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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433458/ecological-study-of-road-traffic-injuries-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region-country-economic-level-road-user-category-and-gender-perspectives
#1
Mathilde Sengoelge, Lucie Laflamme, Ziad El-Khatib
BACKGROUND: The Eastern Mediterranean region has the second highest number of road traffic injury mortality rates after the African region based on 2013 data, with road traffic injuries accounting for 27% of the total injury mortality in the region. Globally the number of road traffic deaths has plateaued despite an increase in motorization, but it is uncertain whether this applies to the Region. This study investigated the regional trends in both road traffic injury mortality and morbidity and examined country-based differences considering on income level, categories of road users, and gender distribution...
February 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429548/exploring-the-temporal-stability-of-global-road-safety-statistics
#2
Loukas Dimitriou, Paraskevas Nikolaou, Constantinos Antoniou
Given the importance of rigorous quantitative reasoning in supporting national, regional or global road safety policies, data quality, reliability, and stability are of the upmost importance. This study focuses on macroscopic properties of road safety statistics and the temporal stability of these statistics at a global level. A thorough investigation of two years of measurements was conducted to identify any unexpected gaps that could highlight the existence of inconsistent measurements. The database used in this research includes 121 member countries of the United Nation (UN-121) with a population of at least one million (smaller country data shows higher instability) and includes road safety and socioeconomic variables collected from a number of international databases (e...
February 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408895/systematic-review-of-school-tobacco-prevention-programs-in-african-countries-from-2000-to-2016
#3
Akihiro Nishio, Junko Saito, Sachi Tomokawa, Jun Kobayashi, Yuka Makino, Takeshi Akiyama, Kimihiro Miyake, Mayumi Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: The World Bank has reported that global smoking rates declined from 2000 to 2012, with the only exception found in males in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa is considered to be in stage one of the tobacco epidemic continuum. To address this problem, school-based programs for smoking prevention are considered cost-effective and promising. Since tobacco prevention programs are influenced by social competence or customs of each country, tobacco prevention programs that have success in Western countries are not always effective in African countries...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408193/global-incidence-and-mortality-rates-in-pancreatic-cancer-and-the-association-with-the-human-development-index-decomposition-approach
#4
Y Veisani, E Jenabi, S Khazaei, Sh Nematollahi
OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic cancer has a lower morbidity yet higher case fatality rates (CFRs) compared with other gastrointestinal cancers. The effects of socio-economic components on pancreatic cancer rates have been acknowledged; however, the effects of the Human Development Index (HDI) inequality are not. In this study, we aimed to determine the contribution of important socio-economic components on pancreatic cancer rates using a decomposition approach. STUDY DESIGN: Global ecological study...
January 30, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407940/daniel-stufflebeam-and-the-world-bank
#5
Craig Russon, Karen Russon
Circa 2000 when The Evaluation Center on the campus of Western Michigan University was undergoing a renovation, staff were encouraged to clean out their filing cabinets. One of the authors rescued two manila files from the garbage dealing with a presentation that Daniel Stufflebeam made to The World Bank on 13 December 1993 and a subsequent World Bank conference on evaluation and development in which he participated 5-6 December 1994. In these documents, Dan set out some of his early thinking on international evaluation and other topics...
January 30, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405775/impact-of-a-hypothetical-infectious-disease-outbreak-on-us-exports-and-export-based-jobs
#6
Zoe Bambery, Cynthia H Cassell, Rebecca E Bunnell, Kakoli Roy, Zara Ahmed, Rebecca L Payne, Martin I Meltzer
We estimated the impact on the US export economy of an illustrative infectious disease outbreak scenario in Southeast Asia that has 3 stages starting in 1 country and, if uncontained, spreads to 9 countries. We used 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola epidemic-related World Bank estimates of 3.3% and 16.1% reductions in gross domestic product (GDP). We also used US Department of Commerce job data to calculate export-related jobs at risk to any outbreak-related disruption in US exports. Assuming a direct correlation between GDP reductions and reduced demand for US exports, we estimated that the illustrative outbreak would cost from $16 million to $27 million (1 country) to $10 million to $18 billion (9 countries) and place 1,500 to almost 1...
February 6, 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372615/pattern-of-inpatient-pediatric-cardiology-consultations-in-sub-saharan-africa
#7
Kriti Puri, Peter Kazembe, Treasure Mkaliainga, Msandeni Chiume, Antonio G Cabrera, Amy Sims Sanyahumbi
Malawi is one of the poorest nations in the world, ranked 151st among 195 countries by the World Bank, with an under-5-year mortality rate of 63 per 1000 live births. There are no previous studies describing the spectrum of inpatient pediatric cardiology consultations in sub-Saharan Africa. A descriptive cohort study was performed at Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH), a tertiary care hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi. Demographic, anthropometric, and clinical information for all cardiology consults patients aged 0-18 years admitted to the children's wards over a period of 1 month was reviewed...
January 25, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368334/medical-schools-in-fragile-states-implications-for-delivery-of-care
#8
Farrah J Mateen, Erica D McKenzie, Sherri Rose
OBJECTIVE: To report on medical schools in fragile states, countries with severe development challenges, and the impact on the workforce for health care delivery. DATA SOURCES: 2007 and 2012 World Bank Harmonized List of Fragile Situations; 1998-2012 WHO Global Health Observatory; 2014 World Directory of Medical Schools. DATA EXTRACTION: Fragile classification established from 2007 and 2012 World Bank status. Population, gross national income, health expenditure, and life expectancy were 2007 figures...
January 24, 2018: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362612/hepatitis-b-virus-genotypes-in-west-azarbayjan-province-northwest-iran
#9
Mohammad Hasan Khadem Ansari, Yousef Rasmi, Laya Abbasi
BACKGROUND: Infections caused by Hepatitis B are one of the world health's most serious problems. According to assessments, nearly 500,000 to 1.2 million people die each year due to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B is one of the diseases which can be transferred through blood and its products. Clinical importance of genotypes of hepatitis B virus and their relations with mutations are well known. AIM: Since epidemiological data resulting from determining genotypes and sub-genotypes of hepatitis B can help a lot in defining a vaccination plan, antiretroviral therapy, detection and prevention of diseases, genotypes of this virus in hepatitis B patients were evaluated in West Azarbaijan province...
December 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361335/single-dose-moxidectin-versus-ivermectin-for-onchocerca-volvulus-infection-in-ghana-liberia-and-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-a-randomised-controlled-double-blind-phase-3-trial
#10
Nicholas O Opoku, Didier K Bakajika, Eric M Kanza, Hayford Howard, Germain L Mambandu, Amos Nyathirombo, Maurice M Nigo, Kambale Kasonia, Safari L Masembe, Mupenzi Mumbere, Kambale Kataliko, Jemmah P Larbelee, Mawolo Kpawor, Kpehe M Bolay, Fatorma Bolay, Simon K Attah, Michel Vaillant, Christine M Halleux, Annette C Kuesel
BACKGROUND: The morbidity and socioeconomic effects of onchocerciasis, a parasitic disease that is primarily endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, have motivated large morbidity and transmission control programmes. Annual community-directed ivermectin treatment has substantially reduced prevalence. Elimination requires intensified efforts, including more efficacious treatments. We compared parasitological efficacy and safety of moxidectin and ivermectin. METHODS: This double-blind, parallel group, superiority trial was done in four sites in Ghana, Liberia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo...
January 17, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355390/the-international-communication-project-raising-global-awareness-of-communication-as-a-human-right
#11
Gail Mulcair, Arlene A Pietranton, Cori Williams
Communication as a human right is embedded within Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; however, there is a need to raise global awareness of the communication needs of those with communication disorders. In 2014, the six national speech-language and audiology professional bodies that comprise the Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA) launched the International Communication Project (ICP) to help raise awareness of communication disorders around the world. Since its inception, the project has engaged close to 50 organisations from diverse regions, and has undertaken a number of initiatives, including development of the Universal Declaration of Communication Rights...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349280/food-insecurity-and-family-structure-in-nigeria
#12
Nkechi S Owoo
The article explores a series of questions and hypotheses related to polygynous family structures and both household and individual-level food security outcomes, using the World Bank Living Standards Measurement Survey data from Nigeria, collected in 2011, 2013 and 2015. A Correlated Random Effects (CRE) model is used to examine the relationship between polygyny and household-level food security, and the degree to which it is mediated by household wealth, size, and livelihood. A Household Fixed Effect model is employed to explore whether a mother's status as monogamous versus polygynous relates systematically to her child's health, and also whether child outcomes of senior wives are better than outcomes of junior wives within polygynous households...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345015/dynamic-sex-chromosomes-in-old-world-chameleons-squamata-chamaeleonidae
#13
S V Nielsen, J L Banks, R E Diaz, P A Trainor, T Gamble
Much of our current state of knowledge concerning sex chromosome evolution is based on a handful of 'exceptional' taxa with heteromorphic sex chromosomes. However, classifying the sex chromosome systems of additional species lacking easily identifiable, heteromorphic sex chromosomes is indispensible if we wish to fully understand the genesis, degeneration, and turnover of vertebrate sex chromosomes. Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) are a potential model clade for studying sex chromosome evolution as they exhibit a suite of sex determining modes yet most species lack heteromorphic sex chromosomes...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337023/the-effects-of-functional-training-bicycle-exercise-and-exergaming-on-walking-capacity-of-elderly-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-single-blinded-trial
#14
Daniel Dominguez Ferraz, Karen Valadares Trippo, Gabriel Pereira Duarte, Mansueto Gomes Neto, Kionna Oliveira Bernardes Santos, Jamary Oliveira Filho
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of functional training, bicycle exercise and exergaming on walking capacity of elderly with Parkinson disease (PD). DESIGN: A pilot randomized controlled single-blinded trial. SETTING: A State Reference Health Care Centre for Elderly, a public reference outpatient clinic for the elderly. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-two elderly individuals (≥60 years-old) with idiopathic PD (stage 2 to 3 of modified Hoehn and Yahr) according to the London Brain Bank...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326494/experience-of-an-academic-institute-in-importing-a-novel-preclinical-drug-into-india
#15
M Praveen Kumar, Bikash Medhi
The article throws light on the process of importing a novel preclinical drug into India based on the real-life experience from one of our studies. A novel drug "X" acting through a new mechanism of action was hypothesized by us to function as a neuroprotectant. It was decided to import this novel drug from a university located in Brazil. An official collaboration pact was exchanged between both the sides. In accordance with the Indian Drug and Cosmetics Act 1940, unauthorized import of drug into India is not permitted...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325401/performance-based-financing-to-strengthen-the-health-system-in-benin-challenging-the-mainstream-approach
#16
Elisabeth Paul, Mohamed Lamine Dramé, Jean-Pierre Kashala, Armand Ekambi Ndema, Marcel Kounnou, Julien Codjovi Aïssan, Karel Gyselinck
BACKGROUND: Performance-based financing (PBF) is often proposed as a way to improve health system performance. In Benin, PBF was launched in 2012 through a World Bank-supported project. The Belgian Development Agency (BTC) followed suit through a health system strengthening (HSS) project. This paper analyses and draws lessons from the experience of BTC-supported PBF alternative approach - especially with regards to institutional aspects, the role of demand-side actors, ownership, and cost-effectiveness - and explores the mechanisms at stake so as to better understand how the "PBF package" functions and produces effects...
April 15, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325069/effect-of-healthcare-spending-on-the-relationship-between-the-human-development-index-and-maternal-and-neonatal-mortality
#17
Kaamel M Nuhu, Justin T McDaniel, Genevieve A Alorbi, Juan I Ruiz
Background: Several factors affect morbidity and mortality the world over. Previous research shows mortality rates are higher among individuals of lower socio-economic status. We investigated the trajectory of neonatal (NM) and maternal (MM) mortality between 2010 and 2014 and the effect of healthcare spending on the relationship between the Human Development Index (HDI) and NM and MM. Methods: Data were obtained from the United Nations Development Program and World Bank...
January 9, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310562/programmatic-changes-to-reduce-mortality-and-morbidity-in-humanitarian-congenital-cardiac-surgery
#18
Tyler J Wallen, George J Arnaoutakis, Randa Blenden, Rodrigo Soto
BACKGROUND: This report documents the outcomes of cardiac surgical mission trips organized by the International Children's Heart Foundation (ICHF), a nongovernmental organization that provides congenital heart surgery services to the developing world, and discusses factors associated with a reduction of mortality and morbidity in this setting. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was conducted to identify any patient who underwent surgical intervention during the course of an ICHF mission trip...
January 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309961/local-scale-water-food-nexus-use-of-borehole-garden-permaculture-to-realise-the-full-potential-of-rural-water-supplies-in-malawi
#19
Michael O Rivett, Alistair W Halcrow, Janine Schmalfuss, John A Stark, Jonathan P Truslove, Steve Kumwenda, Kettie A Harawa, Muthi Nhlema, Chrispine Songola, Gift J Wanangwa, Alexandra V M Miller, Robert M Kalin
Local-scale opportunities to address challenges of the water-food nexus in the developing world need to be embraced. Borehole-garden permaculture is advocated as one such opportunity that involves the sustainable use of groundwater spilt at hand-pump operated borehole supplies that is otherwise wasted. Spilt water may also pose health risks when accumulating as a stagnant pond. Rural village community use of this grey-water in permaculture projects to irrigate borehole gardens is proposed to primarily provide economic benefit whereby garden-produce revenue helps fund borehole water-point maintenance...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309179/development-of-homologous-skin-bone-and-other-soft-tissues-transplantation-in-slovenia
#20
REVIEW
Matija Šatej, Zvonka Zupanič Slavec
In Slovenia, transplantation of tissues such as skin and bone was successfully following global trends throughout its history. First documented homologous skin graft was already mentioned back in 1901. Alongside with new discoveries in immunology and advancements in burn surgery, skin transplantation development surged in the second half of 20th century. Slovenia's first and currently the only skin bank was established in 1973, in Ljubljana. Throughout its existence it always managed to supply skin grafts for patients that were in vast majority burn victims...
December 2017: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
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