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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769047/uptake-of-skilled-attendance-along-the-continuum-of-care-in-rural-western-kenya-selected-analysis-from-global-health-initiative-survey-2012
#1
Winfred Mwangi, Onesmus Gachuno, Meghna Desai, David Obor, Vincent Were, Frank Odhiambo, Amek Nyaguara, Kayla F Laserson
BACKGROUND: Examining skilled attendance throughout pregnancy, delivery and immediate postnatal period is proxy indicator on the progress towards reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality in developing countries. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional baseline survey of households of mothers with at least 1 child under-5 years in 2012 within the KEMRI/CDC health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) area in rural western Kenya. RESULTS: Out of 8260 mother-child pairs, data on antenatal care (ANC) in the most recent pregnancy was obtained for 89% (n = 8260); 97% (n = 7387) reported attendance...
May 16, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764520/investigation-of-a-typhoid-fever-epidemic-in-moyale-sub-county-kenya-2014-2015
#2
Dahabo Adi Galgallo, Zeinab Gura Roka, Waqo G Boru, Khalumi Abill, James Ransom
AIM: Typhoid fever is a vaccine-preventable bacterial disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality throughout Africa. This paper describes an upsurge of typhoid fever cases in Moyale Sub-County (MSC), Kenya, 2014-2015. METHODS: We conducted active hospital and health facility surveillance and laboratory and antimicrobial sensitivity testing for all patients presenting with headache, fever, stomach pains, diarrhea, or constipation at five MSC health facilities between December 2014 and January 2015...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745965/stroke-distribution-patterns-and-characteristics-in-kenya-s-leading-public-health-tertiary-institutions-kenyatta-national-hospital-and-moi-teaching-and-referral-hospital
#3
Lydia Kaduka, Anne Korir, Chrispine Owuor Oduor, Judith Kwasa, Jane Mbui, Sylvanos Wabwire, Robai Gakunga, Nathan Okerosi, Yvonne Opanga, Isaac Kisiang'ani, Mercy Rotich Chepkurui, Erastus Muniu, Scot C Remick
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. However, there is limited clinic-epidemiological data on stroke to inform decision making. This study sought to establish stroke distribution patterns and characteristics in patients seeking care at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH), with the ultimate aim of establishing the first national stroke registry in Kenya. METHODS: This was a prospective multicentre cohort study among stroke patients...
March 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741740/human-coronavirus-nl63-molecular-epidemiology-and-evolutionary-patterns-in-rural-coastal-kenya
#4
Patience K Kiyuka, Charles N Agoti, Patrick K Munywoki, Regina Njeru, Anne Bett, James R Otieno, Grieven P Otieno, Everlyn Kamau, Taane G Clark, Lia van der Hoek, Paul Kellam, D James Nokes, Matthew Cotten
Background: Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is a globally endemic pathogen causing mild and severe respiratory tract infections with reinfections occurring repeatedly throughout a lifetime. Methods: Nasal samples were collected in coastal Kenya through community-based and hospital-based surveillance. HCoV-NL63 was detected with multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR, and positive samples were targeted for nucleotide sequencing of the spike (S) protein...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698487/enhanced-surveillance-for-rift-valley-fever-in-livestock-during-el-ni%C3%A3-o-rains-and-threat-of-rvf-outbreak-kenya-2015-2016
#5
Harry Oyas, Lindsey Holmstrom, Naomi P Kemunto, Matthew Muturi, Athman Mwatondo, Eric Osoro, Austine Bitek, Bernard Bett, Jane W Githinji, Samuel M Thumbi, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Peninah M Munyua, M Kariuki Njenga
BACKGROUND: In mid-2015, the United States' Pandemic Prediction and Forecasting Science and Technical Working Group of the National Science and Technology Council, Food and Agriculture Organization Emergency Prevention Systems, and Kenya Meteorological Department issued an alert predicting a high possibility of El-Niño rainfall and Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemic in Eastern Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In response to the alert, the Kenya Directorate of Veterinary Services (KDVS) carried out an enhanced syndromic surveillance system between November 2015 and February 2016, targeting 22 RVF high-risk counties in the country as identified previously through risk mapping...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695457/a-digital-microfluidic-system-for-serological-immunoassays-in-remote-settings
#6
Alphonsus H C Ng, Ryan Fobel, Christian Fobel, Julian Lamanna, Darius G Rackus, Aimee Summers, Christopher Dixon, Michael D M Dryden, Charis Lam, Man Ho, Nooman S Mufti, Victor Lee, Mohd Afiq Mohd Asri, Edward A Sykes, M Dean Chamberlain, Rachael Joseph, Maurice Ope, Heather M Scobie, Alaine Knipes, Paul A Rota, Nina Marano, Paul M Chege, Mary Njuguna, Rosemary Nzunza, Ngina Kisangau, John Kiogora, Michael Karuingi, John Wagacha Burton, Peter Borus, Eugene Lam, Aaron R Wheeler
Serosurveys are useful for assessing population susceptibility to vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks. Although at-risk populations in remote areas could benefit from this type of information, they face several logistical barriers to implementation, such as lack of access to centralized laboratories, cold storage, and transport of samples. We describe a potential solution: a compact and portable, field-deployable, point-of-care system relying on digital microfluidics that can rapidly test a small volume of capillary blood for disease-specific antibodies...
April 25, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683994/a-spatial-temporal-analysis-of-hiv-associated-mortality-in-rural-western-kenya-2011-2015
#7
Peter Sifuna, Lucas Otieno, Ben Andagalu, Janet Oyieko, Bernhards Ogutu, Valentine Singoei, John Owuoth, Sheila Ogwang, Jessica Cowden, Walter Otieno
BACKGROUND: Reliable data on the HIV epidemic is critical for the measurement of the impact of HIV response and for the implementation of further interventions. METHODS: We used mortality data from the Kombewa Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSS) from 1 January 2011-31 December 2015 to examine the space-time pattern of HIV-associated mortality. HIV mortality rate was calculated per 1,000 PLHV (for comparison with regional and national averages) and per 1,000 person-years (p-y) for comparison with other HDSS sites...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669224/evaluation-of-intussusception-after-monovalent-rotavirus-vaccination-in-africa
#8
Jacqueline E Tate, Jason M Mwenda, George Armah, Bhavin Jani, Richard Omore, Ayesheshem Ademe, Hilda Mujuru, Evans Mpabalwani, Bagrey Ngwira, Margaret M Cortese, Richard Mihigo, Hope Glover-Addy, Mwajabu Mbaga, Francis Osawa, Amezene Tadesse, Bothwell Mbuwayesango, Julia Simwaka, Nigel Cunliffe, Benjamin A Lopman, Goitom Weldegebriel, Daniel Ansong, David Msuya, Billy Ogwel, Thomas Karengera, Portia Manangazira, Bruce Bvulani, Catherine Yen, Felicitas R Zawaira, Clement T Narh, Lazaro Mboma, Peter Saula, Fasil Teshager, Halle Getachew, Rebecca M Moeti, Christabel Eweronu-Laryea, Umesh D Parashar
BACKGROUND: Postlicensure evaluations have identified an association between rotavirus vaccination and intussusception in several high- and middle-income countries. We assessed the association between monovalent human rotavirus vaccine and intussusception in lower-income sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: Using active surveillance, we enrolled patients from seven countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) who had intussusception that met international (Brighton Collaboration level 1) criteria...
April 19, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668861/continuous-invasion-by-respiratory-viruses-observed-in-rural-households-during-a-respiratory-syncytial-virus-seasonal-outbreak-in-coastal-kenya
#9
Patrick K Munywoki, Dorothy C Koech, Charles N Agoti, Patricia A Cane, Graham F Medley, D James Nokes
Background: Households are high intensity close-contact environments favorable for transmission of respiratory viruses, yet little is known for low-income settings. Methods: Active surveillance was completed on 47 households in rural coastal Kenya over six months during a respiratory syncytial virus(RSV) season. Nasopharyngeal swabs(NPS) were taken from 483 household members twice-weekly irrespective of symptoms. NPS from 6 households were screened for 15 respiratory viruses by molecular diagnostics and the remainder only for the most frequent viruses observed: rhinovirus (RV), human coronaviruses(hCoV; comprising 229E, OC43 and NL63), adenovirus(AdV) and RSV(A and B)...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650451/hiv-incidence-in-western-kenya-during-scale-up-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-a-population-based-cohort-analysis
#10
Martien W Borgdorff, Daniel Kwaro, David Obor, George Otieno, Viviane Kamire, Frederick Odongo, Patrick Owuor, Jacques Muthusi, Lisa A Mills, Rachael Joseph, Mary E Schmitz, Peter W Young, Emily Zielinski-Gutierrez, Kevin M De Cock
BACKGROUND: In Kenya, coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people with HIV infection has increased from 7% in 2006, to 57% in 2016; and, in western Kenya, coverage of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) increased from 45% in 2008, to 72% in 2014. We investigated trends in HIV prevalence and incidence in a high burden area in western Kenya in 2011-16. METHODS: In 2011, 2012, and 2016, population-based surveys were done via a health and demographic surveillance system and home-based counselling and testing in Gem, Siaya County, Kenya, including 28 688, 17 021, and 16 772 individuals aged 15-64 years...
April 9, 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643434/genetic-homogeneity-of-goat-malaria-parasites-in-asia-and-africa-suggests-their-expansion-with-domestic-goat-host
#11
Morakot Kaewthamasorn, Mika Takeda, Tawee Saiwichai, Jesse N Gitaka, Sonthaya Tiawsirisup, Yuhei Imasato, Ehab Mossaad, Ali Sarani, Winai Kaewlamun, Manun Channumsin, Suchart Chaiworakul, Wichit Katepongpun, Surapong Teeveerapunya, Jarus Panthong, Dominic K Mureithi, Saw Bawm, Lat Lat Htun, Mar Mar Win, Ahmed Ali Ismail, Abdalla Mohamed Ibrahim, Keisuke Suganuma, Hassan Hakimi, Ryo Nakao, Ken Katakura, Masahito Asada, Osamu Kaneko
Plasmodium was first identified in a goat in Angola in 1923, and only recently characterized by DNA isolation from a goat blood sample in Zambia. Goats were first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent approximately 10,000 years ago, and are now globally distributed. It is not known if the Plasmodium identified in African goats originated from parasites circulating in the local ungulates, or if it co-evolved in the goat before its domestication. To address this question, we performed PCR-based surveillance using a total of 1,299 goat blood samples collected from Sudan and Kenya in Africa, Iran in west Asia, and Myanmar and Thailand in southeast Asia...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557339/antibiotic-residues-in-milk-from-three-popular-kenyan-milk-vending-machines
#12
Amos Kosgey, Anakalo Shitandi, Jason W Marion
Milk vending machines (MVMs) are growing in popularity in Kenya and worldwide. Milk vending machines dispense varying quantities of locally sourced, pasteurized milk. The Kenya Dairy Board has a regulatory framework, but surveillance is weak because of several factors. Milk vending machines' milk is not routinely screened for antibiotics, thereby increasing potential for antibiotic misuse. To investigate, a total of 80 milk samples from four commercial providers ( N = 25), street vendors ( N = 21), and three MVMs ( N = 34) were collected and screened in Eldoret, Kenya...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549589/mapping-potential-amplification-and-transmission-hotspots-for-mers-cov-kenya
#13
Stephen Gikonyo, Tabitha Kimani, Joseph Matere, Joshua Kimutai, Stella G Kiambi, Austine O Bitek, K J Z Juma Ngeiywa, Yilma J Makonnen, Astrid Tripodi, Subhash Morzaria, Juan Lubroth, Gabriel Rugalema, Folorunso Oludayo Fasina
Dromedary camels have been implicated consistently as the source of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) human infections and attention to prevent and control it has focused on camels. To understanding the epidemiological role of camels in the transmission of MERS-CoV, we utilized an iterative empirical process in Geographic Information System (GIS) to identify and qualify potential hotspots for maintenance and circulation of MERS-CoV, and produced risk-based surveillance sites in Kenya. Data on camel population and distribution were used to develop camel density map, while camel farming system was defined using multi-factorial criteria including the agro-ecological zones (AEZs), production and marketing practices...
March 16, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533163/invasive-cronobacter-species-infection-in-infants-and-children-admitted-to-a-rural-kenyan-hospital-with-a-high-prevalence-of-malnutrition
#14
Joe D Piper, Salim Mwarumba, Moses Ngari, Benedict Mvera, Susan Morpeth, James A Berkley
For children with acute malnutrition, ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) are lifesaving treatments. In 2012, detailed testing detected Enterobacteriaceae including Cronobacter species at low levels in RUTF from all UNICEF-approved producers. Cronobacter in milk feeds has previously been associated with severe neonatal infections. Thus, given the susceptibility of severely malnourished children to invasive bacterial infections, concerns arose about the potential for Cronobacter infections from RUTF. This led to widespread production and supply problems in emergency feeding programmes...
March 13, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530100/prevalence-of-plasmodium-falciparum-delayed-clearance-associated-polymorphisms-in-adaptor-protein-complex-2-mu-subunit-pfap2mu-and-ubiquitin-specific-protease-1-pfubp1-genes-in-ghanaian-isolates
#15
Tryphena Adams, Nana Aba A Ennuson, Neils B Quashie, Godfred Futagbi, Sena Matrevi, Oheneba C K Hagan, Benjamin Abuaku, Kwadwo A Koram, Nancy O Duah
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum delayed clearance with the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACTs) has been reported in some African countries. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two genes, P. falciparum adaptor protein complex 2 mu subunit (pfap2mu) and ubiquitin specific protease 1 (pfubp1), have been linked to delayed clearance with ACT use in Kenya and recurrent imported malaria in Britain. With over 12 years of ACT use in Ghana, this study investigated the prevalence of SNPs in the pfap2mu and pfubp1 in Ghanaian clinical P...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509877/sex-difference-in-meningococcal-disease-mortality-new-york-city-2008-2016
#16
Danielle Bloch, Kenya Murray, Eric Peterson, Stephanie Ngai, Inessa Rubinstein, Tanya A Halse, Ifeoma Ezeoke, Laura Miller, Lola Arakaki, Arianne Ramautar, Mike Antwi, Paula Del Rosso, Marie Dorsinville, Sandhya Clark, Megan Halbrook, Joseph Kennedy, Sarah Braunstein, Don Weiss
Backgroun: d The case fatality rate (CFR) from invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in New York City (NYC) is greater than national figures, with higher rates among females than males across all age groups. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among 151 persons aged 15 years and older diagnosed with IMD in NYC during 2008-2016 identified through communicable disease surveillance. We examined demographic, clinical, and community-level associations with death to confirm the elevated risk of mortality among female IMD patients after adjusting for confounders and to determine factors associated with female IMD mortality...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502491/cause-specific-mortality-in-the-kombewa-health-and-demographic-surveillance-systems-site-rural-western-kenya-from-2011-2015
#17
Peter Sifuna, Lucas Otieno, Sheila Ogwang, Bernhards Ogutu, Ben Andagalu, John Owuoth, Valentine Singoei, Jessica Cowden, Walter Otieno
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of deaths in the health and Kombewa demographic surveillance system (HDSS) study area are not registered and reported through official systems of vital registration. As a result, few data are available regarding causes of death in this population. OBJECTIVES: To describe causes of death among residents of all ages in the Kombewa HDSS, located in rural Western Kenya. METHODS: Verbal autopsy (VA) interviews at the site were conducted using the modified 2007 and later 2012 standardized WHO questionnaires...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494642/global-epidemiology-of-podoconiosis-a-systematic-review
#18
Kebede Deribe, Jorge Cano, Mei L Trueba, Melanie J Newport, Gail Davey
BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is one of the few diseases that could potentially be eliminated within one generation. Nonetheless, the global distribution of the disease remains largely unknown. The global atlas of podoconiosis was conceived to define the epidemiology and distribution of podoconiosis through dedicated surveys and assembling the available epidemiological data. METHODS: We have synthesized the published literature on the epidemiology of podoconiosis. Through systematic searches in SCOPUS and MEDLINE from inception to February 14, 2018, we identified observational and population-based studies reporting podoconiosis...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432666/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccination-on-rotavirus-hospitalisation-rates-among-a-resource-limited-rural-population-in-mbita-western-kenya
#19
Ernest Apondi Wandera, Shah Mohammad, Martin Bundi, James Nyangao, Amina Galata, Cyrus Kathiiko, Erick Odoyo, Sora Guyo, Gabriel Miring'u, Satoshi Komoto, Yoshio Ichinose
OBJECTIVES: A two-dose oral monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) was introduced into the Kenyan National Immunization Program in July 2014. We assessed trends in hospitalisation for rotavirus-specific acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and strain distribution among children <5 years in a rural, resource-limited setting in Kenya before and after the nationwide implementation of the vaccine. METHODS: Data on rotavirus AGE and strain distribution were derived from a 5-year hospital-based surveillance...
April 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425232/identification-and-characterization-of-influenza-a-viruses-in-selected-domestic-animals-in-kenya-2010-2012
#20
Peninah Munyua, Clayton Onyango, Lydia Mwasi, Lilian W Waiboci, Geoffrey Arunga, Barry Fields, Joshua A Mott, Carol J Cardona, Philip Kitala, Philip N Nyaga, M Kariuki Njenga
BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus subtypes in non-human hosts have not been characterized in Kenya. We carried out influenza surveillance in selected domestic animals and compared the virus isolates with isolates obtained in humans during the same period. METHODS: We collected nasal swabs from pigs, dogs and cats; oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from poultry; and blood samples from all animals between 2010 and 2012. A standardized questionnaire was administered to farmers and traders...
2018: PloS One
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