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Asuka Kikuchi, Fairuz Binti Mohammadi Nasir, Akie Inami, Attayeb Mohsen, Shoichi Watanuki, Masayasu Miyake, Kazuko Takeda, Daigo Koike, Takayasu Ito, Junpei Sasakawa, Rin Matsuda, Kotaro Hiraoka, Marcus Maurer, Kazuhiko Yanai, Hiroshi Watabe, Manabu Tashiro
OBJECTIVE: Antihistamines often have sedative side effects. This was the first study to measure regional cerebral glucose (energy) consumption and hemodynamic responses in young adults during cognitive tests after antihistamine administration. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way crossover study, 18 healthy young Japanese men received single doses of levocetirizine 5 mg and diphenhydramine 50 mg at intervals of at least six days. Subjective feeling, task performances, and brain activity were evaluated during three cognitive tests (word fluency, two-back, and Stroop)...
March 13, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
Benjamin W Friedman, Alexander Latev, Caron Campbell, Deborah White
BACKGROUND: Parenteral opioids are used in more than 50% of emergency department (ED) visits for migraine. Use of opioids for migraine has been associated with subsequent ED visits, perhaps because of opioid-induced euphoria. In this study, we quantify the extent to which nontherapeutic effects of opioids influence migraine outcomes. We hypothesized that "feeling good" and medication likeability would in fact be associated with receipt of opioids (rather than relief of migraine pain) and that receipt of opioids (rather than relief of migraine pain) would be associated with return visits to the ED...
March 8, 2018: Headache
Masaru Ihara, Han Zhang, Seiya Hanamoto, Hiroaki Tanaka
 Pharmaceuticals are widely found in aquatic environments worldwide. Concern about their potential risks to aquatic species has been raised because they are designed to be biologically active. To address this concern, we must know whether biological activity of pharmaceuticals can be detected in waters. Nearly half of all marketed pharmaceuticals act by binding to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In this study, we measured the physiological activity of GPCR-acting pharmaceuticals in effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and upstream and downstream of its outfall in Japan during 2 years...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Cuimei Liu, Wei Jia, Yu Han, Zhendong Hua
Some methamphetamine (MA) crystals contain pharmaceutical impurities resulting from the co-ingredients of medicines used for extracting ephedrine/pseudoephedrine. These pharmaceutical impurities and their related byproducts can reflect the trends in precursor chemicals and manufacturing sources. In this research, one pharmaceutical impurity related byproduct was detected in several seized MA samples synthesized by I/P (Nagai, Moscow, or Hypo) method. Its structure was postulated through the analysis of fragment ions in EI mass spectrum...
March 1, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Brian Bazzell, Sarah Kelling, Heidi Diez, Kristin Klein
OBJECTIVE: To identify opportunities to improve safe and effective immunization delivery in community pharmacies. METHODS: Pharmacy managers from chains in Michigan were interviewed about their company's immunizations programs. A survey regarding immunization training, quality assurance measures, pharmacist comfort level immunizing different patient populations, and resources used in practice was distributed to community pharmacists throughout Michigan. RESULTS: Most pharmacists (88...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Zeeshaan S Bhatti, Benjamin M Mervak, Jonathan R Dillman, Matthew S Davenport
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the severity of breakthrough reactions to gadobenate dimeglumine in patients premedicated with a 13-hour premedication regimen. METHODS: Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent waived for this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective cohort study. All acute allergic-like reactions to gadobenate dimeglumine from 11/1/2008 to 1/31/2016 were identified. Of these, 19 allergic-like reactions followed 13-hour premedication: 150 mg prednisone and 50 mg diphenhydramine (ie, "breakthrough reactions")...
February 21, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Xin Wang, Sys Stybe Johansen, Marie Katrine Klose Nielsen, Kristian Linnet
Hair can serve as a specimen for identifying past drug exposure. Segmental hair analysis may differentiate a single exposure from chronic use. Consequently, segmental hair analysis is useful for disclosing a single drug ingestion, as well as for determining repeated exposures in drug-facilitated crimes (DFCs). This paper presents an overview of toxicological investigations that have used hair analysis in DFC cases from 2009 to 2016 in Denmark. Hair concentrations were determined for 24 DFC-related drugs and metabolites, including benzodiazepines and other hypnotics, antihistamines, opioid analgesics, antipsychotics, barbiturates, and illicit drugs from DFC cases...
February 5, 2018: Forensic Science International
Ryan S D'Souza, Christopher Mercogliano, Elizabeth Ojukwu, Shawn D'Souza, Andrew Singles, Jaymin Modi, Alexandra Short, Anthony Donato
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of prophylactic anticholinergic medications in reducing extrapyramidal symptoms in patients taking acute antiemetics with a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist effect. METHODS: Systematic searches of all published studies through March 2017 were identified from PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus. Only randomised controlled trials of patients receiving dopamine D2 antagonist antiemetic therapy for acute migraine in which an anticholinergic or placebo was compared were included...
February 3, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Brit J Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Headache is a common complaint managed in the emergency department (ED), with emergency physicians focusing on evaluation for life-threatening conditions while treating pain and nausea. OBJECTIVE: This review evaluates the treatment of benign, primary headaches in the ED, with recommendations provided based on the literature. DISCUSSION: Headaches are a major cause of disability in the United States and a common condition managed in the ED...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Michael J Haas, Monica Plazarte, Ayham Chamseddin, Luisa Onstead-Haas, Norman C W Wong, Gabriela Plazarte, Arshag D Mooradian
In a recent high throughput analysis to identify drugs that alter hepatic apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) expression, histamine receptor one (H1) antagonists emerged as potential apo A-1 inducing drugs. Thus the present study was undertaken to identify some of the underlying molecular mechanisms of the effect of antihistaminic drugs on apo AI production. Apo A-I levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay and Western blots. Apo A-I mRNA levels were measured by reverse transcription real-time PCR using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA as the internal control...
January 25, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Ahmad Said, Alexandra Halalau
A 39-year-old woman with a history of chronic back pain due to spinal haemangiomas, multiple malignancies and depression was brought by Emergency medical servicesS to the emergency centre (EC) after being found unresponsive on the bathroom floor. The patient had an exacerbation of her back pain the previous day for which she admitted to taking double her usual dose of oxycodone, in addition to alprazolam, lorazepam, diphenhydramine and a glass of wine. She reported that she lost consciousness and was down for over 8 hours...
January 24, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Kun Liu, Appalaraju Jaggupilli, Dhanaraj Premnath, Prashen Chelikani
Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) are a group of 25 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in humans. The cognate agonists and the mechanism of ligand binding to the majority of the T2Rs remain unknown. Here we report the first structure-function analysis of T2R7 and study the ability of this receptor to bind to different agonists by site-directed mutagenesis. Screening of ligands for T2R7 in calcium based assays lead to the identification of novel compounds that activate this receptor. Quinine, diphenidol, dextromethorphan and diphenhydramine showed substantial activation of T2R7...
January 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Kelly M Rudd, Narmadha Panneerselvam, Anush Patel
PURPOSE: A case of a patient who developed a hypersensitivity reaction to rivaroxaban in the form of a diffuse, exanthematous rash is reported. SUMMARY: After starting rivaroxaban for treatment of cancer-associated deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with pulmonary embolism (PE), a 69-year-old Caucasian woman arrived at an oncology clinic with a diffuse, exanthematous (morbilliform) rash on her neck and torso, spreading to her upper and lower extremities. She reported that the symptoms started to develop about 48 hours after transitioning from subcutaneous enoxaparin to oral rivaroxaban...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Maedeh Ghaderi-Ghahfarrokhi, Vahid Haddadi-Asl, Seyed Shahrooz Zargarian
Modified halloysite nanotubes (HNT-NH2 and HNT-COOH) were synthesized by a coupling reaction with 3-amino- propyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and maleic anhydride from hydroxyl groups of neat halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). Successful attachment of functional groups onto HNTs was evaluated by FTIR and TGA. XRD was used to study the crystalline structure of scaffolds and the formation of intercalated structure as a result of improved dispersion and decreased agglomeration of modified nanoparticles. Neat HNT, HNT-NH2 and HNT-COOH were subsequently introduced into Polycaprolactone/Pluronic P123 (PCL/P123) electrospun substrate...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Tamami Haraguchi, Takahiro Uchida, Miyako Yoshida, Honami Kojima, Masaaki Habara, Hidekazu Ikezaki
The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of the artificial taste sensor to evaluate the bitterness of drugs by comparing the responses of the taste sensor with documented responses of human TASTE2 receptors (hTAS2Rs). For this purpose 22 bitter compounds, used as ingredients of pharmaceutical medicines in Japan and known ligands of hTAS2Rs, were selected for testing. Their solutions (0.01, 0.03, 0.1 mM) were evaluated by five different taste sensors (AC0, AN0, BT0, C00, AE1). Correlations between physicochemical parameters of the compounds and the responses of the taste sensors and hTAS2Rs were evaluated...
2018: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
James M Kidd, Lindsay M Avery, Tomefa E Asempa, David P Nicolau, Joseph L Kuti
PURPOSE: Meropenem/vaborbactam is a novel intravenous antibiotic combining the carbapenem, meropenem, with a novel β-lactamase inhibitor, vaborbactam. Meropenem/vaborbactam is administered as a 3-hour infusion given every 8 hours, thereby potentially restricting an intravenous line for 9 h/d. Intravenous medications may be given concurrently via Y-site when compatibility data are available. Herein, physical compatibility was determined for the identification which medications can be coadministered with meropenem/vaborbactam via Y-site...
December 28, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
Matsue Ebitani, Toshiaki Ebitani
  Diphenhydramine(DP), an antihistaminic agent, may become colored and daker or more fluorescent during storage. Herein, we spectroscopically examined the causes of this phenomenon under various DP storage conditions and durations. The infrared vibration-rotation spectrum shows multiple Gauche (G )-type conformers with different intramolecular n→π* interaction strengths. The splitting pattern of the dimethylamino group protons in the 1H-NMR spectrum indicates that DP is mainly in the G-type with a small portion in the Trans(T)-type...
December 27, 2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Lauren A Kristofco, Samuel P Haddad, C Kevin Chambliss, Bryan W Brooks
The zebrafish (Zf) Fish Embryo Toxicity (FET) test is increasingly employed for alternative toxicity studies, yet our recent research identified increased sensitivity of Zf slightly older than embryos employed in FET methods (0-4 dpf, days post fertilization). Here, we identified rapid steady-state accumulation of diphenhydramine across Zf embryo and larval stages. However, significantly (p < 0.05) lower accumulation was observed in chorionated and dechorionated embryos (0-4 dpf), but not in 7-11 and 14-18 dpf Zf, at 48 hours than 96 hours...
December 23, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
D B D Simmons, E S McCallum, S Balshine, B Chandramouli, J Cosgrove, J P Sherry
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been found in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and their recipient watersheds. To assess the potential of WWTP effluents to alter fish behaviour, we caged male goldfish (Carassius auratus) for 21-days at three sites along a contamination gradient downstream from a WWTP which discharges into Cootes Paradise Marsh, on the western tip of Lake Ontario. We also included a fourth caging site as an external reference site within Lake Ontario at the Jordan Harbour Conservation Area...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Elaine Y L Au, Jaime S Rosa Duque, Chak Sing Lau, Eric Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
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