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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888478/examining-the-quality-of-medicines-at-kenyan-healthcare-facilities-a-validation-of-an-alternative-post-market-surveillance-model-that-uses-standardized-patients
#1
Francis Wafula, Amy Dolinger, Benjamin Daniels, Njeri Mwaura, Guadalupe Bedoya, Khama Rogo, Ana Goicoechea, Jishnu Das, Bernard Olayo
BACKGROUND: Promoting access to medicines requires concurrent efforts to strengthen quality assurance for sustained impact. Although problems of substandard and falsified medicines have been documented in low- and middle-income countries, reliable information on quality is rarely available. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to validate an alternative post-market surveillance model to complement existing models. METHODS: The study used standardized patients or mystery clients (people recruited from the local community and trained to pose as real patients) to collect medicine samples after presenting a pre-specified condition...
November 25, 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888177/study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-of-an-ncd-access-to-medicines-initiative-evaluation-of-novartis-access-in-kenya
#2
Peter C Rockers, Veronika J Wirtz, Taryn Vian, Monica A Onyango, Paul G Ashigbie, Richard Laing
INTRODUCTION: Novartis recently launched Novartis Access, an initiative to provide a basket of reduced price medicines for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) to be sold through the public and private non-profit sectors in programme countries. This study will evaluate the impact of Novartis Access on the availability and price of NCD medicines at health facilities and households in Kenya, the first country to receive the programme. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study will be a cluster-randomised controlled trial...
November 25, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881530/menstrual-cups-and-sanitary-pads-to-reduce-school-attrition-and-sexually-transmitted-and-reproductive-tract-infections-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-feasibility-study-in-rural-western-kenya
#3
Penelope A Phillips-Howard, Elizabeth Nyothach, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Jackton Omoto, Duolao Wang, Clement Zeh, Clayton Onyango, Linda Mason, Kelly T Alexander, Frank O Odhiambo, Alie Eleveld, Aisha Mohammed, Anna M van Eijk, Rhiannon Tudor Edwards, John Vulule, Brian Faragher, Kayla F Laserson
OBJECTIVES: Conduct a feasibility study on the effect of menstrual hygiene on schoolgirls' school and health (reproductive/sexual) outcomes. DESIGN: 3-arm single-site open cluster randomised controlled pilot study. SETTING: 30 primary schools in rural western Kenya, within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System. PARTICIPANTS: Primary schoolgirls 14-16 years, experienced 3 menses, no precluding disability, and resident in the study area...
November 23, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881079/detection-of-west-nile-virus-in-wild-birds-in-tana-river-and-garissa-counties-kenya
#4
Doris Nyamwaya, Virginia Wang'ondu, Joshua Amimo, George Michuki, Moses Ogugo, Enoch Ontiri, Rosemary Sang, Johanna Lindahl, Delia Grace, Bernard Bett
BACKGROUND: West Nile fever virus is a zoonotic arboviral infection maintained in a sylvatic cycle involving mosquito vectors and birds. It is one the arboviruses whose geographical range is expanding because of climate and land use changes that enhance the densities of mosquitoes and promote mosquito-bird-human interactions. We carried out a survey to determine the reservoirs of WNV among wild birds in Tana River and Garissa counties, Kenya. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 361 randomly trapped wild birds...
November 23, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875532/willingness-to-know-the-cause-of-death-and-hypothetical-acceptability-of-the-minimally-invasive-autopsy-in-six-diverse-african-and-asian-settings-a-mixed-methods-socio-behavioural-study
#5
Maria Maixenchs, Rui Anselmo, Emily Zielinski-Gutiérrez, Frank O Odhiambo, Clarah Akello, Maureen Ondire, S Shujaat H Zaidi, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Kounandji Diarra, Mahamane Djitèye, Roukiatou Dembélé, Samba Sow, Pamela Cathérine Angoissa Minsoko, Selidji Todagbe Agnandji, Bertrand Lell, Mamudo R Ismail, Carla Carrilho, Jaume Ordi, Clara Menéndez, Quique Bassat, Khátia Munguambe
BACKGROUND: The minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) is being investigated as an alternative to complete diagnostic autopsies for cause of death (CoD) investigation. Before potential implementation of the MIA in settings where post-mortem procedures are unusual, a thorough assessment of its feasibility and acceptability is essential. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a socio-behavioural study at the community level to understand local attitudes and perceptions related to death and the hypothetical feasibility and acceptability of conducting MIAs in six distinct settings in Gabon, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, and Pakistan...
November 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871303/geographically-weighted-regression-of-knowledge-and-behaviour-determinants-to-anti-malarial-recommending-and-dispensing-practice-among-medicine-retailers-in-western-kenya-capacitating-targeted-interventions
#6
Andria Rusk, Linda Highfield, J Michael Wilkerson, Melissa Harrell, Andrew Obala, Benjamin Amick
BACKGROUND: Most patients with malaria seek treatment first in retail drug shops. Myriad studies have examined retailer behaviours and characteristics to understand the determinants to these behaviours. Geospatial methods are helpful in discovering if geographic location plays a role in the relationship between determinants and outcomes. This study aimed to discover if spatial autocorrelation exists in the relationship between determinants and retailer behaviours, and to provide specific geographic locations and target behaviours for tailoring future interventions...
November 21, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830387/public-health-benefits-from-livestock-rift-valley-fever-control-a-simulation-of-two-epidemics-in-kenya
#7
Tabitha Kimani, Esther Schelling, Bernard Bett, Margaret Ngigi, Tom Randolph, Samuel Fuhrimann
In controlling Rift Valley fever, public health sector optimises health benefits by considering cost-effective control options. We modelled cost-effectiveness of livestock RVF control from a public health perspective in Kenya. Analysis was limited to pastoral and agro-pastoral system high-risk areas, for a 10-year period incorporating two epidemics: 2006/2007 and a hypothetical one in 2014/2015. Four integrated strategies (baseline and alternatives), combined from three vaccination and two surveillance options, were compared...
November 9, 2016: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825350/development-and-validation-of-a-rapid-assessment-tool-for-malaria-prevention
#8
Judith Nekesa Mangeni, Diana Menya, Andrew Obala, Alyssa Platt, Wendy Prudhomme O'Meara
BACKGROUND: Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) have been shown to be efficacious in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in many regions. Unfortunately in some areas, malaria has persisted despite the scale up of ITNs. Recent reports indicate that human behaviour and mosquito behaviour are potential threats to the efficacy of ITNs. However, these concerns are likely highly heterogeneous even at very small scales. This study aimed at developing, testing and validating a rapid assessment tool to collect actionable information at local levels for a quick evaluation of potential barriers to malaria prevention...
November 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821697/dengue-and-west-nile-virus-transmission-in-children-and-adults-in-coastal-kenya
#9
David M Vu, Tamara Banda, Crystal Y Teng, Chelsea Heimbaugh, Eric M Muchiri, Peter L Mungai, Francis M Mutuku, Julie Brichard, Ginny Gildengorin, Erin M Borland, Ann M Powers, Uriel Kitron, Charles H King, A Desiree LaBeaud
Dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are important reemerging arboviruses that are under-recognized in many parts of Africa due to lack of surveillance. As a part of a study on flavivirus, alphavirus, and parasite exposure in coastal Kenya, we measured neutralizing antibody against DENV and, to evaluate assay specificity, WNV in serum samples that tested positive for serum anti-DENV IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 830 anti-DENV IgG-positive samples that were tested for neutralizing activity, 488 (58...
November 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814732/detection-of-dengue-virus-serotypes-1-2-and-3-in-selected-regions-of-kenya-2011-2014
#10
Limbaso Konongoi, Victor Ofula, Albert Nyunja, Samuel Owaka, Hellen Koka, Albina Makio, Edith Koskei, Fredrick Eyase, Daniel Langat, Randal J Schoepp, Cynthia Ann Rossi, Ian Njeru, Rodney Coldren, Rosemary Sang
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne disease, is associated with illness of varying severity in countries in the tropics and sub tropics. Dengue cases continue to be detected more frequently and its geographic range continues to expand. We report the largest documented laboratory confirmed circulation of dengue virus in parts of Kenya since 1982. METHODS: From September 2011 to December 2014, 868 samples from febrile patients were received from hospitals in Nairobi, northern and coastal Kenya...
November 4, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776500/under-five-mortality-rate-variation-between-the-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-hdss-and-demographic-and-health-survey-dhs-approaches
#11
Amare Deribew, John Ojal, Boniface Karia, Evasius Bauni, Mark Oteinde
BACKGROUND: Several low and middle-income countries (LMIC) use Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and/or Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) to monitor the health of their population. The level and trends of under-five mortality rates could be different in the HDSS sites compared to the DHS reports. In this study, we investigated the change in under-five mortality rates overtime in the HDSS sites and the corresponding DHS reports in eight countries and 13 sites. METHODS: Under-five mortality rates in the HDSS sites were determined using number of under-five deaths (numerator) and live births (denominator)...
October 24, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725044/under-reporting-of-sputum-smear-positive-tuberculosis-cases-in-kenya
#12
D Tollefson, F Ngari, M Mwakala, D Gethi, H Kipruto, K Cain, E Bloss
BACKGROUND: Although an estimated three million tuberculosis (TB) cases worldwide are missed by national TB programs annually, the level of under-reporting of diagnosed cases in high TB burden settings is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To quantify and describe under-reporting of sputum smear-positive TB cases in Kenya. DESIGN: A national-level retrospective TB inventory study was conducted. All sputum smear-positive TB cases diagnosed by public or private laboratories during 1 April-30 June 2013 were extracted from laboratory registers in 73 randomly sampled subcounties and matched to TB cases in the national TB surveillance system (TIBU)...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647575/molecular-surveillance-of-plasmodium-falciparum-drug-resistance-markers-reveals-partial-recovery-of-chloroquine-susceptibility-but-sustained-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-resistance-at-two-sites-of-different-malaria-transmission-intensities-in-rwanda
#13
Fredrick Kateera, Sam L Nsobya, Steven Tukwasibwe, Emmanuel Hakizimana, Leon Mutesa, Petra F Mens, Martin P Grobusch, Michèle van Vugt, Nirbhay Kumar
Faced with intense levels of chloroquine (CQ) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Rwanda replaced CQ with amodiaquine (AQ)+sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in 2001, and subsequently with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in 2006, as first-line treatments for uncomplicated malaria. Following years of discontinuation of CQ use, re-emergence of CQ-susceptible parasites has been reported in countries including Malawi, Kenya and Tanzania. In contrast, high levels of SP resistant mutant parasites continue to be reported even in countries of presumed reduced SP drug selection pressure...
September 17, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622496/pregnant-women-s-intentions-and-subsequent-behaviors-regarding-maternal-and-neonatal-service-utilization-results-from-a-cohort-study-in-nyanza-province-kenya
#14
Andreea A Creanga, George Awino Odhiambo, Benjamin Odera, Frank O Odhiambo, Meghna Desai, Mary Goodwin, Kayla Laserson, Howard Goldberg
Higher use of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services may reduce maternal and neonatal mortality in Kenya. This study aims to: 1) prospectively explore women's intentions to use MNH services (antenatal care, delivery in a facility, postnatal care, neonatal care) at <20 and 30-35 weeks' gestation and their actual use of these services; 2) identify predictors of intention-behavior discordance among women with positive service use intentions; 3) examine associations between place of delivery, women's reasons for choosing it, and birthing experiences...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600526/enteric-pathogens-and-factors-associated-with-acute-bloody-diarrhoea-kenya
#15
Charles Njuguna, Ian Njeru, Elizabeth Mgamb, Daniel Langat, Anselimo Makokha, Dismas Ongore, Evan Mathenge, Samuel Kariuki
BACKGROUND: Shigellosis is the major cause of bloody diarrhoea worldwide and is endemic in most developing countries. In Kenya, bloody diarrhoea is reported weekly as part of priority diseases under Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response System (IDSR) in the Ministry of Health. METHODS: We conducted a case control study with 805 participants (284 cases and 521 controls) between January and December 2012 in Kilifi and Nairobi Counties. Kilifi County is largely a rural population whereas Nairobi County is largely urban...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589922/monitoring-and-evaluation-to-support-adaptive-co-management-lessons-learned-from-the-millennium-villages-project
#16
Sarah Chapman, Clare Sullivan, Cheryl Palm, Uyen Huynh, William Diru, Jessica Masira
This article focuses attention on monitoring and evaluation approaches that will help resource managers to manage for change and uncertainty in adaptive co-management (ACM). ACM is a learning-by-doing approach that aims to build flexible community-based natural resource governance systems through collaborative or otherwise participatory means. We describe the framework for monitoring and evaluation that we developed and applied in ten African countries, which includes fixed indicators and measures for co-management performance monitoring, a process evaluation element, a platform for repeat ecological surveillance, and a longitudinal household survey...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570543/antimicrobial-resistance-of-campylobacter-isolates-from-small-scale-and-backyard-chicken-in-kenya
#17
Tuan Ngoc Minh Nguyen, Helmut Hotzel, John Njeru, Joyce Mwituria, Hosny El-Adawy, Herbert Tomaso, Heinrich Neubauer, Hafez M Hafez
BACKGROUND: Thermophilic Campylobacter species are a major cause of bacterial foodborne diarrhoea in humans worldwide. Poultry and their products are the predominant source for human campylobacteriosis. Resistance of Campylobacter to antibiotics is increasing worldwide, but little is known about the antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter isolated from chicken in Kenya. In this study, 35 suspected Campylobacter strains isolated from faeces and cloacal swabs of chicken were tested for their susceptibility to seven antibiotics using a broth microdilution assay and molecular biological investigations...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557120/prioritization-of-zoonotic-diseases-in-kenya-2015
#18
Peninah Munyua, Austine Bitek, Eric Osoro, Emily G Pieracci, Josephat Muema, Athman Mwatondo, Mathew Kungu, Mark Nanyingi, Radhika Gharpure, Kariuki Njenga, Samuel M Thumbi
INTRODUCTION: Zoonotic diseases have varying public health burden and socio-economic impact across time and geographical settings making their prioritization for prevention and control important at the national level. We conducted systematic prioritization of zoonotic diseases and developed a ranked list of these diseases that would guide allocation of resources to enhance their surveillance, prevention, and control. METHODS: A group of 36 medical, veterinary, and wildlife experts in zoonoses from government, research institutions and universities in Kenya prioritized 36 diseases using a semi-quantitative One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with slight adaptations...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520594/the-effect-of-mass-mosquito-trapping-on-malaria-transmission-and-disease-burden-solarmal-a-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomised-trial
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Tobias Homan, Alexandra Hiscox, Collins K Mweresa, Daniel Masiga, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Prisca Oria, Nicolas Maire, Aurelio Di Pasquale, Mariabeth Silkey, Jane Alaii, Teun Bousema, Cees Leeuwis, Thomas A Smith, Willem Takken
BACKGROUND: Odour baits can attract host-seeking Anopheles mosquitoes indoors and outdoors. We assessed the effects of mass deployment of odour-baited traps on malaria transmission and disease burden. METHODS: We installed solar-powered odour-baited mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) to households on Rusinga Island, Lake Victoria, western Kenya (mean population 24 879), in a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial. All residents in the completed health and demographic surveillance system were eligible to participate...
September 17, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515059/child-height-gain-is-associated-with-consumption-of-animal-source-foods-in-livestock-owning-households-in-western-kenya
#20
Emily Mosites, George Aol, Elkanah Otiang, Godfrey Bigogo, Peninah Munyua, Joel M Montgomery, Marian L Neuhouser, Guy H Palmer, Samuel M Thumbi
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the pathways between household livestock and child growth by assessing the relationships between consumption of animal-source foods (ASF) and child growth and evaluating the household livestock correlates of child consumption of ASF. DESIGN: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of anthropometry and 3 d feeding recalls among children <5 years old between June 2014 and May 2015. In addition, we collected data on wealth, livestock ownership and livestock diseases in the same households...
August 12, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
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