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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628629/understanding-msos-a-qualitative-study-examining-the-implementation-of-a-text-messaging-outbreak-alert-system-in-rural-kenya
#1
Mitsuru Toda, Ian Njeru, Dejan Zurovac, David Kareko, Shikanga O-Tipo, Matilu Mwau, Kouichi Morita
Outbreaks of epidemic diseases pose serious public health risks. To overcome the hurdles of sub-optimal disease surveillance reporting from the health facilities to relevant authorities, the Ministry of Health in Kenya piloted mSOS (mobile SMS-based disease outbreak alert system) in 2013-2014. In this paper, we report the results of the qualitative study, which examined factors that influence the performances of mSOS implementation. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 disease surveillance coordinators and 32 in-charges of rural health facilities that took part in the mSOS intervention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584173/spatial-seasonal-and-climatic-predictive-models-of-rift-valley-fever-disease-across-africa
#2
David W Redding, Sonia Tiedt, Gianni Lo Iacono, Bernard Bett, Kate E Jones
Understanding the emergence and subsequent spread of human infectious diseases is a critical global challenge, especially for high-impact zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. Global climate and land-use change are likely to alter host and vector distributions, but understanding the impact of these changes on the burden of infectious diseases is difficult. Here, we use a Bayesian spatial model to investigate environmental drivers of one of the most important diseases in Africa, Rift Valley fever (RVF). The model uses a hierarchical approach to determine how environmental drivers vary both spatially and seasonally, and incorporates the effects of key climatic oscillations, to produce a continental risk map of RVF in livestock (as a proxy for human RVF risk)...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572680/using-remote-sensing-environmental-data-to-forecast-malaria-incidence-at-a-rural-district-hospital-in-western-kenya
#3
Maquins Odhiambo Sewe, Yesim Tozan, Clas Ahlm, Joacim Rocklöv
Malaria surveillance data provide opportunity to develop forecasting models. Seasonal variability in environmental factors correlate with malaria transmission, thus the identification of transmission patterns is useful in developing prediction models. However, with changing seasonal transmission patterns, either due to interventions or shifting weather seasons, traditional modelling approaches may not yield adequate predictive skill. Two statistical models,a general additive model (GAM) and GAMBOOST model with boosted regression were contrasted by assessing their predictive accuracy in forecasting malaria admissions at lead times of one to three months...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570627/effect-of-climate-on-incidence-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infections-in-a-refugee-camp-in-kenya-a-non-gaussian-time-series-analysis
#4
Raymond Nyoka, Jimmy Omony, Samuel M Mwalili, Thomas N O Achia, Anthony Gichangi, Henry Mwambi
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) in children. Children younger than 1 year are the most susceptible to RSV infection. RSV infections occur seasonally in temperate climate regions. Based on RSV surveillance and climatic data, we developed statistical models that were assessed and compared to predict the relationship between weather and RSV incidence among refugee children younger than 5 years in Dadaab refugee camp in Kenya. Most time-series analyses rely on the assumption of Gaussian-distributed data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511275/direct-detection-of-leishmania-from-clinical-samples
#5
John N Waitumbi, Joshua Bast, Nancy Nyakoe, Charles Magiri, Miguel Quintana, Ratree Takhampunya, Anthony L Schuster, Marshall T Van de Wyngaerde, James C McAvin, Russell E Coleman
The ability to rapidly and accurately diagnose leishmaniasis is a military priority. Testing was conducted to evaluate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of field-expedient Leishmania genus and visceral Leishmania specific dual-fluorogenic, hydrolysis probe (TaqMan), polymerase chain reaction assays previously established for use in vector surveillance. Blood samples of patients with confirmed visceral leishmaniasis and controls without the disease from Baringo District, Kenya, were tested. Leishmania genus assay sensitivity was 100% (14/14) and specificity was 84% (16/19)...
January 2017: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473520/examining-the-safety-of-menstrual-cups-among-rural-primary-school-girls-in-western-kenya-observational-studies-nested-in-a-randomised-controlled-feasibility-study
#6
Jane Juma, Elizabeth Nyothach, Kayla F Laserson, Clifford Oduor, Lilian Arita, Caroline Ouma, Kelvin Oruko, Jackton Omoto, Linda Mason, Kelly T Alexander, Barry Fields, Clayton Onyango, Penelope A Phillips-Howard
OBJECTIVE: Examine the safety of menstrual cups against sanitary pads and usual practice in Kenyan schoolgirls. DESIGN: Observational studies nested in a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study. SETTING: 30 primary schools in a health and demographic surveillance system in rural western Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Menstruating primary schoolgirls aged 14-16 years participating in a menstrual feasibility study. INTERVENTIONS: Insertable menstrual cup, monthly sanitary pads or 'usual practice' (controls)...
May 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458916/transmission-patterns-and-evolution-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-a-community-outbreak-identified-by-genomic-analysis
#7
Charles N Agoti, Patrick K Munywoki, My V T Phan, James R Otieno, Everlyn Kamau, Anne Bett, Ivy Kombe, George Githinji, Graham F Medley, Patricia A Cane, Paul Kellam, Matthew Cotten, D James Nokes
Detailed information on the source, spread and evolution of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) during seasonal community outbreaks remains sparse. Molecular analyses of attachment (G) gene sequences from hospitalized cases suggest that multiple genotypes and variants co-circulate during epidemics and that RSV persistence over successive seasons is characterized by replacement and multiple new introductions of variants. No studies have defined the patterns of introduction, spread and evolution of RSV at the local community and household level...
January 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438334/understanding-patterns-of-injury-in-kenya-analysis-of-a-trauma-registry-data-from-a-national-referral-hospital
#8
Isaac M Botchey, Yuen Wai Hung, Abdulgafoor M Bachani, Hassan Saidi, Fatima Paruk, Adnan A Hyder
BACKGROUND: Injuries contribute to a substantial proportion of the burden of disease in Kenya. Trauma registries can be a very useful source of data to understand patterns of injuries and serve to provide information about potential improvements in the care of injured patients. In Kenya, health facility-based injury data has been largely administrative. Our aim was to develop and implement a prospective trauma registry at the largest trauma hospital in Kenya, the Kenyatta National Hospital, and to understand the nature of injuries presenting to the hospital, their treatment and care, and their outcomes...
April 21, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404679/evaluation-of-taqman-array-card-tac-for-the-detection-of-central-nervous-system-infections-in-kenya
#9
Clayton O Onyango, Vladimir Loparev, Shirley Lidechi, Vinod Bhullar, D Scott Schmid, Kay Radford, Michael K Lo, Paul Rota, Barbara W Johnson, Jorge Munoz, Martina Oneko, Deron Burton, Carolyn M Black, John Neatherlin, Joel M Montgomery, Barry Fields
Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are often acute with significant morbidity and mortality. Routine diagnosis of such infections is limited in developing countries and requires modern equipment in advanced laboratories that may be unavailable to a number of patients in sub-Saharan Africa. We developed a TaqMan Array Card (TAC) that detects multiple pathogens simultaneously from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The 21-pathogen TAC assays include two parasites (Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba), six bacterial pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Bartonella) and 13 viruses (parechovirus, dengue, nipah, varicella zoster, mumps, measles, lyssa, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, Epstein Barr virus, enterovirus, cytomegalovirus and chikungunya)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393313/molecular-detection-of-viruses-in-kenyan-bats-and-discovery-of-novel-astroviruses-caliciviruses-and-rotaviruses
#10
Cecilia Waruhiu, Sheila Ommeh, Vincent Obanda, Bernard Agwanda, Francis Gakuya, Xing-Yi Ge, Xing-Lou Yang, Li-Jun Wu, Ali Zohaib, Ben Hu, Zheng-Li Shi
This is the first country-wide surveillance of bat-borne viruses in Kenya spanning from 2012-2015 covering sites perceived to have medium to high level bat-human interaction. The objective of this surveillance study was to apply a non-invasive approach using fresh feces to detect viruses circulating within the diverse species of Kenyan bats. We screened for both DNA and RNA viruses; specifically, astroviruses (AstVs), adenoviruses (ADVs), caliciviruses (CalVs), coronaviruses (CoVs), flaviviruses, filoviruses, paramyxoviruses (PMVs), polyomaviruses (PYVs) and rotaviruses...
April 6, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388625/poor-performance-of-the-rapid-test-for-human-brucellosis-in-health-facilities-in-kenya
#11
William A de Glanville, Raquel Conde-Álvarez, Ignacio Moriyón, John Njeru, Ramón Díaz, Elizabeth A J Cook, Matilda Morin, Barend M de C Bronsvoort, Lian F Thomas, Samuel Kariuki, Eric M Fèvre
Human brucellosis is considered to be an important but typically under-diagnosed cause of febrile illness in many low and middle-income countries. In Kenya, and throughout East Africa, laboratory diagnosis for the disease is based primarily on the febrile antigen Brucella agglutination test (FBAT), yet few studies of the diagnostic accuracy of this test exist. Assessment of the performance of the FBAT is essential for its appropriate clinical use, as well as for evaluating surveillance data reported by public health systems...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385178/epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-injuries-in-kenya-a-multisite-surveillance-study
#12
Isaac M Botchey, Yuen W Hung, Abdulgafoor M Bachani, Fatima Paruk, Amber Mehmood, Hassan Saidi, Adnan A Hyder
BACKGROUND: Injury is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide, accounting for over 5 million deaths each year. The injury burden is higher in low- and middle-income countries where more than 90% of injury-related deaths occur. Despite this burden, the use of prospective trauma registries to describe injury epidemiology and outcomes is limited in low- and middle-income countries. Kenya lacks robust data to describe injury epidemiology and care. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and outcomes of injuries at 4 referral hospitals in Kenya using hospital-based trauma registries...
April 3, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364566/identifying-gaps-in-hiv-service-delivery-across-the-diagnosis-to-treatment-cascade-findings-from-health-facility-surveys-in-six-sub-saharan-countries
#13
Kathryn Church, Kazuyo Machiyama, Jim Todd, Brian Njamwea, Mary Mwangome, Vicky Hosegood, Janet Michel, Samuel Oti, Constance Nyamukapa, Amelia Crampin, Nyaguara Amek, Gertrude Nakigozi, Denna Michael, F Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Jessica Nakiyingi-Miiro, Basia Zaba, Alison Wringe
INTRODUCTION: Despite the rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART), challenges remain in ensuring timely access to care and treatment for people living with HIV. As part of a multi-country study to investigate HIV mortality, we conducted health facility surveys within 10 health and demographic surveillance system sites across six countries in Eastern and Southern Africa to investigate clinic-level factors influencing (i) use of HIV testing services, (ii) use of HIV care and treatment and (iii) patient retention on ART...
January 12, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356529/antigenic-drift-defines-a-new-d4-subgenotype-of-measles-virus
#14
Miguel Ángel Muñoz-Alía, Claude P Muller, Stephen J Russell
The measles virus hemagglutinin (MeV-H) protein is the main target of protective neutralizing antibodies. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize known major antigenic sites in MeV-H, we identified a D4 genotype variant that escapes neutralization by MAbs targeting the neutralizing epitope (NE) antigenic site. By site-directed mutagenesis, L249P was identified as the critical mutation disrupting the NE in this genotype D4 variant. Forty-two available D4 genotype gene sequences were subsequently analyzed and divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of the L249P MeV-H mutation...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335786/matching-safety-to-access-global-actors-and-pharmacogovernance-in-kenya-a-case-study
#15
Kathy Moscou, Jillian C Kohler
BACKGROUND: The Kenyan government has sought to address inadequacies in its National Pharmaceutical Policy and the Pharmacy and Poisons Board's (PPB) medicines governance by engaging with global actors (e.g. the World Health Organization). Policy actors have influenced the way pharmacovigilance is defined, how challenges are understood and which norms are requisite to address drug safety issues. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between specific modes of engagement among global (exogenous) and domestic actors at the national and sub-national level to identify the positive or negative effect on pharmacovigilance and pharmacogovernance in Kenya...
March 23, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329184/the-causal-effect-of-tracing-by-peer-health-workers-on-return-to-clinic-among-patients-who-were-lost-to-follow-up-from-antiretroviral-therapy-in-eastern-africa-a-natural-experiment-arising-from-surveillance-of-lost-patients
#16
Anna Bershetyn, Thomas A Odeny, Rita Lyamuya, Alice Nakiwogga-Muwanga, Lameck Diero, Mwebesa Bwana, Paula Braitstein, Geoffrey Somi, Andrew Kambugu, Elizabeth Bukusi, Wendy Hartogensis, David V Glidden, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Constantin Yiannoutsos, Jeffrey Martin, Elvin H Geng
Background.: The effect of tracing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who are lost to follow-up (LTFU) on reengagement has not been rigorously assessed. We carried out an ex post analysis of a surveillance study in which LTFU patients were randomly selected for tracing to identify the effect of tracing on reengagement. Methods.: We evaluated HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy who were LTFU (>90 days late for last visit) at 14 clinics in Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316253/predominance-of-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-a-among-treated-hiv-infected-patients-experiencing-high-hepatitis-b-virus-drug-resistance-in-nairobi-kenya
#17
Sepha Nyatichi Mabeya, Caroline Ngugi, Raphael Wekesa Lihana, Samoel Ashimosi Khamadi, Anthony Kebira Nyamache
Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-HIV coinfections are becoming common with information on HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance still remaining elusive. To evaluate the HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance-associated mutations among drug-experienced HIV patients, the genetic analysis of the partial HBV-pol-reverse trancriptase gene was successfully sequenced from 13 samples. Analysis of the sequences showed that all (11) the sequences belonged to genotype A. Nucleos(t)ide drug resistance mutations were found in 6 patients...
April 18, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299154/assessment-of-malaria-reporting-and-epidemic-preparedness-systems-in-health-facilities-in-eldoret-west-district-uasin-gishu-county-kenya
#18
Ruth C Kirinyet, Arthur S Ng'etich, Ahmad Juma
The most important factor in reducing the impact of an epidemic is a timely response with implementation of effective control measures at the point of detection. This study sought to assess the malaria reporting and epidemic preparedness systems of health facilities in Eldoret West District, Kenya. A cross-sectional study design was adapted. A census technique was used to select all the forty five health facilities in the district comprising of government, mission and non-governmental facilities. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used for data collection and analysis done using Stata...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271855/prevalence-of-foodborne-pathogens-in-food-from-selected-african-countries-a-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Narayan Paudyal, Victor Anihouvi, Joseph Hounhouigan, Maitshwarelo Ignatius Matsheka, Bonno Sekwati-Monang, Wisdom Amoa-Awua, Amy Atter, Nina Bernice Ackah, Samuel Mbugua, Agnes Asagbra, Warda Abdelgadir, Jesca Nakavuma, Mogens Jakobsen, Weihuan Fang
Food safety information in the African region is insufficient and fragmented due to lack of surveillance, documentation and reporting, thereby resulting in inefficient utilization of resources, duplication of activities, and lack of synergy among the countries of the region. This paper reviews the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in seven African countries (Benin, Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan and Uganda) from papers in regional or international journals published between January 2000 and December 2015...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193398/incidence-of-invasive-salmonella-disease-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-multicentre-population-based-surveillance-study
#20
Florian Marks, Vera von Kalckreuth, Peter Aaby, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Muna Ahmed El Tayeb, Mohammad Ali, Abraham Aseffa, Stephen Baker, Holly M Biggs, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Robert F Breiman, James I Campbell, Leonard Cosmas, John A Crump, Ligia Maria Cruz Espinoza, Jessica Fung Deerin, Denise Myriam Dekker, Barry S Fields, Nagla Gasmelseed, Julian T Hertz, Nguyen Van Minh Hoang, Justin Im, Anna Jaeger, Hyon Jin Jeon, Leon Parfait Kabore, Karen H Keddy, Frank Konings, Ralf Krumkamp, Benedikt Ley, Sandra Valborg Løfberg, Jürgen May, Christian G Meyer, Eric D Mintz, Joel M Montgomery, Aissatou Ahmet Niang, Chelsea Nichols, Beatrice Olack, Gi Deok Pak, Ursula Panzner, Jin Kyung Park, Se Eun Park, Henintsoa Rabezanahary, Raphaël Rakotozandrindrainy, Tiana Mirana Raminosoa, Tsiriniaina Jean Luco Razafindrabe, Emmanuel Sampo, Heidi Schütt-Gerowitt, Amy Gassama Sow, Nimako Sarpong, Hye Jin Seo, Arvinda Sooka, Abdramane Bassiahi Soura, Adama Tall, Mekonnen Teferi, Kamala Thriemer, Michelle R Warren, Biruk Yeshitela, John D Clemens, Thomas F Wierzba
BACKGROUND: Available incidence data for invasive salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Standardised, multicountry data are required to better understand the nature and burden of disease in Africa. We aimed to measure the adjusted incidence estimates of typhoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the causative agents. METHODS: We established a systematic, standardised surveillance of blood culture-based febrile illness in 13 African sentinel sites with previous reports of typhoid fever: Burkina Faso (two sites), Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar (two sites), Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania (two sites)...
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
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