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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676145/identifying-and-quantifying-the-intermediate-processes-during-nitrate-dependent-iron-ii-oxidation
#1
James Jamieson, Henning Prommer, Anna Kaksonen, Jing Sun, Adam Siade, Anna Yusov, Benjamin C Bostick
Microbially driven nitrate-dependent iron (Fe) oxidation (NDFO) in subsurface environments has been intensively studied. However, the extent to which Fe(II) oxidation is biologically catalyzed remains unclear because no neutrophilic iron-oxidizing and nitrate reducing autotroph has been isolated to confirm the existence of an enzymatic pathway. While mixotrophic NDFO bacteria have been isolated, understanding the process is complicated by simultaneous abiotic oxidation due to nitrite produced during denitrification...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675707/a-rapid-solution-based-method-for-determining-the-affinity-of-heroin-hapten-induced-antibodies-to-heroin-its-metabolites-and-other-opioids
#2
Oscar B Torres, Alexander J Duval, Agnieszka Sulima, Joshua F G Antoline, Arthur E Jacobson, Kenner C Rice, Carl R Alving, Gary R Matyas
We describe for the first time a method that utilizes microscale thermophoresis (MST) technology to determine polyclonal antibody affinities to small molecules. Using a novel type of heterologous MST, we have accurately measured a solution-based binding affinity of serum antibodies to heroin which was previously impossible with other currently available methods. Moreover, this mismatch approach (i.e., using a cross-reactive hapten tracer) has never been reported in the literature. When compared with equilibrium dialysis combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (ED-UPLC/MS/MS), this novel MST method yields similar binding affinity values for polyclonal antibodies to the major heroin metabolites 6-AM and morphine...
April 19, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674802/dried-urine-spots-for-detection-of-benzodiazepines
#3
Raka Jain, Rizwana Quraishi, Atul Ambekar, Arpita Verma, Pratibha Gupta
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Benzodiazepines (BZD) are widely prescribed to substance users. However, the nonmedical use of prescription BZD often leads to abuse and dependence. Therefore, it is important to detect BZD among substance users seeking treatment. The aim of the present study was to develop an efficient method for testing BZD on dried urine spot (DUS) and evaluating its clinical applicability. METHODS: This involved optimization of conditions for the detection, recovery, and stability of BZD from dried urine, spotted on filter paper...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674380/odor-discrimination-learning-in-the-indian-greater-short-nosed-fruit-bat-cynopterus-sphinx-differential-expression-of-egr-1-c-fos-and-pp-1-in-the-olfactory-bulb-amygdala-and-hippocampus
#4
Murugan Mukilan, Wieslaw Bogdanowicz, Ganapathy Marimuthu, Koilmani Emmanuvel Rajan
Activity-dependent expression of immediate-early genes (IEGs) is induced by exposure to odor. The present study was designed to investigate whether there is differential expression of IEGs ( Egr-1 , C-fos ) in the brain region mediating olfactory memory in the Indian greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx We assumed that differential expression of IEGs in different brain regions may orchestrate a preference odor (PO) and aversive odor (AO) memory in C. sphinx We used preferred (0.8% wt/wt of cinnamon powder) and aversive (0...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674092/humic-acid-attenuation-of-silver-nanoparticle-toxicity-by-ion-complexation-and-the-formation-of-a-ag-3-coating
#5
Paolin Rocio Cáceres-Vélez, Maria Luiza Fascineli, Marcelo Henrique Sousa, Cesar Koppe Grisolia, Luis Yate, Paulo Eduardo Narcizo de Souza, Irina Estrela-Lopis, Sergio Moya, Ricardo Bentes Azevedo
The use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) result in an inevitable contact with aquatic environments. Here we study the behavior of AgNPs and the developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos exposed to these nanoparticles (0-10 mg/L) with and without the presence of HA (20 mg/L), using zebrafish facility water (ZFW) and zebrafish growing media (ZGM). The presence of cations and HA gave rise to a decrease in Ag ion release and ζ-potential, an increase in the hydrodynamic diameter and oxidation of the AgNP surface...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672876/regional-brain-volume-changes-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals-during-short-term-and-long-term-abstinence
#6
Xiaowei Zou, Timothy C Durazzo, Dieter J Meyerhoff
BACKGROUND: Widespread brain atrophy in alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) has been consistently documented in pathological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Longitudinal MRI studies have shown that the regional brain volume losses in ALC are partially reversible during abstinence from alcohol. The goal of this study was to determine volume reductions in cortical and subcortical regions functionally important to substance use behavior and their changes during short-term (1 week to 1 month) and long-term abstinence (1 month to 7 months) from alcohol...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671814/sex-specific-alterations-in-%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-receptor-expression-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#7
Joan Y Holgate, Josephine R Tarren, Selena E Bartlett
Background : The mechanisms leading from traumatic stress to social, emotional and cognitive impairment and the development of mental illnesses are still undetermined and consequently there remains a critical need to develop therapies for preventing the adverse consequences of traumatic stress. Research indicates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4 subunits (α4*nAChRs) are both impacted by stress and capable of modulating the stress response. In this study, we investigated whether varenicline, a partial α4β2*nAChR agonist which reduces nicotine, alcohol and sucrose consumption, can reduce stress, a driving factor in substance use disorders...
April 19, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671376/desistance-and-treatment-seeking-among-women-with-substance-use-disorders
#8
Blythe E Rhodes, Nisha C Gottfredson, Lauren M Hill
Addiction rates are rising faster among women than men. However, women with substance use disorders are less likely to enter treatment than males. This study seeks to understand how turning-point events and other maturational processes affect "life course persistent" women's motivations for seeking treatment for their disorder. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 30 women who were receiving treatment for addiction using thematic analysis. Recurring themes were as follows: experiences of rock-bottom events prior to entering treatment, feeling "sick and tired" in regard to both their physical and mental health, and shifting identities or perceptions of themselves...
April 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667798/delusional-infestation-in-psychodermatology
#9
Monica Rosales Santillan, Dustin L Taylor, Jason S Reichenberg
Delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis, consists of a patient's strong belief that he or she is infested with a nonliving substance or living organism despite lack of medical evidence to support this belief. The most commonly reported sources of infestation include insects, fibrous strands, worms, and scabies. Delusional infestation is predominantly seen in women and older patients. This disorder has a variable course and prognosis in patients. Delusional infestation can be a primary psychiatric problem, or secondary to underlying medical conditions or other psychiatric disorders...
April 18, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667182/breathing-regulation-and-blood-gas-homeostasis-after-near-complete-lesions-of-the-retrotrapezoid-nucleus-in-adult-rats
#10
George M P R Souza, Roy Kanbar, Daniel S Stornetta, Stephen B G Abbott, Ruth L Stornetta, Patrice G Guyenet
The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is one of several CNS nuclei that contribute, in various capacities (e.g. CO2 detection, neuronal modulation) to the central respiratory chemoreflex (CRC). Here we test how important the RTN is to PCO2 homeostasis and breathing during sleep or wake. RTN Nmb positive neurons were killed with targeted microinjections of substance-P-saporin conjugate in adult rats. Under normoxia, rats with large RTN lesions (92 ± 4 % cell loss) had normal blood pressure (BP) and arterial pH but were hypoxic (-8 mmHg PaO2 ) and hypercapnic (+10 mmHg PaCO2 )...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664050/association-between-perceived-stressfulness-of-stressful-life-events-and-the-suicidal-risk-in-chinese-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#11
Jing-Yu Lin, Yu Huang, Yun-Ai Su, Xin Yu, Xiao-Zhen Lyu, Qi Liu, Tian-Mei Si
Background: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) usually have high risk of suicidality. Few studies have investigated the effects of stressful life events (SLEs) on the risk of suicide in Chinese patients who have developed MDD. This study aimed to investigate the impact of SLEs on suicidal risk in Chinese patients with MDD. Methods: In total, 1029 patients with MDD were included from nine psychiatric hospitals to evaluate the impact of SLEs on suicidal risk...
April 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663056/application-of-asymmetric-flow-field-flow-fractionation-af4-and-multiangle-light-scattering-mals-for-the-evaluation-of-changes-in-the-product-molar-mass-during-pvp-b-pamps-synthesis
#12
Catalina Fuentes, Joel Castillo, Jose Vila, Lars Nilsson
The use of polymers for the delivery of drugs has increased dramatically in the last decade. To ensure the desired properties and functionality of such substances, adequate characterization in terms of the molar mass (M) and size is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the M and size of PVP-b-PAMPS when the amounts of the synthesis reactants in the two-step radical reaction were varied. The determination of the M and size distributions was performed by an asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) system connected to multiangle light scattering (MALS) and differential refractive index (dRI) detectors...
April 16, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662223/ecological-suicide-in-microbes
#13
Christoph Ratzke, Jonas Denk, Jeff Gore
The growth and survival of organisms often depend on interactions between them. In many cases, these interactions are positive and caused by a cooperative modification of the environment. Examples are the cooperative breakdown of complex nutrients in microbes or the construction of elaborate architectures in social insects, in which the individual profits from the collective actions of her peers. However, organisms can similarly display negative interactions by changing the environment in ways that are detrimental for them, for example by resource depletion or the production of toxic byproducts...
April 16, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660776/correlation-between-acetogenin-content-and-antiproliferative-activity-of-pawpaw-asimina-triloba-l-dunal-fruit-pulp-grown-in-korea
#14
Jin-Sik Nam, Seo-Yeon Park, Hyo-Jeong Lee, Seon-Ok Lee, Hye-Lim Jang, Young Ha Rhee
Pawpaw (Asimina triloba [L.] Dunal) is widely cultivated in Korea for its fruit, which contains bioactive compounds, such as acetogenins. In this study, we investigated the acetogenin content and antiproliferative activity of pawpaw fruit pulp against various cancer cell lines and evaluated the relationship between these two variables at different maturation stages. Unripe fruit had higher antiproliferative activity than ripe fruit, and the activity level depended on acetogenin content. In addition, the presence of specific acetogenins was related to inhibition of certain cancer cell types...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659878/retail-stability-of-three-beef-muscles-from-grass-legume-and-feedlot-finished-cattle
#15
J F Legako, T Cramer, K Yardley, T J Murphy, T Gardner, A Chail, L R Pitcher, J W MacAdam
This study aimed to determine the influence of finishing diet on beef appearance and lipid oxidation of three beef muscles. A total of 18 Angus steers were selected from three diet treatments: grass-finished (USUGrass), legume-finished (USUBFT), and grain-finished (USUGrain). After processing, longissimus thoracis (LT), triceps brachii (TB), and gluteus medius (GM) steaks were evaluated over a 7 d display period. A muscle × diet interaction was observed for instrumental lightness (L*) and redness (a*) (P ≤ 0...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658530/the-comparative-study-of-influence-of-lactic-and-glycolic-acids-copolymers-type-on-properties-of-daunorubicin-loaded-nanoparticles-and-drug-release
#16
Elena Nikolskaya, Mariya Sokol, Mariya Faustova, Olga Zhunina, Murad Mollaev, Nikita Yabbarov, Oksana Tereshchenko, Roman Popov, Eugen Severin
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the physico-chemical and biological properties of polymeric nanoparticles obtained from poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) with different ratios of monomers loaded with daunorubicin (DNR). METHODS: DNR-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared with use of modified simultaneous double-emulsion solvent evaporation/diffusion technique. NPs were characterized using dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
2018: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658498/-clinical-symptoms-and-personality-traits-in-patients-using-psychostimulant-drugs-and-other-psychoactive-substances
#17
T V Agibalova, K N Poplevchenkov
AIM: To obtain preliminary data on personality and clinical/psychopathological predictors of combined use of psychoactive drugs in patients with psychostimulant dependence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-nine inpatients were examined. Family history of drug dependence, personality disorders, clinical/psychopathological characteristics and disease course (breakdowns, relapses, remissions) were compared in patients with psychostimulant dependence (n=35) and patients who used other psychoactive substances (n=54)...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658065/humification-process-in-different-kinds-of-organic-residue-by-composting-and-vermicomposting-have-microbioreactors-really-accelerated-the-process
#18
Paulo R Dores-Silva, Maria D Landgraf, Maria O O Rezende
The organic matter existing in nature presents as a complex system of various substances. The humic fraction refers to the humic substances (HS) and consists of humic acids (HA), fulvic acids (FA), and humins, according to solubility in aqueous solution. The physical and chemical characteristics of HA, FA, and humins depend on many factors, among which is the type of original organic material. Two processes for the stabilization of organic materials are known worldwide: composting and vermicomposting. Cattle manure, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, and vegetable wastes from leaves were the organic residues chosen for the composting and vermicomposting processes...
April 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656349/the-designer-drug-3-fluoromethcathinone-induces-oxidative-stress-and-activates-autophagy-in-ht22-neuronal-cells
#19
Kamila Siedlecka-Kroplewska, Agata Wrońska, Grzegorz Stasiłojć, Zbigniew Kmieć
Synthetic cathinones are psychoactive substances, derivatives of a natural psychostimulant cathinone. Although many synthetic cathinones have lost their legal status in many countries, their abuse still continues worldwide. Recently, they have been reported to exert neurotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanisms of their action have not been fully elucidated. Recently, they have been linked to the induction of oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 3-fluoromethcathinone (3-FMC), a synthetic cathinone, is able to induce oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis in HT22 immortalized mouse hippocampal cells...
April 14, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656248/human-health-risk-assessment-for-nanoparticle-contaminated-aquifer-systems
#20
Tiziana Tosco, Rajandrea Sethi
Nanosized particles (NPs), such as TiO2 , Silver, graphene NPs, nanoscale zero-valent iron, carbon nanotubes, etc., are increasingly used in industrial processes, and releases at production plants and from landfills are likely scenarios for the next years. As a consequence, appropriate procedures and tools to quantify the risks for human health associated to these releases are needed. The tiered approach of the standard ASTM procedure (ASTM-E2081-00) is today the most applied for human health risk assessment at sites contaminated by chemical substances, but it cannot be directly applied to nanoparticles: NP transport along migration pathways follows mechanisms significantly different from those of chemicals; moreover, also toxicity indicators (namely, reference dose and slope factor) are NP-specific...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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