevega, P S Kasatsky, A A Bogdanov, N V Sumbatyan
Novel fluorescent derivatives of macrolide antibiotics related to tylosin bearing rhodamine, fluorescein, Alexa Fluor 488, BODIPY FL, and nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD) residues were synthesized. The formation of complexes of these compounds with 70S E. coli ribosomes was studied by measuring the fluorescence polarization depending on the ribosome amount at constant concentration of the fluorescent substance. With the synthesized fluorescent tylosin derivatives, the dissociation constants for ribosome complexes with several known antibiotics and macrolide analogs previously obtained were determined...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907187/substance-p-induces-ho-1-expression-in-raw-264-7-cells-promoting-switch-towards-m2-like-macrophages
#20
Giovanna Montana, Nadia Lampiasi
Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide that mediates many physiological as well as inflammatory responses. Recently, SP has been implicated in the resolution of inflammation through induction of M2 macrophages phenotype. The shift between M1-like and M2-like, allowing the resolution of inflammatory processes, also takes place by means of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1). HO-1 is induced in response to oxidative stress and inflammatory stimuli and modulates the immune response through macrophages polarisation. SP induces HO-1 expression in human periodontal ligament (PDL), the latter potentially plays a role in cytoprotection...
2016: PloS One
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