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World Bank

Sunil K Dixit, Murali Sambasivan
This article seeks to review the Australian healthcare system and compare it to similar systems in other countries to highlight the main issues and problems. A literature search for articles relating to the Australian and other developed countries' healthcare systems was conducted by using Google and the library of Victoria University, Melbourne. Data from the websites of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, the Australian Productivity Commission, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Bank have also been used...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
Rudolf H Scheffrahn, Jan KŘeČek
Procryptotermes Holmgren is a modestly diverse kalotermitid genus endemic to numerous islands and archipelagos of the world's tropical oceans (Scheffrahn Křeček 2001). Mainland records from southern India (Bose 1979, Roonwal Chhotani 1963, Thakur 1975), Queensland Australia (Watson and Abbey 1993), and the Yucatan Peninsula (Scheffrahn and Křeček 2001), also approximate oceanic coastlines. The soldier of Procryptotermes is distinguished from most other kalotermitids by long, sickle-shaped mandibles and a rather weak or absent frontal flange or protuberance (Krishna 1961)...
December 20, 2017: Zootaxa
David Warburton, Nicole Warburton, Clarence Wigfall, Ochir Chimedsuren, Delgerzul Lodoisamba, Sereeter Lodoysamba, Badarch Jargalsaikhan
Environmental pollution of the air, water, and soil comprise an increasingly urgent challenge to global health, well-being, and productivity. The impact of environmental pollution arguably has its greatest impact across the lifespan on children, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women and their unborn children, not only because of their vulnerability during development, but also because of their subsequent longevity. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, is a highly instructive, perhaps extreme, example of what happens with recent, rapid urbanization...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Chathura Edirisuriya, Frank H Beard, Alexandra J Hendry, Aditi Dey, Heather F Gidding, Linda Hueston, Dominic E Dwyer, James G Wood, Kristine K Macartney, Peter B McIntyre
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has targeted rubella virus for elimination regionally. Australia was one of the first countries to implement a nationally funded rubella immunisation program, in 1971, and conducts regular national rubella serosurveillance studies. We aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of rubella-specific IgG antibody in the Australian population by age and sex in 2012-2013, to compare the results with three previous serosurveys conducted in 1996-1999, 2002 and 2007 and to estimate the effective reproduction numbers (Rn )...
April 13, 2018: Vaccine
Gary Joseph, Inácio C M da Silva, Günther Fink, Aluisio J D Barros, Cesar G Victora
BACKGROUND: Having high-quality data available by 2020, disaggregated by income, is one of the Sustainable Development Goals (SGD). We explored how well coverage with skilled birth attendance (SBA) is predicted by asset-based wealth quintiles and by absolute income. METHODS: We used data from 293 national surveys conducted in 100 low and middle-income countries (LMICs) from 1991 to 2014. Data on household income were computed using national income levels and income inequality data available from the World Bank and the Standardized World Income Inequality Database...
April 16, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Edwin D Rose
The British Museum, based in Montague House, Bloomsbury, opened its doors on 15 January 1759, as the world's first state-owned public museum. The Museum's collection mostly originated from Sir Hans Sloane (1660-1753), whose vast holdings were purchased by Parliament shortly after his death. The largest component of this collection was objects of natural history, including a herbarium made up of 265 bound volumes, many of which were classified according to the late seventeenth-century system of John Ray (1627-1705)...
April 15, 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of a 50% increase in market prices of cigarettes on health, poverty, and financial protection. DESIGN: Compartmental model study. SETTING: 13 middle income countries, totalling two billion men. PARTICIPANTS: 500 million male smokers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Life years gained, averted treatment costs, number of men avoiding catastrophic healthcare expenditures and poverty, and additional tax revenue by income group...
April 11, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Md Shariful Islam, Md Nazrul Islam Mondal, Md Ismail Tareque, Md Aminur Rahman, Md Nazrul Hoque, Md Munsur Ahmed, Hafiz T A Khan
BACKGROUND: Healthy life expectancy (HALE) at birth is an important indicator of health status and quality of life of a country's population. However, little is known about the determinants of HALE as yet globally or even country-specific level. Thus, we examined the factors that are associated with HALE at birth in low- and lower-middle-income countries. METHODS: In accordance with the World Bank (WB) classification seventy-nine low- and lower-middle-income countries were selected for the study...
April 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
John W Stanifer, Megan Von Isenburg, Glenn M Chertow, Shuchi Anand
Introduction: The number of persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD) living in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is increasing rapidly; yet systems built to care for them have received little attention. In order to inform the development of scalable CKD care models, we conducted a systematic review to characterise existing CKD care models in LMICs. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase and WHO Global Health Library databases for published reports of CKD care models from LMICs between January 2000 and 31 October 2017...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Luca Marsili, Giovanni Rizzo, Carlo Colosimo
The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is based on clinical features and differently to the common opinion that detecting this condition is easy, seminal clinicopathological studies have shown that up one-fourth of patients diagnosed as PD during life has an alternative diagnosis at postmortem. The misdiagnosis is even higher when only the initial diagnosis is considered, since the diagnostic accuracy improves by time, during follow-up visits. Given that the confirmation of the diagnosis of PD can be only obtained through neuropathology, to improve and facilitate the diagnostic-therapeutic workup in PD, a number of criteria and guidelines have been introduced in the last three decades...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Andrea Parisi, John A Crump, Kathryn Glass, Benjamin P Howden, Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Samantha Vilkins, Darren J Gray, Martyn D Kirk
BACKGROUND: Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne enterocolitis worldwide. Antimicrobial use in food animals is the driving force for antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella particularly in high-income countries. Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections that are multidrug resistant (MDR) (nonsusceptible to ≥1 agent in ≥3 antimicrobial categories) may result in more severe health outcomes, although these effects have not been systematically examined. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine impacts of MDR NTS on disease outcomes in high-income settings...
April 6, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Mayako Tada, Makoto Hirata, Mitsuho Sasaki, Ryuichi Sakate, Arihiro Kohara, Ichiro Takahashi, Yosuke Kameoka, Toru Masui, Akifumi Matsuyama
Research on rare diseases cannot be performed without appropriate samples from patients with such diseases. Due to the limited number of such patients, securing biosamples of sufficient quality for extensive research is a challenge and represents an important barrier to the advancement of research on rare diseases. To tackle this problem, the Rare Disease Bank (RDB) was established in 2009 at the National Institute of Biomedical Innovation (NIBIO; currently, the National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition in Japan)...
April 2, 2018: Human Cell
Wen Peng, Elliot M Berry
OBJECTIVES: Following its publication in 2008, the Global Nutritional Index (GNI) which captures the triple burden of malnutrition, has been updated to assess the overall nutritional status and nutritional trends of countries, regions and the world, including both under-nutrition and over-nutrition. METHODS: The GNI was modeled on the Human Development Index, using geometric means of three normalized indicators: protein-energy malnutrition (PEM, measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) from PEM), micronutrient deficiency (MID, measured by DALYs from MID), and penalizing obesity (percent female obesity)...
2018: PloS One
Qingfeng Li, Olakunle Alonge, Collene Lawhorn, Yirga Ambaw, Smita Kumar, Troy Jacobs, Adnan A Hyder
BACKGROUND: Heavy burden of child injuries and lack of policy response in Ethiopia call for an improved understanding of the situation and development of action plans from multiple governmental agencies and stakeholders. METHODS: A consortium of international and Ethiopian researchers and stakeholders used extensive literature review and mixed analytical methods to estimate and project the burden of fatal and non-fatal child unintentional injuries in Ethiopia from 2015 to 2030...
2018: PloS One
Aurélie Martin, Emmanuel Lagarde, L Rachid Salmi
OBJECTIVE: Delayed implementation of effective road safety policies must be considered when quantifying the avoidable part of the fatal and nonfatal injuries burden. We sought to assess the avoidable part of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to road traffic injuries related to delays in implementing road safety laws in low- and lower-middle-income countries. METHODS: We chose one country for each of the regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank (WB) country income levels...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Timothy Frasca, Yves-A Fauré, Laetitia Atlani-Duault
Brazil's response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic was characterised by an innovative alliance of governmental and non-governmental actors inspired by a strong progressive tradition in public health. Brazil eventually moved to decentralise HIV/AIDS programmes to its states and cities, a policy endorsed and supported financially by the World Bank as consistent with the mix of public and private elements central to the country's HIV/AIDS strategy. However, decentralisation has not provided the results anticipated. Through interviews with key informants, government officials and patient advocates as well as observation of treatment sites, we outline how the shift of administration and resources to state and municipal bodies operated in practice...
March 27, 2018: Global Public Health
A Gemmill, S E K Bradley, S van der Poel
STUDY QUESTION: Is HIV associated with increased time to pregnancy (TTP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: HIV-positive women who discontinue a contraceptive method to become pregnant have increased TTP, particularly among those who likely do not know their status. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: HIV-positive women have fewer children on average than their HIV-negative counterparts due to both behavioral and biological factors. There is a need to better describe and quantify fecundity patterns associated with HIV in the general population...
March 20, 2018: Human Reproduction
N Esteban, R K F Unsworth, J B Q Gourlay, G C Hays
Our understanding of global seagrass ecosystems comes largely from regions characterized by human impacts with limited data from habitats defined as notionally pristine. Seagrass assessments also largely focus on shallow-water coastal habitats with comparatively few studies on offshore deep-water seagrasses. We satellite tracked green turtles (Chelonia mydas), which are known to forage on seagrasses, to a remote, pristine deep-water environment in the Western Indian Ocean, the Great Chagos Bank, which lies in the heart of one of the world's largest marine protected areas (MPAs)...
March 21, 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Marina Macedo-Viñas, David W Denning
We aimed to estimate for the first time the burden of fungal infections in Uruguay. Data on population characteristics and underlying conditions were extracted from the National Statistics Institute, the World Bank, national registries, and published articles. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies extrapolating from the literature. Population structure (inhabitants): total 3,444,006; 73% adults; 35% women younger than 50 years. Size of populations at risk (total cases per year): HIV infected 12,000; acute myeloid leukemia 126; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 30; solid organ transplants 134; COPD 272,006; asthma in adults 223,431; cystic fibrosis in adults 48; tuberculosis 613; lung cancer 1400...
March 18, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Reid Tingley, Georgia Ward-Fear, Lin Schwarzkopf, Matthew J Greenlees, Benjamin L Phillips, Gregory Brown, Simon Clulow, Jonathan Webb, Robert Capon, Andy Sheppard, Tanja Strive, Mark Tizard, Richard Shine
Our best hope of developing innovative methods to combat invasive species is likely to come from the study of high-profile invaders that have attracted intensive research not only into control, but also basic biology. Here we illustrate that point by reviewing current thinking about novel ways to control one of the world’s most well-studied invasions: that of the cane toad in Australia. Recently developed methods for population suppression include more effective traps based on the toad’s acoustic and pheromonal biology...
June 2017: Quarterly Review of Biology
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