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Harvard School of Public Health

Catherine E Oldenburg, Katrina F Ortblad, Michael M Chanda, Kalasa Mwanda, Wendy Nicodemus, Rebecca Sikaundi, Andrew Fullem, Leah G Barresi, Guy Harling, Till Bärnighausen
BACKGROUND: HIV testing and knowledge of status are starting points for HIV treatment and prevention interventions. Among female sex workers (FSWs), HIV testing and status knowledge remain far from universal. HIV self-testing (HIVST) is an alternative to existing testing services for FSWs, but little evidence exists how it can be effectively and safely implemented. Here, we describe the rationale and design of a cluster randomised trial designed to inform implementation and scale-up of HIVST programmes for FSWs in Zambia...
April 20, 2017: BMJ Open
Eggener Scott
BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the backbone of treatment for metastatic prostate cancer since the 1940s. We assessed whether concomitant treatment with ADT plus docetaxel would result in longer overall survival than that with ADT alone. METHODS: We assigned men with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer to receive either ADT plus docetaxel (at a dose of 75mg per square meter of body-surface area every 3wk for 6 cycles) or ADT alone...
March 2017: Urologic Oncology
W Ngwa, E Sajo, T Ngoma, J Dachi, J Julius Mwaiselage, O Kenton, S Avery
PURPOSE: Recent publications have highlighted the potential of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to catalyze collaborations in cancer care, research and education in global radiation oncology. This work reports on the use of ICTs for global Medical Physics education and training across three countries: USA, Tanzania and Kuwait METHODS: An online education platform was established by Radiation Oncology Faculty from Harvard Medical School, and the University of Pennsylvania with integrated Medical Physics Course modules accessible to trainees in Tanzania via partnership with the Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, and the Ocean Road Cancer Institute...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Cheris S C Chan, Yu Cheng, Yali Cong, Zhizheng Du, Shanlian Hu, Amanda Kerrigan, Arthur Kleinman, Mengfeng Li, Benjamin Liebman, Yonghui Ma, Jing-Bao Nie, Daniel F C Tsai, Duujian Tsai, Joseph D Tucker, Lijie Wang, Bonnie Wong, William C W Wong, Zeping Xiao, Juncai Xu, Yunxiang Yan, Yang Yang, Daqing Zhang, Mingjie Zhao, Jianfeng Zhu, Wei Zhu
BACKGROUND: Patient-physician mistrust has become deeply embedded in medical clinics within a wide variety of settings, including many in China. The purpose of this research was to develop a series of actionable policy recommendations to rebuild patient-physician trust in China. METHODS: Our interdisciplinary group included experts in medicine, public health, philosophy, ethics, law, regulation, China studies, anthropology, sociology, and communications. Recommendations were identified by team members and presented at a two-day workshop at the Harvard Center, Shanghai, China...
October 2016: Lancet
Mel Burden
A surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance module completed in 2014 highlighted that infection rates for breast surgery inpatients and readmissions at an acute trust had increased to 2.2%, from 0.5% in 2012. The national benchmark for 2014 established by Public Health England (PHE) was 1.0%. This demonstrated a greater than fourfold absolute increase in SSI for breast surgery during these periods. The infection rate could have been due to chance, but warranted investigation. The results were presented to the breast team and used to drive practice transformation through audit and observation, identifying areas of change to improve patient safety...
September 22, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Yeting Du, Monica Ter-Minassian, Lauren Brais, Nichole Brooks, Amanda Waldron, Jennifer A Chan, Xihong Lin, Peter Kraft, David C Christiani, Matthew H Kulke
The etiology of neuroendocrine tumors remains poorly defined. Although neuroendocrine tumors are in some cases associated with inherited genetic syndromes, such syndromes are rare. The majority of neuroendocrine tumors are thought to be sporadic. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify potential genetic risk factors for sporadic neuroendocrine tumors. Using germline DNA from blood specimens, we genotyped 909,622 SNPs using the Affymetrix 6.0 GeneChip, in a cohort comprising 832 neuroendocrine tumor cases from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Massachusetts General Hospital and 4542 controls from the Harvard School of Public Health...
August 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Vincent C Capati, Aaron S Kesselheim
UNLABELLED: A "product hop" involves the substitution of a new formulation of a prescription drug by a pharmaceutical manufacturer for an old version to forestall generic competition. In 2015, for example, Forest Laboratories, the brand-name drug manufacturer of memantine, an Alzheimer's disease treatment, introduced an extended-release version and tried to restrict patient access to the previous version. Product hops can lead to useful incremental innovation but can also have major public health implications by disrupting patients on stable treatment regimens and increasing costs for patients and payers...
April 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
M C Afeiche, Y-H Chiu, A J Gaskins, P L Williams, I Souter, D L Wright, R Hauser, J E Chavarro
STUDY QUESTION: Is dairy food consumption associated with live birth among women undergoing infertility treatment? SUMMARY ANSWER: There was a positive association between total dairy food consumption and live birth among women ≥35 years of age. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Dairy food intake has been previously related to infertility risk and measures of fertility potential but its relation to infertility treatment outcomes are unknown. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Our study population comprised a total of 232 women undergoing 353 in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment cycles between February 2007 and May 2013, from the Environment and Reproductive Health study, an ongoing prospective cohort...
March 2016: Human Reproduction
Brittany M Charlton, Ditte Mølgaard-Nielsen, Henrik Svanström, Jan Wohlfahrt, Björn Pasternak, Mads Melbye
STUDY QUESTION: Is oral contraceptive use around the time of pregnancy onset associated with an increased risk of major birth defects? METHODS: In a prospective observational cohort study, data on oral contraceptive use and major birth defects were collected among 880,694 live births from Danish registries between 1997 and 2011. We conservatively assumed that oral contraceptive exposure lasted up to the most recently filled prescription. The main outcome measure was the number of major birth defects throughout one year follow-up (defined according to the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies classification)...
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Daniel P Giovenco, Daniel A Gundersen, Cristine D Delnevo
OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of a random-digit dial (RDD) cellular phone survey in order to reach a national and representative sample of college students. METHODS: Demographic distributions from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey (NYAHS) were benchmarked against enrollment numbers from the Integrated Postsecondary Education System (IPEDS). The sample quality was compared with the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (1993), National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (1995), and National College Health Assessment (2011)...
2016: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Jill D McLeigh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
María Eugenia Radrigán K
Seldom, in the history of Chilean medicine, there has been such a unique parallelism between the professional development of a person and that of a discipline as it has been the case of Professor Ernesto L. Medina and Public Health in Chile. Dr. Medina's undergraduate (University of Chile) and postgraduate (Harvard School of Public Health) studies coincided with the foundation of the University of Chile School of Public Health by an agreement among the University and two governmental health care providers, and also with the foundation of the Chilean National Health Service...
September 2015: Revista Médica de Chile
Mohammad K A Khan, Yen Li Chu, Sara F L Kirk, Paul J Veugelers
OBJECTIVES: To describe sleep duration and sleep characteristics, and to examine the associations between sleep duration and characteristics and body weight status, diet quality, and physical activity levels among grade 5 children in Nova Scotia. METHODS: A provincially representative sample of 5,560 grade 5 children and their parents in Nova Scotia was surveyed. Parents were asked to report their child's bedtime and wake-up time, and to indicate how often their child snored or felt sleepy during the day...
July 2015: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Gino Inverso, Sung-Kiang Chuang, Leonard B Kaban
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to review outcomes of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMS) Foundation's funding awards to members of the OMS department at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in terms of projects completed, abstracts presented, peer-reviewed publications, and career trajectories of recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected from MGH and OMS Foundation records and interviews with award recipients. Primary outcome variables included 1) number of awards and award types, 2) funding amount, 3) project completion, 4) number of presented abstracts, 5) conversion from abstracts to publications, 6) number of peer-reviewed publications, 7) career trajectories of awardees, and 8) additional extramural funding...
February 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Pedro Marques-Vidal, Gérard Waeber, Peter Vollenweider, Murielle Bochud, Silvia Stringhini, Idris Guessous
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The determinants of a healthy diet have not been studied in Switzerland. This study aimed at assessing the individual and behavioural factors associated with a healthy diet in a Swiss city. METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based study conducted between 2009 and 2013 (n = 4,439, 2,383 women, mean age 57.5 ± 10.3 years) in Lausanne. Food consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Two Mediterranean diet scores (classic score and specific for Switzerland) and the Harvard School of Public Health alternate healthy eating index were computed...
2015: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Brent A Coull, Jennifer F Bobb, Gregory A Wellenius, Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, Murray A Mittleman, Petros Koutrakis, John J Godleski
INTRODUCTION: The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA*) currently regulates individual air pollutants on a pollutant-by-pollutant basis, adjusted for other pollutants and potential confounders. However, the National Academies of Science concluded that a multipollutant regulatory approach that takes into account the joint effects of multiple constituents is likely to be more protective of human health. Unfortunately, the large majority of existing research had focused on health effects of air pollution for one pollutant or for one pollutant with control for the independent effects of a small number of copollutants...
June 2015: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
Kimberly M Daniels, Emily Yang Yu, Rebecca G Maine, Scott Corlew, Shi Bing, William Y Hoffman, George A Gregory
BACKGROUND: Humanitarian surgical organisations provide cleft palate repair for patients without access to surgical care. Despite decades of experience, very little research has assessed the outcomes of these trips. This study investigates the fistula rate in patients from two cohorts in rural China and one in the USA. METHODS: This retrospective study compared the odds of fistula presentation among three cohorts whose palates were repaired between April, 2005, and November, 2009...
April 27, 2015: Lancet
Melissa Anne Fernandez, Stan Kubow, Katherine Gray-Donald, JaDon Knight, Pamela S Gaskin
OBJECTIVE: To examine overweight and obesity (OWOB), changes in prevalence and potential risk factors in Barbadian children. DESIGN: A cross-section of students were weighed and measured. The WHO BMI-for-age growth references (BAZ), the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth percentiles were used to determine OWOB prevalence. Harvard weight-for-height-for-age growth standards were used to estimate differences in OWOB prevalence from 1981 to 2010...
December 2015: Public Health Nutrition
Gillian K SteelFisher, Robert J Blendon, Sherine Guirguis, Amanda Brulé, Narayani Lasala-Blanco, Michael Coleman, Vincent Petit, Mashrur Ahmed, Noah Mataruse, Melissa Corkum, Mazhar Nisar, Eran N Ben-Porath, Susan Gigli, Christoph Sahm
BACKGROUND: Elimination of poliovirus from endemic countries is a crucial step in eradication; however, vaccination programmes in these areas face challenges, especially in regions with conflict. We analysed interviews with caregivers of children living in two polio-endemic countries to assess whether these challenges are largely operational or also driven by resistance or misinformation in the community. METHODS: We designed and analysed polls based on face-to-face interviews of a random sample of parents and other caregivers of children younger than 5 years in regions of Pakistan and Nigeria at high risk for polio transmission...
October 2015: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Jan-Walter De Neve, Günther Fink, S V Subramanian, Sikhulile Moyo, Jacob Bor
BACKGROUND: An estimated 2·1 million individuals are newly infected with HIV every year. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have reported conflicting evidence for the association between education and HIV risk, and no randomised trial has identified a causal effect for education on HIV incidence. We aimed to use a policy reform in secondary schooling in Botswana to identify the causal effect of length of schooling on new HIV infection. METHODS: Data for HIV biomarkers and demographics were obtained from the nationally representative household 2004 and 2008 Botswana AIDS Impact Surveys (N=7018)...
August 2015: Lancet Global Health
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