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Surveillance kenya

D Tollefson, F Ngari, M Mwakala, D Gethi, H Kipruto, K Cain, E Bloss
BACKGROUND: Although an estimated three million tuberculosis (TB) cases worldwide are missed by national TB programs annually, the level of under-reporting of diagnosed cases in high TB burden settings is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To quantify and describe under-reporting of sputum smear-positive TB cases in Kenya. DESIGN: A national-level retrospective TB inventory study was conducted. All sputum smear-positive TB cases diagnosed by public or private laboratories during 1 April-30 June 2013 were extracted from laboratory registers in 73 randomly sampled subcounties and matched to TB cases in the national TB surveillance system (TIBU)...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Fredrick Kateera, Sam L Nsobya, Steven Tukwasibwe, Emmanuel Hakizimana, Leon Mutesa, Petra F Mens, Martin P Grobusch, Michèle van Vugt, Nirbhay Kumar
Faced with intense levels of chloroquine (CQ) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Rwanda replaced CQ with amodiaquine (AQ)+sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in 2001, and subsequently with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in 2006, as first-line treatments for uncomplicated malaria. Following years of discontinuation of CQ use, re-emergence of CQ-susceptible parasites has been reported in countries including Malawi, Kenya and Tanzania. In contrast, high levels of SP resistant mutant parasites continue to be reported even in countries of presumed reduced SP drug selection pressure...
September 17, 2016: Acta Tropica
Andreea A Creanga, George Awino Odhiambo, Benjamin Odera, Frank O Odhiambo, Meghna Desai, Mary Goodwin, Kayla Laserson, Howard Goldberg
Higher use of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services may reduce maternal and neonatal mortality in Kenya. This study aims to: 1) prospectively explore women's intentions to use MNH services (antenatal care, delivery in a facility, postnatal care, neonatal care) at <20 and 30-35 weeks' gestation and their actual use of these services; 2) identify predictors of intention-behavior discordance among women with positive service use intentions; 3) examine associations between place of delivery, women's reasons for choosing it, and birthing experiences...
2016: PloS One
Charles Njuguna, Ian Njeru, Elizabeth Mgamb, Daniel Langat, Anselimo Makokha, Dismas Ongore, Evan Mathenge, Samuel Kariuki
BACKGROUND: Shigellosis is the major cause of bloody diarrhoea worldwide and is endemic in most developing countries. In Kenya, bloody diarrhoea is reported weekly as part of priority diseases under Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response System (IDSR) in the Ministry of Health. METHODS: We conducted a case control study with 805 participants (284 cases and 521 controls) between January and December 2012 in Kilifi and Nairobi Counties. Kilifi County is largely a rural population whereas Nairobi County is largely urban...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sarah Chapman, Clare Sullivan, Cheryl Palm, Uyen Huynh, William Diru, Jessica Masira
This article focuses attention on monitoring and evaluation approaches that will help resource managers to manage for change and uncertainty in adaptive co-management (ACM). ACM is a learning-by-doing approach that aims to build flexible community-based natural resource governance systems through collaborative or otherwise participatory means. We describe the framework for monitoring and evaluation that we developed and applied in ten African countries, which includes fixed indicators and measures for co-management performance monitoring, a process evaluation element, a platform for repeat ecological surveillance, and a longitudinal household survey...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Tuan Ngoc Minh Nguyen, Helmut Hotzel, John Njeru, Joyce Mwituria, Hosny El-Adawy, Herbert Tomaso, Heinrich Neubauer, Hafez M Hafez
BACKGROUND: Thermophilic Campylobacter species are a major cause of bacterial foodborne diarrhoea in humans worldwide. Poultry and their products are the predominant source for human campylobacteriosis. Resistance of Campylobacter to antibiotics is increasing worldwide, but little is known about the antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter isolated from chicken in Kenya. In this study, 35 suspected Campylobacter strains isolated from faeces and cloacal swabs of chicken were tested for their susceptibility to seven antibiotics using a broth microdilution assay and molecular biological investigations...
2016: Gut Pathogens
Peninah Munyua, Austine Bitek, Eric Osoro, Emily G Pieracci, Josephat Muema, Athman Mwatondo, Mathew Kungu, Mark Nanyingi, Radhika Gharpure, Kariuki Njenga, Samuel M Thumbi
INTRODUCTION: Zoonotic diseases have varying public health burden and socio-economic impact across time and geographical settings making their prioritization for prevention and control important at the national level. We conducted systematic prioritization of zoonotic diseases and developed a ranked list of these diseases that would guide allocation of resources to enhance their surveillance, prevention, and control. METHODS: A group of 36 medical, veterinary, and wildlife experts in zoonoses from government, research institutions and universities in Kenya prioritized 36 diseases using a semi-quantitative One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with slight adaptations...
2016: PloS One
Tobias Homan, Alexandra Hiscox, Collins K Mweresa, Daniel Masiga, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Prisca Oria, Nicolas Maire, Aurelio Di Pasquale, Mariabeth Silkey, Jane Alaii, Teun Bousema, Cees Leeuwis, Thomas A Smith, Willem Takken
BACKGROUND: Odour baits can attract host-seeking Anopheles mosquitoes indoors and outdoors. We assessed the effects of mass deployment of odour-baited traps on malaria transmission and disease burden. METHODS: We installed solar-powered odour-baited mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) to households on Rusinga Island, Lake Victoria, western Kenya (mean population 24 879), in a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial. All residents in the completed health and demographic surveillance system were eligible to participate...
September 17, 2016: Lancet
Emily Mosites, George Aol, Elkanah Otiang, Godfrey Bigogo, Peninah Munyua, Joel M Montgomery, Marian L Neuhouser, Guy H Palmer, Samuel M Thumbi
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the pathways between household livestock and child growth by assessing the relationships between consumption of animal-source foods (ASF) and child growth and evaluating the household livestock correlates of child consumption of ASF. DESIGN: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of anthropometry and 3 d feeding recalls among children <5 years old between June 2014 and May 2015. In addition, we collected data on wealth, livestock ownership and livestock diseases in the same households...
August 12, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
Alexandra Hiscox, Tobias Homan, Collins K Mweresa, Nicolas Maire, Aurelio Di Pasquale, Daniel Masiga, Prisca A Oria, Jane Alaii, Cees Leeuwis, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Willem Takken, Thomas A Smith
BACKGROUND: Increasing levels of insecticide resistance as well as outdoor, residual transmission of malaria threaten the efficacy of existing vector control tools used against malaria mosquitoes. The development of odour-baited mosquito traps has led to the possibility of controlling malaria through mass trapping of malaria vectors. Through daily removal trapping against a background of continued bed net use it is anticipated that vector populations could be suppressed to a level where continued transmission of malaria will no longer be possible...
2016: Trials
Peter Cherutich, Matthew Golden, Bourke Betz, Beatrice Wamuti, Anne Ng'ang'a, Peter Maingi, Paul Macharia, Betsy Sambai, Felix Abuna, David Bukusi, Mathew Dunbar, Carey Farquhar
BACKGROUND: The utilization of routine health information systems (HIS) for surveillance of assisted partner services (aPS) for HIV in sub-Saharan is sub-optimal, in part due to poor data quality and limited use of information technology. Consequently, little is known about coverage, scope and quality of HIV aPS. Yet, affordable electronic data tools, software and data transmission infrastructure are now widely accessible in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We designed and implemented a cased-based surveillance system using the HIV testing platform in 18 health facilities in Kenya...
2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Urbanus Kioko, Christina Riley, Stephanie Dellicour, Vincent Were, Peter Ouma, Julie Gutman, Simon Kariuki, Ahmeddin Omar, Meghna Desai, Ann M Buff
BACKGROUND: Although anti-malarial medicines are free in Kenyan public health facilities, patients often seek treatment from private sector retail drug outlets. In mid-2010, the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) was introduced to make quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) accessible and affordable in private and public sectors. METHODS: Private sector retail drug outlets stocking anti-malarial medications within a surveillance area of approximately 220,000 people in a malaria perennial high-transmission area in rural western Kenya were identified via a census in September 2013...
2016: Malaria Journal
Rhoune Ochako, Chimaraoke Izugbara, Jerry Okal, Ian Askew, Marleen Temmerman
BACKGROUND: Understanding women's contraceptive method choices is key to enhancing family planning services provision and programming. Currently however, very little research has addressed inter and intra-regional disparities in women's contraceptive method choice. Using data from slum and non-slum contexts in Nairobi, Kenya, the current study investigates the prevalence of and factors associated with contraceptive method choice among women. METHODS: Data were from a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among a random sample of 1,873 women (aged 15-49 years) in two non-slum and two slum settlement areas in Nairobi, Kenya...
2016: BMC Women's Health
Shogo Ohkoshi, Haruka Hirono, Kazuhiko Watanabe, Katsuhiko Hasegawa, Kenya Kamimura, Masahiko Yano
The fibrosis of liver cirrhosis was considered to be irreversible before the anti-viral drugs showed that it is reversible when they lead to continuous suppression of viral replication and inflammation. However, several reports previously showed that fibrosis of type B liver cirrhosis was almost completely absorbed after the natural remission of chronic inflammation. This phenomenon might not be limited to exceptional patients, but rather occur commonly, considering the dynamic clinical features of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), where inactive carrier stage normally follows aggravation of hepatitis and progression of fibrosis at the time of HBeAg seroconversion...
June 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Paul J Feldblum, Elijah Odoyo-June, Robert C Bailey, Jaim Jou Lai, Debra Weiner, Stephanie Combes, Catherine Hart, Shelly Fischer, Walter Obiero, Peter Cherutich
OBJECTIVES: To explore factors associated with healing requiring more than 6 weeks after placement of the PrePex device for adult medical male circumcision. METHODS: We enrolled 427 men ages 18-49 years in an observational study of PrePex at 1 urban and 2 peripheral clinics in western Kenya. Participants were scheduled for device removal at day 7 and a follow-up visit at day 42 (allowable range, 40-44) at which the provider recorded wound status, with complete healing defined as a dry wound without any scab, later confirmed by site investigator review of digital penile photographs...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Betty E Owor, Geoffrey N Masankwa, Lilian C Mwango, Regina W Njeru, Charles N Agoti, D James Nokes
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important global cause of severe acute respiratory infections in young children and the elderly. The epidemiology of HMPV in sub-Saharan Africa is poorly described and factors that allow its recurrent epidemics in communities not understood. METHODS: We undertook paediatric inpatient surveillance for HMPV in Kilifi County Hospital (KCH) of Coastal Kenya between 2007 and 2011. Nasopharyngeal samples collected from children aged 1 day-59 months admitted with severe or very severe pneumonia, were tested for HMPV using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Athman Juma Mwatondo, Zipporah Ng'ang'a, Caroline Maina, Lyndah Makayotto, Moses Mwangi, Ian Njeru, Wences Arvelo
INTRODUCTION: Kenya adopted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in 1998 to strengthen disease surveillance and epidemic response. However, the goal of weekly surveillance reporting among health facilities has not been achieved. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of adequate reporting and factors associated with IDSR reporting among health facilities in one Kenyan County. METHODS: Health facilities (public and private) were enrolled using stratified random sampling from 348 facilities prioritized for routine surveillance reporting...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
J Njeru, K Henning, M W Pletz, R Heller, C Forstner, S Kariuki, E M Fèvre, H Neubauer
BACKGROUND: Q fever in Kenya is poorly reported and its surveillance is highly neglected. Standard empiric treatment for febrile patients admitted to hospitals is antimalarials or penicillin-based antibiotics, which have no activity against Coxiella burnetii. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and the predisposing risk factors for Q fever infection in febrile patients from a pastoralist population, and derive a model for clinical prediction of febrile patients with acute Q fever...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Anna Rautanen, Matti Pirinen, Tara C Mills, Kirk A Rockett, Amy Strange, Anne W Ndungu, Vivek Naranbhai, James J Gilchrist, Céline Bellenguez, Colin Freeman, Gavin Band, Suzannah J Bumpstead, Sarah Edkins, Eleni Giannoulatou, Emma Gray, Serge Dronov, Sarah E Hunt, Cordelia Langford, Richard D Pearson, Zhan Su, Damjan Vukcevic, Alex W Macharia, Sophie Uyoga, Carolyne Ndila, Neema Mturi, Patricia Njuguna, Shebe Mohammed, James A Berkley, Isaiah Mwangi, Salim Mwarumba, Barnes S Kitsao, Brett S Lowe, Susan C Morpeth, Iqbal Khandwalla, Jenefer M Blackwell, Elvira Bramon, Matthew A Brown, Juan P Casas, Aiden Corvin, Audrey Duncanson, Janusz Jankowski, Hugh S Markus, Christopher G Mathew, Colin N A Palmer, Robert Plomin, Stephen J Sawcer, Richard C Trembath, Ananth C Viswanathan, Nicholas W Wood, Panos Deloukas, Leena Peltonen, Thomas N Williams, J Anthony G Scott, Stephen J Chapman, Peter Donnelly, Adrian V S Hill, Chris C A Spencer
Bacteremia (bacterial bloodstream infection) is a major cause of illness and death in sub-Saharan Africa but little is known about the role of human genetics in susceptibility. We conducted a genome-wide association study of bacteremia susceptibility in more than 5,000 Kenyan children as part of the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 (WTCCC2). Both the blood-culture-proven bacteremia case subjects and healthy infants as controls were recruited from Kilifi, on the east coast of Kenya. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacteremia in Kilifi and was thus the focus of this study...
June 2, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Caroline Makokha, Joshua Mott, Henry N Njuguna, Sammy Khagayi, Jennifer R Verani, Bryan Nyawanda, Nancy Otieno, Mark A Katz
Although the severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) case definition is increasingly used for inpatient influenza surveillance, pneumonia is a more familiar term to clinicians and policymakers. We evaluated WHO case definitions for severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and pneumonia (Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) for children aged <5 years and Integrated Management of Adolescent and Adult Illnesses (IMAI) for patients aged ≥13 years) for detecting laboratory-confirmed influenza among hospitalized ARI patients...
July 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
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