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Brenda M C Costa, Mariana C Marra, Thiago C Oliveira, Rodrigo A A Munoz, Alex D Batista, Claudimir L do Lago, Eduardo M Richter
Ammonium and diphenhydramine are active ingredients commonly found in the same pharmaceutical preparations. We report for the first time a sub-minute method for the simultaneous determination of ammonium and diphenhydramine. The method is based on capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection. Both analytes can be quantified in a single run (∼80 injections h-1 ) using 30 mmol L-1 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and 15 mmol L-1 lithium hydroxide (pH = 6.0) as a background electrolyte...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Saugat Adhikari, Saloni Daftardar, Filip Fratev, Miguel Rivera, Suman Sirimulla, Kenneth Alexander, Sai H S Boddu
This project aims to study the nature of interaction and orientation of selected drugs such as dexamethorphan HBr (DXM), diphenhydramine HCl (DPH), and lidocaine HCl (LDC) inclusion complexes with hydroxyl-propyl ß-cyclodextrin (HP-ß-CD) using 1 HNMR spectroscopy, 2D-NMR ROESY and molecular-modelling techniques. Freeze-drying technique was used to formulate the inclusion complexes between DXM, DPH and LDC with HP-ß-CD (1:1 molar ratio) in solid state. Inclusion complex formation was initially characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Marianne Tiemensma, Bronwen Davies
BACKGROUND: Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) is a well-recognised public health concern. In South Africa however, epidemiological and toxicological data associated with suspected DFSA are not available. Toxicological screening is currently not routinely available in clinical forensic practice in the Western Cape, or elsewhere in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: To preliminary investigate and characterize DFSA in a specific metropolitan setting in South Africa and to identify the drugs/xenobiotics associated with these reported DFSAs...
April 23, 2018: Forensic Science International
Ji Li, Lingli Zhang, Xianliang Cheng, Lei Zhang, Baochun Shen, Chen Qing, Guorong Fan
This paper describes a method for quantification of d-amphetamine and diphenhydramine in beagle dog plasma by organic solvent field-amplified sample stacking (FASS)-capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), using amlodipine as the internal standard. The separation was carried out at 25 °C in a 40.2 cm × 75 μm fused-silica capillary with an applied voltage of 20 kV using 25 mM phosphate-18.75 mM borate (pH 3.5). The detection wavelength was 200 nm. Clean-up and preconcentration of plasma biosamples were developed by 96-well formatted liquid- liquid extraction (LLE)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Matteo D'Alessio, Sathaporn Onanong, Daniel D Snow, Chittaranjan Ray
The occurrence of pharmaceutical and steroid compounds in groundwater due to wastewater reuse has been reported and is of concern in tropical islands which primarily rely on groundwater. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence and removal of 43 pharmaceutical and steroid compounds detected in wastewater at four different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Hawai'i and to understand their environmental behavior through tropical soils as the treated effluents are used in landscapes for irrigation...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Katherine M Scolari Childress, Christina Dothager, Jeffrey A Gavard, Sara Lebovitz, Catherine Laska, Dorothea J Mostello
OBJECTIVE:  We investigated whether metoclopramide administered with diphenhydramine (MAD) relieves headache in pregnant women when acetaminophen alone is ineffective, using codeine for comparison. STUDY DESIGN:  Normotensive pregnant women in the second or third trimester were randomized to MAD intravenously (10 mg and 25 mg, respectively) or codeine orally (30 mg) for headache after 650 to 1,000 mg of acetaminophen failed to relieve their headaches. Headache severity (pain score 0-10) was noted at intervals over 24 hours...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Stephen M Small, Rachel S Bacher, Sheridan A Jost
Several medications have been shown to cause disulfiram-like reactions in patients concomitantly exposed to ethanol, including specific cephalosporin antibiotics that possess a methylthiotetrazole substituent. Within the cephalosporin class, there are few reports of disulfiram-like reactions with ceftriaxone. This case report is the first to involve a pediatric patient, and it describes a mild but likely disulfiram-like reaction manifesting as facial flushing in an 8-year-old male upon receiving a ceftriaxone infusion preceded by a dose of prednisolone elixir (5% ethanol by volume) for presumed community-acquired pneumonia thought to be complicated by an asthma exacerbation...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Kenji Kuwayama, Maika Nariai, Hajime Miyaguchi, Yuko T Iwata, Tatsuyuki Kanamori, Kenji Tsujikawa, Tadashi Yamamuro, Hiroki Segawa, Hiroko Abe, Hirotaro Iwase, Hiroyuki Inoue
Sleeping aids are often abused in the commission of drug-facilitated crimes. Generally, there is little evidence that a victim ingested a spiked drink unknowingly because the unconscious victim cannot report the situation to the police immediately after the crime occurred. Although conventional segmental hair analysis can estimate the number of months since a targeted drug was ingested, this analysis cannot determine the specific day of ingestion. We recently developed a method of micro-segmental hair analysis using internal temporal markers (ITMs) to estimate the day of drug ingestion...
April 22, 2018: Forensic Science International
Matthew R Durk, Gauri Deshmukh, Nicole Valle, Xiao Ding, Bianca M Liederer, Xingrong Liu
Microdialysis is a powerful technique allowing for real-time measurement of unbound drug concentrations in brain interstitial fluid (ISF) in conscious animals. Use of microdialysis in drug discovery is limited by high resource requirement and low throughput, but this may be improved by cassette dosing. Administering multiple compounds intravenously (IV) of diverse physiochemical properties, it is often very challenging and time-consuming to identify a vehicle that can dissolve all the compounds. To overcome this limitation, the present study explores the possibility of administering a cassette dose of 9 diverse compounds (carbamazepine, citalopram, desmethylclozapine, diphenhydramine, gabapentin, metoclopramide, naltrexone, quinidine, and risperidone) in suspension, rather than in solution, by intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes, and determining if this is a viable option for assessing BBB penetration in microdialysis studies...
April 26, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Salman Nusrat, Mohammed F Madhoun, William M Tierney
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic opioid use increases tolerance to sedatives. Diphenhydramine is recommended for difficult-to-sedate patients during endoscopic procedures. We hypothesized that the addition of diphenhydramine to midazolam and fentanyl would improve objective and subjective measures of procedural sedation. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included patients on chronic opioids undergoing colonoscopy. Patients were randomized to receive intravenous 50 mg of diphenhydramine (N=61) or placebo (N=58), in addition to fentanyl and midazolam...
April 21, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Hussein Bitar, Hassaan Zia, Muhammad Bashir, Pratyusha Parava, Muhammad Hanafi, William Tierney, Mohammad Madhoun
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Previous studies have described variable effects of fellow involvement on the adenoma detection rate (ADR), but few have stratified this effect by level of training. We aimed to evaluate the "fellow effect" on multiple procedural metrics including a newly defined adenoma management efficiency index, which may have a role in documenting colonoscopy proficiency for trainees. We also describe the impact of level of training on moderate sedation use. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 2024 patients (mean age 60...
April 18, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Maria Katselou, Sotiris Athanaselis, Panagiota Nikolaou, Samir Qammaz, Artemisia Dona, Chara Spiliopoulou, Ioannis Papoutsis
Antihistamines are excreted into breast milk in small amounts; however, there are no adequate published studies or data concerning their effects on newborns and safety during breastfeeding. Thus, the development of sensitive and specific methodologies for the determination of antihistamines in breast milk is critical. A simple and sensitive GC-MS method for the simultaneous determination of eleven antihistamines (diphenhydramine, orphenadrine, chlorpheniramine, dimethindene, meclozine, hydroxyzine, loratadine, desloratadine, cetirizine, rupatadine and ebastine) in breast milk was developed and validated...
April 12, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Jagroop S Saran, Richard L Barbano, Rachel Schult, Timothy J Wiegand, Olga Selioutski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Eva Weidemann, Mirva Niinipuu, Jerker Fick, Stina Jansson
Adsorption on low-cost biochars would increase the affordability and availability of water treatment in, for example, developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the precursor materials and hydrochar surface properties that yield efficient removal of compounds of environmental concern (CEC). We determined the adsorption kinetics of a mixture containing ten CECs (octhilinone, triclosan, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxasole, ciprofloxacin, diclofenac, paracetamol, diphenhydramine, fluconazole, and bisphenol A) to hydrochars prepared from agricultural waste (including tomato- and olive-press wastes, rice husks, and horse manure)...
March 26, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sarah J Wolfson, Abigail W Porter, Thomas S Villani, James E Simon, Lily Y Young
While emerging pharmaceutical contaminants are monitored in wastewater treatment and the environment, there is little information concerning their microbial metabolites. The transformation of diphenhydramine by microorganisms in anaerobic digester sludge was investigated using anaerobic cultures amended with 1 mM diphenhydramine as the sole carbon source. Complete transformation of the parent compound to a persistent metabolite occurred within 191 days. Using GC/MS analysis, the metabolite was identified as N-desmethyl diphenhydramine...
March 15, 2018: Chemosphere
Hina Javed, Syed Nisar Hussain Shah, Furqan Muhammad Iqbal
The aim of present study is to formulate diphenhydramine nasal nano-emulgels, having lipophilic nano-sized interior droplets, with better penetration for targeted controlled delivery to mucous membrane. Different diphenhydramine (DPH) nasal nano-emulgels were developed having propylene glycol and olive oil (as permeation enhancers) by using RSM for optimization and then evaluated for physico-chemical characteristics and thermal stability. In-vitro drug release through cellophane membrane was conducted and results were analyzed statistically...
March 22, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Alexander W Chessman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Asuka Kikuchi, Fairuz Binti Mohammadi Nasir, Akie Inami, Attayeb Mohsen, Shoichi Watanuki, Masayasu Miyake, Kazuko Takeda, Daigo Koike, Takayasu Ito, Junpei Sasakawa, Rin Matsuda, Kotaro Hiraoka, Marcus Maurer, Kazuhiko Yanai, Hiroshi Watabe, Manabu Tashiro
OBJECTIVE: Antihistamines often have sedative side effects. This was the first study to measure regional cerebral glucose (energy) consumption and hemodynamic responses in young adults during cognitive tests after antihistamine administration. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way crossover study, 18 healthy young Japanese men received single doses of levocetirizine 5 mg and diphenhydramine 50 mg at intervals of at least six days. Subjective feeling, task performances, and brain activity were evaluated during three cognitive tests (word fluency, two-back, and Stroop)...
March 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
Benjamin W Friedman, Alexander Latev, Caron Campbell, Deborah White
BACKGROUND: Parenteral opioids are used in more than 50% of emergency department (ED) visits for migraine. Use of opioids for migraine has been associated with subsequent ED visits, perhaps because of opioid-induced euphoria. In this study, we quantify the extent to which nontherapeutic effects of opioids influence migraine outcomes. We hypothesized that "feeling good" and medication likeability would in fact be associated with receipt of opioids (rather than relief of migraine pain) and that receipt of opioids (rather than relief of migraine pain) would be associated with return visits to the ED...
March 8, 2018: Headache
Masaru Ihara, Han Zhang, Seiya Hanamoto, Hiroaki Tanaka
 Pharmaceuticals are widely found in aquatic environments worldwide. Concern about their potential risks to aquatic species has been raised because they are designed to be biologically active. To address this concern, we must know whether biological activity of pharmaceuticals can be detected in waters. Nearly half of all marketed pharmaceuticals act by binding to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In this study, we measured the physiological activity of GPCR-acting pharmaceuticals in effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and upstream and downstream of its outfall in Japan during 2 years...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
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