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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027347/a-two-step-evolutionary-process-establishes-a-non-native-vitamin-b6-pathway-in-bacillus-subtilis
#1
Jonathan Rosenberg, KahYen C Yeak, Fabian M Commichau
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the most important form of vitamin B6 serves as a cofactor for many proteins. Two alternative pathways for de novo PLP biosynthesis are known: the short deoxy-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP)-independent pathway, which is present in the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis and the longer DXP-dependent pathway, which has been intensively studied in the Gram-negative model bacterium Escherichia coli. Previous studies revealed that bacteria contain many promiscuous enzymes causing a so-called "underground metabolism", which can be important for the evolution of novel pathways...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026388/cytotoxicity-testing-of-aqueous-extract-of-bitter-leaf-vernonia-amygdalina-del-and-sniper-1000ec-2-3-dichlorovinyl-dimethyl-phosphate-using-the-alium-cepa-test
#2
Jane Ogoamaka Okwuzu, Peter Odeiga, Olubunmi AdetoroOtubanjo, Oliver Chukwujekwu Ezechi
BACKGROUND: The unrefined nature of the herbal preparations from Vernonia amygdalina (VA) and toxicity potentials of Sniper may both have severe consequences on the biochemical and genetic systems. OBJECTIVES: To assess the microscopic and macroscopic effects of these substances. METHODS: VA leafs and Sniper were prepared and dissolved in distilled water to give different concentrations. Series of baseline tests were carried out to establish concentration range for root growth...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025269/toward-a-qualitative-understanding-of-binge-watching-behaviors-a-focus-group-approach
#3
Maèva Flayelle, Pierre Maurage, Joël Billieux
Background and aims Binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in a row) now constitutes a widespread phenomenon. However, little is known about the psychological factors underlying this behavior, as reflected by the paucity of available studies, most merely focusing on its potential harmfulness by applying the classic criteria used for other addictive disorders without exploring the uniqueness of binge-watching. This study thus aimed to take the opposite approach as a first step toward a genuine understanding of binge-watching behaviors through a qualitative analysis of the phenomenological characteristics of TV series watching...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024790/dna-methylation-and-potential-multigenerational-epigenetic-effects-linked-to-uranium-chronic-low-dose-exposure-in-gonads-of-males-and-females-rats
#4
REVIEW
G Elmhiri, C Gloaguen, S Grison, D Kereselidze, C Elie, K Tack, M Benderitter, P Lestaevel, A Legendre, M Souidi
INTRODUCTION: An increased health problem in industrialised countries is the contemporary concern of public and scientific community as well. This has been attributed in part to accumulated environmental pollutants especially radioactive substances and the use of nuclear power plants worldwide. However, the outcome of chronic exposure to low doses of a radionuclide such as uranium remains unknown. Recently, a paradigm shift in the perception of risk of radiotoxicology has emerged through investigating the possibility of transmission of biological effects over generations, in particular by epigenetic pathways...
October 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023967/copper-toxicity-and-date-palm-seedling-tolerance-monitoring-of-related-biomarkers
#5
Zayneb ChaÂBene, Imen Rekik Hakim, Agnieszka Rorat, Amine Elleuch, Hafedh Mejdoub, Franck Vandenbulcke
Date palm seeds were exposed to different copper solutions to examine plant stress responses. Low Cu concentrations (0.02 and 0.2 mM) caused an increase of seed germination, whereas, higher Cu amount (2 mM) significantly inhibited seeds germination, delayed hypocotyl elongation, increased seedling mortality and reduced germination index by more than 90 %. Metal-related toxicity symptoms appeared after 15 days of 2 mM Cu exposure. Biochemical activities, like amylase activity and redox balance elements were examined in order to study the relationship between external Cu amount and internal plant response...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023798/intrathecal-antibody-distribution-in-the-rat-brain-surface-diffusion-perivascular-transport-and-osmotic-enhancement-of-delivery
#6
Michelle E Pizzo, Daniel J Wolak, Niyanta N Kumar, Eric Brunette, Christina L Brunnquell, Melanie-Jane Hannocks, N Joan Abbott, M Elizabeth Meyerand, Lydia Sorokin, Danica B Stanimirovic, Robert G Thorne
The precise mechanisms governing the central distribution of macromolecules from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the brain and spinal cord remain poorly understood, despite their importance for physiological processes such as antibody trafficking for central immune surveillance as well as several ongoing intrathecal clinical trials. Here, we clarify how immunoglobulin G (IgG) and smaller single-domain antibodies (sdAb) distribute throughout the whole brain in a size-dependent manner after intrathecal infusion in rats using ex vivo fluorescence and in vivo 3D magnetic resonance imaging...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022183/in-search-of-a-comprehensible-set-of-endpoints-for-the-routine-monitoring-of-neurotoxicity-in-vertebrates-sensory-perception-and-nerve-transmission-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-embryos
#7
Daniel Stengel, Sarah Wahby, Thomas Braunbeck
In order to develop a test battery based on a variety of neurological systems in fish, three sensory systems (vision, olfaction, and lateral line) as well as nerve transmission (acetylcholine esterase) were analyzed in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos with respect to their suitability as a model for the screening of neurotoxic trace substances in aquatic ecosystems. As a selection of known or putative neurotoxic compounds, amidotrizoic acid, caffeine, cypermethrin, dichlorvos, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-nonylphenol, perfluorooctanoic acid, and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid were tested in the fish embryo test (OECD test guideline 236) to determine EC10 values, which were then used as maximum test concentration in subsequent neurotoxicity tests...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021783/extracellular-polymeric-substance-production-and-aggregated-bacteria-colonization-influence-the-competition-of-microbes-in-biofilms
#8
Pahala G Jayathilake, Saikat Jana, Steve Rushton, David Swailes, Ben Bridgens, Tom Curtis, Jinju Chen
The production of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) is important for the survival of biofilms. However, EPS production is costly for bacteria and the bacterial strains that produce EPS (EPS+) grow in the same environment as non-producers (EPS-) leading to competition between these strains for nutrients and space. The outcome of this competition is likely to be dependent on factors such as initial attachment, EPS production rate, ambient nutrient levels and quorum sensing. We use an Individual-based Model (IbM) to study the competition between EPS+ and EPS- strains by varying the nature of initial colonizers which can either be in the form of single cells or multicellular aggregates...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021121/effect-of-computerized-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-on-acquisition-of-coping-skills-among-cocaine-dependent-individuals-enrolled-in-methadone-maintenance
#9
Brian D Kiluk, Elise E DeVito, Matthew B Buck, Karen Hunkele, Charla Nich, Kathleen M Carroll
The acquisition of coping skills has long been considered one of the putative mechanisms of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders, yet consistent statistical support is lacking. This study sought to replicate and extend prior findings regarding the quality of coping skills as a mediator of abstinence outcomes from a computerized CBT program for substance users. Participants were methadone-maintained, cocaine dependent individuals enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of computer-based training for CBT ('CBT4CBT') as an add-on to treatment as usual (TAU+CBT4CBT) compared to TAU only...
November 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020607/epigenetic-regulation-of-motivated-behaviors-by-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors
#10
REVIEW
Lindsay Elvir, Florian Duclot, Zuoxin Wang, Mohamed Kabbaj
Growing evidence has begun to elucidate the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms in the modulation and maintenance of gene expression and behavior. Histone acetylation is one such epigenetic mechanism, which has been shown to profoundly alter gene expression and behaviors. In this review, we begin with an overview of the major epigenetic mechanisms including histones acetylation. We next focus on recent evidence about the influence of environmental stimuli on various motivated behaviors through histone acetylation and highlight how histone deacetylase inhibitors can correct some of the pathologies linked to motivated behaviors including substance abuse, feeding and social attachments...
October 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020055/danshen-protects-against-early-stage-alcoholic-liver-disease-in-mice-via-inducing-ppar%C3%AE-activation-and-subsequent-4-hne-degradation
#11
Lei Ding, Like Wo, Zhongyan Du, Lihua Tang, Zhenyuan Song, Xiaobing Dou
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a type of chronic liver disease caused by long-term heavy ethanol consumption. Danshen is one of the most commonly used substances in traditional Chinese medicine and has been widely used for the treatment of various diseases, and most frequently, the ALD. The current study aims to determine the potential beneficial effect of Danshen administration on ALD and to clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms. Danshen administration improved liver pathologies of ALD, attenuated alcohol-induced increment of hepatic 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) formation, and prevented hepatic Peroxisome proliferators activated receptor alpha (PPARα) suppression in response to chronic alcohol consumption...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018449/mechanisms-cofactors-and-augmenting-factors-involved-in-anaphylaxis
#12
REVIEW
Rosa Muñoz-Cano, Mariona Pascal, Giovanna Araujo, M J Goikoetxea, Antonio L Valero, Cesar Picado, Joan Bartra
Anaphylaxis is an acute and life-threatening systemic reaction. Many triggers have been described, including food, drug, and hymenoptera allergens, which are the most frequently involved. The mechanisms described in anaphylactic reactions are complex and implicate a diversity of pathways. Some of these mechanisms may be key to the development of the anaphylactic reaction, while others may only modify its severity. Although specific IgE, mast cells, and basophils are considered the principal players in anaphylaxis, alternative mechanisms have been proposed in non-IgE anaphylactic reactions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017954/low-level-led-photodynamic-therapy-using-curcumin-loaded-tetraether-liposomes
#13
Lili Duse, Shashank Reddy Pinnapireddy, Boris Strehlow, Jarmila Jedelská, Udo Bakowsky
Oncological use of photodynamic therapy is an evolving field in cancer therapeutics. Photosensitisers are prone to accumulation inside healthy tissues causing undesirable effects. To avoid this, we have developed tetraether lipid liposomal formulations containing curcumin which is a naturally occurring anti-cancer substance and deemed to be safe towards healthy cells. Upon excitation with light at a specific wavelength, curcumin produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in presence of oxygen, thereby exhibiting a cytotoxic effect towards the surrounding tissues, giving a total control on the onset of therapy...
October 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017102/carnitine-alkyl-ester-bromides-as-novel-biosourced-ionic-liquids-cationic-hydrotropes-and-surfactants
#14
Katharina Häckl, Andrea Mühlbauer, Jesús F Ontiveros, Sinisa Marinkovic, Boris Estrine, Werner Kunz, Véronique Nardello-Rataj
HYPOTHESIS: In contrast to anionic and nonionic amphiphilic substances, bio-based cationic ones are very rare. Cationic amphiphiles are mostly based on quaternary ammonium, pyridinium or imidazolium groups that are either badly biodegradable or have toxic residues even after degradation. In the search for green alternatives to cationic hydrotropes and amphiphiles, natural l-carnitine could be a promising candidate for a cationic headgroup. EXPERIMENTS: By esterification of carnitine in one step and with low cost, cationic molecules with alkyl chain length of n=2-14 could be obtained...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016967/automatable-algorithms-to-identify-nonmedical-opioid-use-using-electronic-data-a-systematic-review
#15
Chelsea Canan, Jennifer M Polinski, G Caleb Alexander, Mary K Kowal, Troyen A Brennan, William H Shrank
Objective: Improved methods to identify nonmedical opioid use can help direct health care resources to individuals who need them. Automated algorithms that use large databases of electronic health care claims or records for surveillance are a potential means to achieve this goal. In this systematic review, we reviewed the utility, attempts at validation, and application of such algorithms to detect nonmedical opioid use. Materials and Methods: We searched PubMed and Embase for articles describing automatable algorithms that used electronic health care claims or records to identify patients or prescribers with likely nonmedical opioid use...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993577/effect-of-biochanin-a-versus-17%C3%AE-estradiol-in-rat-submandibular-salivary-gland
#16
Amira M Elsherbini, Mohammed A R Mohammed, Fatma M Ibrahim
The epigenetic nature of development mandates the observation of the effect of any exogenous substance, especially those with estrogenic activities, during critical phases of development. The submandibular gland (SMG) presents as a great model due to extensive postnatal development, and is known to be regulated and affected by hormones as well as growth factors. Herein, we observed postnatal development following low doses of Biochanin A (BCA) and 17β estradiol (E2) in rats. The pups were randomly divided into four groups: control, BCA, E2, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and euthanized at the 6th, 15th, 30th, and 60th postnatal days (PND)...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992574/emerging-role-for-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-alcohol-seeking-behaviors
#17
REVIEW
Paul M Klenowski
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays an important role in high-order executive processes and sends highly organized projections to sub-cortical regions controlling mood, motivation and impulsivity. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated alcohol-induced effects on the activity and composition of the PFC which are implicated in associative learning processes and may disrupt executive control over impulsivity, leading to an inability to self-limit alcohol intake. Animal studies have begun to dissect the role of the mPFC circuitry in alcohol-seeking behavior and withdrawal, and have identified a key role for projections to sub-cortical sites including the extended amygdala and the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
September 30, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992491/photolysis-of-clethodim-herbicide-and-a-formulation-in-aquatic-environments-fate-and-ecotoxicity-assessment-of-photoproducts-by-qsar-models
#18
Juan José Villaverde, Beatriz Sevilla-Morán, Carmen López-Goti, Luisa Calvo, José Luis Alonso-Prados, Pilar Sandín-España
The photochemical fate of the herbicide clethodim in natural waters was investigated under simulated and natural sunlight radiation. This herbicide exhibited a rapid degradation rate in simulated aquatic environment with half-lives ranged from 27.9min to 4.6h. The commercial formulation of clethodim showed a faster degradation with half-lives from 19.3min to 1.4h. It has also been demonstrated that the photolytic behavior of clethodim was affected by the water composition and the radiation intensity. Nine major photoproducts were identified and their distribution was dependent on the experimental conditions...
October 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990785/negative-and-positive-confinement-effects-in-chiral-separation-chromatography-monitored-with-molecular-scale-precision-by-in-situ-electron-paramagnetic-resonance-epr-techniques
#19
Martin Wessig, Martin Spitzbarth, Alexander Klaiber, Malte Drescher, Sebastian Polarz
Separation of compounds using liquid chromatography is a process of enormous technological importance. This is true in particular for chiral substances, when one enantiomer has the desired set of properties and the other one may be harmful. The degree of development in liquid chromatography is extremely high, but still there is a lack in understanding based on experimental data how selectivity works on a molecular level directly at the surfaces of a porous host material. We have prepared amino-acid containing organosilica as such host materials...
October 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990593/riluzole-impairs-cocaine-reinstatement-and-restores-adaptations-in-intrinsic-excitability-and-glt-1-expression
#20
Marian T Sepulveda-Orengo, Kati L Healey, Ronald Kim, Alyson C Auriemma, Jennifer Rojas, Nicholas Woronoff, Rachel Hyppolite, Kathryn J Reissner
Adaptations in glutamate signaling within the brain's reward circuitry are observed following withdrawal from several abused drugs, including cocaine. These include changes in intrinsic cellular excitability, glutamate release, and glutamate uptake. Pharmacological or optogenetic reversal of these adaptations have been shown to reduce measures of cocaine craving and seeking, raising the hypothesis that regulation of glutamatergic signaling represents a viable target for the treatment of substance use disorders...
October 9, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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