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Harvard School of Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781380/finally-a-regimen-to-extend-human-life-expectancy
#1
James Larrick, Andrew R Mendelsohn
The US has the most expensive healthcare system worldwide. Yet measures of healthspan and life expectancy are well below the major industrialized nations. With the US population aged 65 and older projected to double by mid-century a healthcare crisis is looming. Within this context huge interest and investment has emerged in technologies and drugs to address aging with an expected benefit to healthspan. The thesis being that such basic interventions will reduce morbidity caused by many chronic diseases where biological age itself is the major risk factor...
May 21, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388531/consumption-of-processed-food-dietary-patterns-in-four-african-populations
#2
Michelle D Holmes, Shona Dalal, Vikash Sewram, Megan B Diamond, Sally N Adebamowo, Ikeoluwapo O Ajayi, Clement Adebamowo, Faraja S Chiwanga, Marina Njelekela, Carien Laurence, Jimmy Volmink, Francis Bajunirwe, Joan Nankya-Mutyoba, David Guwatudde, Todd G Reid, Walter C Willett, Hans-Olov Adami, Teresa T Fung
OBJECTIVE: To identify predominant dietary patterns in four African populations and examine their association with obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Setting/Subjects We used data from the Africa/Harvard School of Public Health Partnership for Cohort Research and Training (PaCT) pilot study established to investigate the feasibility of a multi-country longitudinal study of non-communicable chronic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. We applied principal component analysis to dietary intake data collected from an FFQ developed for PaCT to ascertain dietary patterns in Tanzania, South Africa, and peri-urban and rural Uganda...
February 1, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382929/energy-savings-emission-reductions-and-health-co-benefits-of-the-green-building-movement
#3
REVIEW
MacNaughton P, Cao X, Buonocore J, Cedeno-Laurent J, Spengler J, Bernstein A, Allen J
Buildings consume nearly 40% of primary energy production globally. Certified green buildings substantially reduce energy consumption on a per square foot basis and they also focus on indoor environmental quality. However, the co-benefits to health through reductions in energy and concomitant reductions in air pollution have not been examined.We calculated year by year LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certification rates in six countries (the United States, China, India, Brazil, Germany, and Turkey) and then used data from the Green Building Information Gateway (GBIG) to estimate energy savings in each country each year...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373387/bibliometric-study-of-scientific-research-on-scleral-lenses
#4
Francisco Javier Povedano-Montero, Cristina Álvarez-Peregrina, Fernando Hidalgo Santa Cruz, César Villa-Collar, José Sánchez Valverde
PURPOSE: To analyze the state of scientific publications in the field of scleral lenses applying a bibliometric study. METHODS: The database used in this bibliometric study was SCOPUS, the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature: scientific journals, books, and conference proceedings. Using remote download techniques, articles published between 1962 (year of first registrations) and 2015 were selected by entering the main descriptors: "scleral contact lenses" and "scleral lenses," limiting the field for the article, keywords, and abstract, linked with the OR tab...
January 25, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370810/global-action-for-training-in-malaria-elimination
#5
Dyann F Wirth, Núria Casamitjana, Marcel Tanner, Michael R Reich
The Rethinking Malaria Leadership Forum, held at Harvard Business School in February 2017 with collaboration of the Barcelona Institute for Global Health and the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, identified this training gap as a high priority for both analysis and action. The gap in human resource training for malaria elimination needs to be addressed in order to assure continued progress. This paper identifies major gaps in skills and human resources, suggests institutions that can assist in filling the training gaps, and proposes global actions to implement expanded training for malaria elimination in endemic countries...
January 25, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298301/mapping-of-global-scientific-research-in-comorbidity-and-multimorbidity-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#6
Ferrán Catalá-López, Adolfo Alonso-Arroyo, Matthew J Page, Brian Hutton, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael Aleixandre-Benavent
BACKGROUND: The management of comorbidity and multimorbidity poses major challenges to health services around the world. Analysis of scientific research in comorbidity and multimorbidity is limited in the biomedical literature. This study aimed to map global scientific research in comorbidity and multimorbidity to understand the maturity and growth of the area during the past decades. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of the Web of Science...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171194/third-person-self-talk-reduces-ebola-worry-and-risk-perception-by-enhancing-rational-thinking
#7
Ethan Kross, Brian D Vickers, Ariana Orvell, Izzy Gainsburg, Tim P Moran, Margaret Boyer, John Jonides, Jason Moser, Ozlem Ayduk
BACKGROUND: During the fall of 2014, the threat of an Ebola outbreak gripped the United States (Poll, 8-12 October 2014; see Harvard School of Public Health & SSRS, 2014), creating a unique opportunity to advance basic knowledge concerning how emotion regulation works in consequential contexts and translate existing research in this area to inform public health and policy. METHOD: We addressed these issues by examining whether third-person self-talk, a simple technique that promotes emotion regulation, could nudge people into reasoning about Ebola more rationally...
November 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038098/tackling-regional-public-health-issues-using-mobile-health-technology-event-report-of-an-mhealth-hackathon-in-thailand
#8
Atipong Pathanasethpong, Chitsutha Soomlek, Katharine Morley, Michael Morley, Pattarawit Polpinit, Alon Dagan, James W Weis, Leo Anthony Celi
Hackathons are intense, short, collaborative events focusing on solving real world problems through interdisciplinary teams. This is a report of the mHealth hackathon hosted by Khon Kaen University in collaboration with MIT Sana and faculty members from Harvard Medical School with the aim to improve health care delivery in the Northeast region of Thailand. Key health challenges, such as improving population health literacy, tracking disease trajectory and outcomes among rural communities, and supporting the workflow of overburdened frontline providers, were addressed using mHealth...
October 16, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818541/understanding-threats-to-polio-vaccine-commitment-among-caregivers-in-high-priority-areas-of-afghanistan-a-polling-study
#9
Gillian K SteelFisher, Robert J Blendon, Sherine Guirguis, William Lodge, Hannah Caporello, Vincent Petit, Michael Coleman, Matthew R Williams, Sardar Mohammad Parwiz, Melissa Corkum, Scott Gardner, Eran N Ben-Porath
BACKGROUND: Eradication of poliovirus from endemic countries relies on vaccination of children with oral polio vaccine (OPV) many times a year until the age of 5 years. We aimed to determine caregivers' commitment to OPV in districts of Afghanistan at high risk for polio transmission and to examine what knowledge, attitudes, or experiences could threaten commitment. METHODS: We designed and analysed a poll using face-to-face interviews among caregivers of children under 5 years of age...
November 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780738/john-p-craig-md-mph-physician-scientist-educator-and-mentor-1923-2016
#10
M A Haseeb, Pascal James Imperato
John P. Craig (1923-2016) was an eminent physician-scientist, gifted educator, and greatly valued mentor. Born in West Liberty, Ohio on 29 November 1923, he attended Oberlin College, and received his medical degree from Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine. This was followed by an internship at Yale University Medical Center, and then service in the U.S. Army during the Korean War. He was a battalion surgeon, preventive medicine officer, and epidemiologist. While in Korea, he conducted important investigations of hemorrhagic fever among American troops...
October 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771391/gender-differences-in-receipt-of-national-institutes-of-health-r01-grants-among-junior-faculty-at-an-academic-medical-center-the-role-of-connectivity-rank-and-research-productivity
#11
Erica T Warner, René Carapinha, Griffin M Weber, Emorcia V Hill, Joan Y Reede
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there were gender differences in likelihood of receiving a first National Institutes of Health (NIH) R01 award among 5445 instructors and assistant professors at Harvard Medical School (HMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on R01 award principal investigators were obtained from NIH ExPORTER and linked with faculty data. Using Cox proportional hazard regression, we examined the association of gender with receipt of first R01 award between 2008 and 2015 accounting for demographics, research productivity metrics, and professional characteristics...
October 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535286/invited-commentary-is-strenuous-activity-good-for-you-the-legacy-of-ralph-paffenbarger
#12
Lewis H Kuller
Ralph Paffenbarger, Jr, MD, DrPH (1922-2007), was initially trained as an infectious disease epidemiologist at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health (now the Bloomberg School of Public Health). He was the first Epidemiology Intelligence Service officer in the first Epidemiology Intelligence Service class. He joined the National Heart Institute (now the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) in its very early days and later became a faculty member at Stanford University and Harvard University...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428187/zambian-peer-educators-for-hiv-self-testing-zest-study-rationale-and-design-of-a-cluster-randomised-trial-of-hiv-self-testing-among-female-sex-workers-in-zambia
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Catherine E Oldenburg, Katrina F Ortblad, Michael M Chanda, Kalasa Mwanda, Wendy Nicodemus, Rebecca Sikaundi, Andrew Fullem, Leah G Barresi, Guy Harling, Till Bärnighausen
BACKGROUND: HIV testing and knowledge of status are starting points for HIV treatment and prevention interventions. Among female sex workers (FSWs), HIV testing and status knowledge remain far from universal. HIV self-testing (HIVST) is an alternative to existing testing services for FSWs, but little evidence exists how it can be effectively and safely implemented. Here, we describe the rationale and design of a cluster randomised trial designed to inform implementation and scale-up of HIVST programmes for FSWs in Zambia...
April 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159490/chemohormonal-therapy-in-metastatic-hormone-sensitive-prostate-cancer-sweeney-cj-chen-yh-carducci-m-liu-g-jarrard-df-eisenberger-m-wong-yn-hahn-n-kohli-m-cooney-mm-dreicer-r-vogelzang-nj-picus-j-shevrin-d-hussain-m-garcia-ja-dipaola-rs-department-of-medicine
#14
Eggener Scott
BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the backbone of treatment for metastatic prostate cancer since the 1940s. We assessed whether concomitant treatment with ADT plus docetaxel would result in longer overall survival than that with ADT alone. METHODS: We assigned men with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer to receive either ADT plus docetaxel (at a dose of 75mg per square meter of body-surface area every 3wk for 6 cycles) or ADT alone...
March 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048147/su-f-e-14-global-radiation-oncology-education-and-training-in-medical-physics-powered-by-information-and-communication-technologies
#15
W Ngwa, E Sajo, T Ngoma, J Dachi, J Julius Mwaiselage, O Kenton, S Avery
PURPOSE: Recent publications have highlighted the potential of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to catalyze collaborations in cancer care, research and education in global radiation oncology. This work reports on the use of ICTs for global Medical Physics education and training across three countries: USA, Tanzania and Kuwait METHODS: An online education platform was established by Radiation Oncology Faculty from Harvard Medical School, and the University of Pennsylvania with integrated Medical Physics Course modules accessible to trainees in Tanzania via partnership with the Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, and the Ocean Road Cancer Institute...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968890/patient-physician-trust-in-china-a-workshop-summary
#16
Cheris S C Chan, Yu Cheng, Yali Cong, Zhizheng Du, Shanlian Hu, Amanda Kerrigan, Arthur Kleinman, Mengfeng Li, Benjamin Liebman, Yonghui Ma, Jing-Bao Nie, Daniel F C Tsai, Duujian Tsai, Joseph D Tucker, Lijie Wang, Bonnie Wong, William C W Wong, Zeping Xiao, Juncai Xu, Yunxiang Yan, Yang Yang, Daqing Zhang, Mingjie Zhao, Jianfeng Zhu, Wei Zhu
BACKGROUND: Patient-physician mistrust has become deeply embedded in medical clinics within a wide variety of settings, including many in China. The purpose of this research was to develop a series of actionable policy recommendations to rebuild patient-physician trust in China. METHODS: Our interdisciplinary group included experts in medicine, public health, philosophy, ethics, law, regulation, China studies, anthropology, sociology, and communications. Recommendations were identified by team members and presented at a two-day workshop at the Harvard Center, Shanghai, China...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666095/using-a-change-model-to-reduce-the-risk-of-surgical-site-infection
#17
Mel Burden
A surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance module completed in 2014 highlighted that infection rates for breast surgery inpatients and readmissions at an acute trust had increased to 2.2%, from 0.5% in 2012. The national benchmark for 2014 established by Public Health England (PHE) was 1.0%. This demonstrated a greater than fourfold absolute increase in SSI for breast surgery during these periods. The infection rate could have been due to chance, but warranted investigation. The results were presented to the breast team and used to drive practice transformation through audit and observation, identifying areas of change to improve patient safety...
September 22, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492634/genetic-associations-with-neuroendocrine-tumor-risk-results-from-a-genome-wide-association-study
#18
Yeting Du, Monica Ter-Minassian, Lauren Brais, Nichole Brooks, Amanda Waldron, Jennifer A Chan, Xihong Lin, Peter Kraft, David C Christiani, Matthew H Kulke
The etiology of neuroendocrine tumors remains poorly defined. Although neuroendocrine tumors are in some cases associated with inherited genetic syndromes, such syndromes are rare. The majority of neuroendocrine tumors are thought to be sporadic. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify potential genetic risk factors for sporadic neuroendocrine tumors. Using germline DNA from blood specimens, we genotyped 909,622 SNPs using the Affymetrix 6.0 GeneChip, in a cohort comprising 832 neuroendocrine tumor cases from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Massachusetts General Hospital and 4542 controls from the Harvard School of Public Health...
August 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023687/drug-product-life-cycle-management-as-anticompetitive-behavior-the-case-of-memantine
#19
Vincent C Capati, Aaron S Kesselheim
UNLABELLED: A "product hop" involves the substitution of a new formulation of a prescription drug by a pharmaceutical manufacturer for an old version to forestall generic competition. In 2015, for example, Forest Laboratories, the brand-name drug manufacturer of memantine, an Alzheimer's disease treatment, introduced an extended-release version and tried to restrict patient access to the previous version. Product hops can lead to useful incremental innovation but can also have major public health implications by disrupting patients on stable treatment regimens and increasing costs for patients and payers...
April 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26787645/dairy-intake-in-relation-to-in-vitro-fertilization-outcomes-among-women-from-a-fertility-clinic
#20
M C Afeiche, Y-H Chiu, A J Gaskins, P L Williams, I Souter, D L Wright, R Hauser, J E Chavarro
STUDY QUESTION: Is dairy food consumption associated with live birth among women undergoing infertility treatment? SUMMARY ANSWER: There was a positive association between total dairy food consumption and live birth among women ≥35 years of age. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Dairy food intake has been previously related to infertility risk and measures of fertility potential but its relation to infertility treatment outcomes are unknown. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Our study population comprised a total of 232 women undergoing 353 in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment cycles between February 2007 and May 2013, from the Environment and Reproductive Health study, an ongoing prospective cohort...
March 2016: Human Reproduction
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