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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883972/molecular-characterization-and-antibiotic-resistance-profiles-of-salmonella-isolated-from-fecal-matter-of-domestic-animals-and-animal-products-in-nairobi
#1
Diana Nyabundi, Nyamongo Onkoba, Rinter Kimathi, Atunga Nyachieo, Gerald Juma, Peter Kinyanjui, Joseph Kamau
BACKGROUND: Salmonella has significant public health implications causing food borne and zoonotic diseases in humans. Treatment of infections due to Salmonella is becoming difficult due to emergence of drug resistant strains. There is therefore need to characterize the circulating non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars in domestic animals and animal products in Kenya as well as determine their antibiotic resistance profiles. METHODS: A total of 740 fecal samples were collected from cows (n = 150), pigs (n = 182), chicken (n = 191) and chicken eggs (n = 217) from various markets and abattoirs in Nairobi...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877208/surveillance-for-falsified-and-substandard-medicines-in-africa-and-asia-by-local-organizations-using-the-low-cost-gphf-minilab
#2
Albert Petersen, Nadja Held, Lutz Heide
BACKGROUND: Substandard and falsified medical products present a serious threat to public health, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Their identification using pharmacopeial analysis is expensive and requires sophisticated equipment and highly trained personnel. Simple, low-cost technologies are required in addition to full pharmacopeial analysis in order to accomplish widespread routine surveillance for poor-quality medicines in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: Ten faith-based drug supply organizations in seven countries of Africa and Asia were each equipped with a Minilab of the Global Pharma Health Fund (GPHF, Frankfurt, Germany), suitable for the analysis of about 85 different essential medicines by thin-layer chromatography...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813542/the-african-cholera-surveillance-network-africhol-consortium-meeting-10-11-june-2015-lom%C3%A3-togo
#3
Aline Munier, Berthe-Marie Njanpop-Lafourcade, Delphine Sauvageot, Raymond B Mhlanga, Léonard Heyerdahl, Johara Nadri, Richard Wood, Issaka Ouedraogo, Alexandre Blake, Laurent Akilimali Mukelenge, Jean-Claude B Anné, Abiba Banla Kere, Lucienne Dempouo, Sakoba Keita, José P M Langa, Issa Makumbi, Elibariki R Mwakapeje, Ian J Njeru, Olubunmi E Ojo, Isaac Phiri, Lorenzo Pezzoli, Bradford D Gessner, Martin Mengel
The fifth annual meeting of the African cholera surveillance network (Africhol) took place on 10-11 June 2015 in Lomé, Togo. Together with international partners, representatives from the 11 member countries -Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zimbabwe- and an invited country (Malawi) shared their experience. The meeting featured three sessions: i) cholera surveillance, prevention and control in participating countries, ii) cholera surveillance methodology, such as cholera mapping, cost-effectiveness studies and the issue of overlapping epidemics from different diseases, iii) cholera laboratory diagnostics tools and capacity building...
2017: BMC Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780116/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccination-on-rotavirus-and-all-cause-gastroenteritis-in-peri-urban-kenyan-children
#4
Ernest Apondi Wandera, Shah Mohammad, Martin Bundi, Satoshi Komoto, James Nyangao, Cyrus Kathiiko, Erick Odoyo, Gabriel Miring'u, Koki Taniguchi, Yoshio Ichinose
A monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) was introduced into the National Immunization Program in Kenya in July 2014. We examined the impact of the vaccine on hospitalization for all-cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and rotavirus-specific AGE and strain distribution at a large referral hospital which serves a predominantly peri-urban population in Central Kenya. Data on rotavirus AGE and strain distribution were derived from ongoing hospital-based AGE surveillance. Hospital administrative data were used to compare trends in all-cause AGE...
August 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774694/improvement-of-fungal-disease-identification-and-management-combined-health-systems-and-public-health-approaches
#5
REVIEW
Donald C Cole, Nelesh P Govender, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Jahit Sacarlal, David W Denning
More than 1·6 million people are estimated to die of fungal diseases each year, and about a billion people have cutaneous fungal infections. Fungal disease diagnosis requires a high level of clinical suspicion and specialised laboratory testing, in addition to culture, histopathology, and imaging expertise. Physicians with varied specialist training might see patients with fungal disease, yet it might remain unrecognised. Antifungal treatment is more complex than treatment for bacterial or most viral infections, and drug interactions are particularly problematic...
July 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767714/hiv-associated-mortality-in-the-era-of-antiretroviral-therapy-scale-up-nairobi-kenya-2015
#6
Peter W Young, Andrea A Kim, Joyce Wamicwe, Lilly Nyagah, Catherine Kiama, John Stover, Johansen Oduor, Emily A Rogena, Edwin Walong, Emily Zielinski-Gutierrez, Andrew Imbwaga, Martin Sirengo, Timothy A Kellogg, Kevin M De Cock
BACKGROUND: Declines in HIV prevalence and increases in antiretroviral treatment coverage have been documented in Kenya, but population-level mortality associated with HIV has not been directly measured. In urban areas where a majority of deaths pass through mortuaries, mortuary-based studies have the potential to contribute to our understanding of excess mortality among HIV-infected persons. We used results from a cross-sectional mortuary-based HIV surveillance study to estimate the association between HIV and mortality for Nairobi, the capital city of Kenya...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736393/traditional-healers-faith-healers-and-medical-practitioners-the-contribution-of-medical-pluralism-to-bottlenecks-along-the-cascade-of-care-for-hiv-aids-in-eastern-and-southern-africa
#7
Mosa Moshabela, Dominic Bukenya, Gabriel Darong, Joyce Wamoyi, Estelle McLean, Morten Skovdal, William Ddaaki, Kenneth Ondeng'e, Oliver Bonnington, Janet Seeley, Victoria Hosegood, Alison Wringe
OBJECTIVES: There are concerns that medical pluralism may delay patients' progression through the HIV cascade-of-care. However, the pathways of impact through which medical pluralism influence the care of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in African settings remain unclear. We sought to establish the manifestation of medical pluralism among PLHIV, and explore mechanisms through which medical pluralism contributes bottlenecks along the HIV care cascade. METHODS: We conducted a multicountry exploratory qualitative study in seven health and demographic surveillance sites in six eastern and southern African countries: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa...
July 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731901/should-first-line-empiric-treatment-strategies-for-neonates-cover-coagulase-negative-staphylococcal-infections-in-kenya
#8
Anna C Seale, Christina W Obiero, Kelsey Jones, Hellen C Barsosio, Johnstone Thitiri, Moses Ngari, Susan Morpeth, Shebe Mohammed, Greg Fegan, Neema Mturi, James A Berkley
BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality remains high in sub-Saharan Africa, and a third of deaths are estimated to result from infection. Whilst coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) are leading neonatal pathogens in resource-rich settings, their role, and the need for early anti-staphylococcal treatment in empiric antibiotic guidelines, is unknown in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We examined systematic clinical and microbiologic surveillance data from all neonatal admissions to Kilifi County Hospital (1998-2013) to determine associated case fatality and/or prolonged duration of admission associated with CoNS in neonates treated according to standard WHO guidelines...
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729018/sustained-reduction-in-vaccine-type-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-despite-waning-effects-of-a-catch-up-campaign-in-kilifi-kenya-a-mathematical-model-based-on-pre-vaccination-data
#9
John Ojal, Stefan Flasche, Laura L Hammitt, Donald Akech, Moses C Kiti, Tatu Kamau, Ifedayo Adetifa, Markku Nurhonen, J Anthony G Scott, Kari Auranen
BACKGROUND: In 2011, Kenya introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine together with a catch-up campaign for children aged <5years in Kilifi County. In a post-vaccination surveillance study based in Kilifi, there was a substantial decline in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). However, given the continued circulation of the vaccine serotypes it is possible that vaccine-serotype disease may re-emerge once the effects of the catch-up campaign wear off. METHODS: We developed a compartmental, age-structured dynamic model of pneumococcal carriage and invasive disease for three serotype groups: the 10-valent vaccine serotypes and two groups of non-vaccine serotypes based on their susceptibility to mutual competition...
August 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722634/cystic-echinococcosis-in-turkana-kenya-the-role-of-cross-sectional-screening-surveys-in-assessing-the-prevalence-of-human-infection
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Nadia Solomon, Eberhard Zeyhle, Jane Carter, John Wachira, Asrat Mengiste, Thomas Romig, Paul J Fields, Calum N L Macpherson
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Infection leads to formation of cysts within the viscera of the human host. In the 1980s, the transhumant population of northwest Turkana, Kenya, was found to have the highest prevalence of CE in the world. In 1983, AMREF Health Africa and the Kenya Medical and Research Institute launched a CE Control Program in northwest Turkana, screening and treating the local people. This epidemiological study of CE in Turkana analyses approximately 30 years of surveillance and surgical data...
August 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722500/post-marketing-surveillance-study-of-the-long-term-use-of-mizoribine-for-the-treatment-of-lupus-nephritis-2-year-results
#11
Tsutomu Takeuchi, Kenya Okada, Hisao Yoshida, Nobuyuki Yagi
OBJECTIVES: To understand the status of mizoribine use in patients with lupus nephritis (LN) and to collect safety- and efficacy-related data on 2-year treatment with mizoribine. METHODS: A continuous survey was conducted between March 2010 and July 2015. RESULTS: The analysis set included 559 patients (mean age 39.5 years, females 82.6%, mean duration of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) 8.4 years, mean duration of LN 5.9 years). Renal function was satisfactory for 6 months, but worsened from 12 months, with significant worsening at 24 months...
July 19, 2017: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721858/detection-of-african-swine-fever-virus-in-the-tissues-of-asymptomatic-pigs-in-smallholder-farming-systems-along-the-kenya-uganda-border-implications-for-transmission-in-endemic-areas-and-asf-surveillance-in-east-africa
#12
Edward Okoth Abworo, Cynthia Onzere, Joshua Oluoch Amimo, Victor Riitho, Waithaka Mwangi, Jocelyn Davies, Sandra Blome, Richard Peter Bishop
The persistence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in endemic areas, with small-scale but regular outbreaks in domestic pigs, is not well understood. ASFV has not been detected using conventional diagnosis in these pigs or adjacent populations of resistant African wild pigs, that could act as potential carriers during the outbreaks. However, such data are crucial for the design of evidence-based control strategies. We conducted cross-sectional (1107 pigs) and longitudinal (100 pigs) monitoring of ASFV prevalence in local pigs in Kenya and Uganda...
July 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719301/development-of-a-real-time-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-o-nyong-nyong-virus-and-evaluation-with-clinical-and-mosquito-specimens-from-kenya
#13
Jesse Waggoner, Claire Jane Heath, Bryson Ndenga, Francis Mutuku, Malaya K Sahoo, Alisha Mohamed-Hadley, John Vulule, Dunstan Mukoko, A Desiree LaBeaud, Benjamin A Pinsky
O'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), an alphavirus closely related to chikungunya virus (CHIKV), has been the documented cause of two large outbreaks in east Africa; however, little is known about the contribution of ONNV to cases of acute febrile illness during interepidemic periods. An ONNV real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) was developed and evaluated using clinical and mosquito pool samples. The ONNV rRT-PCR linear range extended from 8.0 to 2.0 log10 copies/μL, and the lower limit of 95% detection was 22...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719278/evaluation-of-the-field-performance-of-immunocard-stat-%C3%A2-rapid-diagnostic-test-for-rotavirus-in-dadaab-refugee-camp-and-at-the-kenya-somalia-border
#14
Maurice Ope, Raymond Nyoka, Ahmed Unshur, Fredrick O Oyier, Shafe A Mowlid, Brian Owino, Steve B Ochieng, Charles I Okello, Joel M Montgomery, Burton Wagacha, Aleksandar Galev, Abdikadir Abdow, Mathew D Esona, Jacqueline Tate, David Fitter, Susan T Cookson, Balajee Arunmozhi, Nina Marano
AbstractRotavirus commonly causes diarrhea in children, leading to hospitalization and even death. Rapid diagnostic tests are feasible alternatives for determining rotavirus outbreaks in refugee camps that have inadequate laboratory capacity. We evaluated the field performance of ImmunoCard STAT!(®) Rotavirus (ICS-RV) in Dadaab Refugee Camp and at the Kenya-Somalia border. From May to December 2014, we prospectively enrolled children aged < 5 years hospitalized with acute diarrhea, defined as ≥ 3 episodes of loose stool in 24 hours for < 7 days...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704417/bayesian-spatio-temporal-modeling-of-mortality-in-relation-to-malaria-incidence-in-western-kenya
#15
Sammy Khagayi, Nyaguara Amek, Godfrey Bigogo, Frank Odhiambo, Penelope Vounatsou
INTRODUCTION: The effect of malaria exposure on mortality using health facility incidence data as a measure of transmission has not been well investigated. Health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSS) routinely capture data on mortality, interventions and other household related indicators, offering a unique platform for estimating and monitoring the incidence-mortality relationship in space and time. METHODS: Mortality data from the HDSS located in Western Kenya collected from 2007 to 2012 and linked to health facility incidence data were analysed using Bayesian spatio-temporal survival models to investigate the relation between mortality (all-cause/malaria-specific) and malaria incidence across all age groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701194/characterization-and-productivity-profiles-of-aedes-aegypti-l-breeding-habitats-across-rural-and-urban-landscapes-in-western-and-coastal-kenya
#16
Harun N Ngugi, Francis M Mutuku, Bryson A Ndenga, Peter S Musunzaji, Joel O Mbakaya, Peter Aswani, Lucy W Irungu, Dunstan Mukoko, John Vulule, Uriel Kitron, Angelle D LaBeaud
BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue and other emerging arboviruses, breeds preferentially in various man-made and natural container habitats. In the absence of vaccine, epidemiological surveillance and vector control remain the best practices for preventing dengue outbreaks. Effective vector control depends on a good understanding of larval and adult vector ecology of which little is known in Kenya. In the current study, we sought to characterize breeding habitats and establish container productivity profiles of Ae...
July 12, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694240/feasibility-of-establishing-hiv-case-based-surveillance-to-measure-progress-along-the-health-sector-cascade-situational-assessments-in-tanzania-south-africa-and-kenya
#17
Richelle Harklerode, Sandra Schwarcz, James Hargreaves, Andrew Boulle, Jim Todd, Serge Xueref, Brian Rice
BACKGROUND: To track the HIV epidemic and responses to it, the World Health Organization recommends 10 global indicators to collect information along the HIV care cascade. Patient diagnosis and medical record data, harnessed through case-based surveillance (CBS), can be used to measure 8 of these. While many high burden countries have well-established systems for monitoring patients on HIV treatment, few have formally adopted CBS. OBJECTIVE: In response to the need for improved strategic HIV information and to facilitate the development of CBS in resource-limited countries, we aimed to conduct situational assessments of existing data collection systems in Tanzania, South Africa, and Kenya...
July 10, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686692/estimating-influenza-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-associated-mortality-in-western-kenya-using-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-data-2007-2013
#18
Gideon O Emukule, Peter Spreeuwenberg, Sandra S Chaves, Joshua A Mott, Stefano Tempia, Godfrey Bigogo, Bryan Nyawanda, Amek Nyaguara, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Koos van der Velden, John W Paget
BACKGROUND: Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) associated mortality has not been well-established in tropical Africa. METHODS: We used the negative binomial regression method and the rate-difference method (i.e. deaths during low and high influenza/RSV activity months), to estimate excess mortality attributable to influenza and RSV using verbal autopsy data collected through a health and demographic surveillance system in Western Kenya, 2007-2013. Excess mortality rates were calculated for a) all-cause mortality, b) respiratory deaths (including pneumonia), c) HIV-related deaths, and d) pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) related deaths...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674934/improvement-of-the-bag-mediated-filtration-system-for-sampling-wastewater-and-wastewater-impacted-waters
#19
Christine Susan Fagnant, Liliana Margarita Sánchez-Gonzalez, Nicolette A Zhou, Jill Christin Falman, Michael Eisenstein, Dylan Guelig, Byron Ockerman, Yifei Guan, Alexandra Lynn Kossik, Yarrow S Linden, Nicola Koren Beck, Robyn Wilmouth, Evans Komen, Benlick Mwangi, James Nyangao, Jeffry H Shirai, Igor Novosselov, Peter Borus, David S Boyle, John Scott Meschke
Environmental surveillance of poliovirus (PV) plays an important role in the global program for eradication of wild PV. The bag-mediated filtration system (BMFS) was first developed in 2014 and enhances PV surveillance when compared to the two-phase grab method currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). In this study, the BMFS design was improved and tested for its usability in wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface waters in Nairobi, Kenya. Modifications made to the BMFS included the size, color, and shape of the collection bags, the filter housing used, and the device used to elute the samples from the filters...
July 3, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628629/understanding-msos-a-qualitative-study-examining-the-implementation-of-a-text-messaging-outbreak-alert-system-in-rural-kenya
#20
Mitsuru Toda, Ian Njeru, Dejan Zurovac, David Kareko, Shikanga O-Tipo, Matilu Mwau, Kouichi Morita
Outbreaks of epidemic diseases pose serious public health risks. To overcome the hurdles of sub-optimal disease surveillance reporting from the health facilities to relevant authorities, the Ministry of Health in Kenya piloted mSOS (mobile SMS-based disease outbreak alert system) in 2013-2014. In this paper, we report the results of the qualitative study, which examined factors that influence the performances of mSOS implementation. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 disease surveillance coordinators and 32 in-charges of rural health facilities that took part in the mSOS intervention...
2017: PloS One
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