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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651650/ethics-review-of-studies-during-public-health-emergencies-the-experience-of-the-who-ethics-review-committee-during-the-ebola-virus-disease-epidemic
#1
Emilie Alirol, Annette C Kuesel, Maria Magdalena Guraiib, Vânia Dela Fuente-Núñez, Abha Saxena, Melba F Gomes
BACKGROUND: Between 2013 and 2016, West Africa experienced the largest ever outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease. In the absence of registered treatments or vaccines to control this lethal disease, the World Health Organization coordinated and supported research to expedite identification of interventions that could control the outbreak and improve future control efforts. Consequently, the World Health Organization Research Ethics Review Committee (WHO-ERC) was heavily involved in reviews and ethics discussions...
June 26, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647903/farmers-attitude-toward-treated-sludge-use-in-the-villages-of-west-bank-palestine
#2
Md M Rashid, Mary G Kattou'a, Issam A Al-Khatib, Chikashi Sato
An application of treated sewage sludge on agricultural land has been widely accepted, as this method is simple and economical for disposal of wastewater residues. When applied properly on an agricultural land, sludge can replenish organic matter and nutrients in soil. Although sewage sludge has been used in agriculture in many parts of the world, its acceptability varies with different cultures and beliefs among farmers. Farmers' concerns on sludge use are primarily due to its anthropogenic origin, pollutants that it carries, a general perception of sewage being dirty, and its offensive odor...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627860/the-world-health-organization-disability-assessment-schedule-2-0-can-predict-the-institutionalization-of-the-patients-with-stroke
#3
Hsiang-Yueh Hu, Wen-Chou Chi, Kwang-Hwa Chang, Chia-Feng Yen, Reuben Escorpizo, Hua-Fang Liao, Shih-Wei Huang, Tsan-Hon Liou
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) is a well-known questionnaire used to evaluate disability. We can not only evaluate disability but also obtain additional information by using the standardized WHODAS 2.0 scores. AIM: To predict the institutionalization of the patients with stroke by using the standardized WHODAS 2.0 scores. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: The data of 10,255 patients with stroke were acquired from the Data Bank of Persons with Disabilities (TDPD) in Taiwan...
June 19, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624388/geo-economic-variations-in-epidemiology-patterns-of-care-and-outcomes-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-insights-from-the-lung-safe-prospective-cohort-study
#4
John G Laffey, Fabiana Madotto, Giacomo Bellani, Tài Pham, Eddy Fan, Laurent Brochard, Pravin Amin, Yaseen Arabi, Ednan K Bajwa, Alejandro Bruhn, Vladimir Cerny, Kevin Clarkson, Leo Heunks, Kiyoyasu Kurahashi, Jon Henrik Laake, Jose A Lorente, Lia McNamee, Nicolas Nin, Jose Emmanuel Palo, Lise Piquilloud, Haibo Qiu, Juan Ignacio Silesky Jiménez, Andres Esteban, Daniel F McAuley, Frank van Haren, Marco Ranieri, Gordon Rubenfeld, Hermann Wrigge, Arthur S Slutsky, Antonio Pesenti
BACKGROUND: Little information is available about the geo-economic variations in demographics, management, and outcomes of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We aimed to characterise the effect of these geo-economic variations in patients enrolled in the Large Observational Study to Understand the Global Impact of Severe Acute Respiratory Failure (LUNG SAFE). METHODS: LUNG SAFE was done during 4 consecutive weeks in winter, 2014, in a convenience sample of 459 intensive-care units in 50 countries across six continents...
June 14, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615392/family-medicine-around-the-world-overview-by-region-the-besrour-papers-a-series-on-the-state-of-family-medicine-in-the-world
#5
REVIEW
Neil Arya, Christine Gibson, David Ponka, Cynthia Haq, Stephanie Hansel, Bruce Dahlman, Katherine Rouleau
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate how family medicine has been recognized and integrated into primary health care systems in contrasting contexts around the world and to provide an overview of how family physicians are trained and certified. COMPOSITION OF THE COMMITTEE: Since 2012, the College of Family Physicians of Canada has hosted the Besrour Conferences to reflect on its role in advancing the discipline of family medicine globally. The Besrour Papers Working Group, which was struck at the 2013 conference, was tasked with developing a series of papers to highlight the key issues, lessons learned, and outcomes emerging from the various activities of the Besrour collaboration...
June 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613382/high-genetic-diversity-of-jatropha-curcas-assessed-by-issr
#6
B G Díaz, D M Argollo, M C Franco, S M Nucci, W J Siqueira, D M de Laat, C A Colombo
Jatropha curcas L. is a highly promising oilseed for sustainable production of biofuels and bio-kerosene due to its high oil content and excellent quality. However, it is a perennial and incipiently domesticated species with none stable cultivar created until now despite genetic breeding programs in progress in several countries. Knowledge of the genetic structure and diversity of the species is a necessary step for breeding programs. The molecular marker can be used as a tool for speed up the process. This study was carried out to assess genetic diversity of a germplasm bank represented by J...
May 31, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610221/first-record-of-spongillaflies-neuroptera-sisyridae-from-colombia
#7
Adrian Ardila-Camacho, Caleb C Martins
The family Sisyridae (spongillaflies) is a small group of neuropterans distributed in all Biogeographic realms (Cover & Resh 2008). As in Nevrorthidae, Sisyridae is distinguished among other Neuroptera families by their strictly aquatic larvae (Wichard et al. 2002). The phylogenetic relationships of Sisyridae have been controversial i.e. the family was recovered at different positions within the Neuropterida phylogeny as a basal group among members of Neuroptera or whitin the suborder Hemerobiiformia with a very variable placement (Randolf et al...
June 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606103/occupational-therapy-and-physiotherapy-education-and-workforce-in-anglophone-sub-saharan-africa-countries
#8
Augustine O Agho, Emmanuel B John
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries are faced with the challenge of educating a critical mass of occupational therapists (OTs) and physiotherapists (PTs) to meet the growing demand for health and rehabilitation services. The World Federation of Occupational Therapy (WFOT) and World Confederation of Physical Therapy (WCPT) have argued for the need of graduate-level training for OTs and PTs for decades. However, very few studies have been conducted to determine the availability of OT and PT training programs and practitioners in SSA countries...
June 12, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600374/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-pelvic-floor-disorders-in-community-dwelling-women-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-protocol-study
#9
Rakibul M Islam, John Oldroyd, Md Nazmul Karim, Sultana Monira Hossain, Dewan Md Emdadul Hoque, Lorena Romero, Jane Fisher
INTRODUCTION: Pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) including urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse are common debilitating conditions among women in high-income countries. However, PFDs in women in low/middle-income countries (LMICs) have not been studied extensively. We aim to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature to determine the prevalence of, and/or risk factors for, PFDs in women in LMIC. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Maternity & Infant Care and Google Scholar for eligible studies...
June 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596742/assessing-the-growth-of-ethical-banking-some-evidence-from-spanish-customers
#10
Fernando E Callejas-Albiñana, Isabel Martínez-Rodríguez, Ana I Callejas-Albiñana, Irene M de Vidales-Carrasco
Aristotle, who, having predated Adam Smith by 2000 years, deserves to be recognized as the world's first economist (Solomon, 1995), distinguished between two different senses of what we call economics: oikonomikos, or household trading, which he approved of and considered essential to the working of any even slightly complex society, and chrematisike, or trade for profit, which he considered selfish and utterly devoid of virtue, calling those who engaged in such practices "parasites". Of course, consumers do not purchase and invest for solely economic reasons (Polanyi, 1944)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589685/efficiency-performance-of-china-s-health-care-delivery-system
#11
Luyu Zhang, Gang Cheng, Suhang Song, Beibei Yuan, Weiming Zhu, Li He, Xiaochen Ma, Qingyue Meng
Improving efficiency performance of the health care delivery system has been on the agenda for the health system reform that China initiated in 2009. This study examines the changes in efficiency performance and determinants of efficiency after the reform to provide evidence to assess the progress of the reform from the perspective of efficiency. Descriptive analysis, Data Envelopment Analysis, the Malmquist Index, and multilevel regressions are used with data from multiple sources, including the World Bank, the China Health Statistical Yearbook, and routine reports...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589010/effects-of-economic-downturns-on-child-mortality-a-global-economic-analysis-1981-2010
#12
Mahiben Maruthappu, Robert A Watson, Johnathan Watkins, Thomas Zeltner, Rosalind Raine, Rifat Atun
OBJECTIVES: To analyse how economic downturns affect child mortality both globally and among subgroups of countries of variable income levels. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study using economic data from the World Bank's Development Indicators and Global Development Finance (2013 edition). Child mortality data were sourced from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. SETTING: Global. PARTICIPANTS: 204 countries between 1981 and 2010...
March 2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588976/the-how-project-understanding-contextual-challenges-to-global-surgical-care-provision-in-low-resource-settings
#13
Nakul P Raykar, Rachel R Yorlets, Charles Liu, Roberta Goldman, Sarah L M Greenberg, Meera Kotagal, Paul E Farmer, John G Meara, Nobhojit Roy, Rowan D Gillies
INTRODUCTION: 5 billion people around the world do not have access to safe, affordable, timely surgical care. This series of qualitative interviews was launched by The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery (LCoGS) with the aim of understanding the contextual challenges-the specific circumstances-faced by surgical care providers in low-resource settings who care for impoverished patients, and how those providers overcome these challenges. METHODS: From January 2014 to February 2015, 20 LCoGS collaborators conducted semistructured interviews with 148 surgical providers in low-resource settings in 21 countries...
November 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583185/temporal-changes-and-determinants-of-childhood-nutritional-status-in-kenya-and-zambia
#14
Daniel Hoffman, Thomas Cacciola, Pamela Barrios, James Simon
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of undernutrition is decreasing in many parts of the developing world, but challenges remain in many countries. The objective of this study was to determine factors influencing childhood nutrition status in Kenya and Zambia. The objective of this study is to determine factors associated with temporal changes in childhood nutritional status in two countries in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Data from national demographic and health surveys from the World Bank for Kenya (1998-2009) and Zambia (1996-2014) were used to select the youngest child of each household with complete data for all variables studied...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559383/spatial-processing-is-frequency-specific-in-auditory-cortex-but-not-in-the-midbrain
#15
Joseph Sollini, Robert Mill, Christian Sumner
The cochlea behaves like a bank of band-pass filters, segregating information into different frequency channels. Some aspects of perception reflect processing within individual channels, but others involve the integration of information across them. One instance of this is sound localization, which improves with increasing bandwidth. The processing of binaural cues for sound location has been extensively studied. However, while the advantage conferred by bandwidth is clear we currently know little about how this additional information is combined to form our percept of space...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556456/gender-violence-poverty-and-hiv-infection-risk-among-persons-engaged-in-the-sex-industry-cross-national-analysis-of-the-political-economy-of-sex-markets-in-30-european-and-central-asian-countries
#16
A Reeves, S Steele, D Stuckler, M McKee, A Amato-Gauci, J C Semenza
OBJECTIVES: Persons engaged in the sex industry are at greater risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections than the general population. One major factor is exposure to higher levels of risky sexual activity. Expanding condom use is a critical prevention strategy, but this requires negotiation with those buying sex, which takes place in the context of cultural and economic constraints. Impoverished individuals who fear violence are more likely to forego condoms. METHODS: Here we tested the hypotheses that poverty and fear of violence are two structural drivers of HIV infection risk in the sex industry...
May 28, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554665/population-incidence-of-pedestrian-traffic-injury-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Kate E Charters, Belinda J Gabbe, Biswadev Mitra
BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries are the fifth leading cause of years of life lost, with pedestrians comprising 39% of all road deaths. International recognition of this public health issue has led to a reduction in road traffic deaths in many high-income countries. However data on non-motorised road users such as pedestrians is incomplete. Additionally, non-fatal injuries are poorly documented. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of pedestrian traffic injury reported from high-income countries...
May 18, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552409/analysis-of-the-environmental-management-system-based-on-iso-14001-on-the-american-continent
#18
Fábio de Oliveira Neves, Eduardo G Salgado, Luiz A Beijo
The American continent is in broad economic and industrial development. Consequently, a more detailed discussion of the impacts generated by such development is needed. Moreover, there is an increase in the number of ISO 14001 certificates issued to this continent. Given the above, no studies were found that bridge the gap to identify the influence of different factors on ISO 14001 in the Americas. Thus, this article has as its main aim to check which economic, environmental and cultural factors have influence on ISO 14001 Certification in the American Continent...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544991/associations-of-neighborhood-social-environment-attributes-and-physical-activity-among-9-11-year-old-children-from-12-countries
#19
Samaah M Sullivan, Stephanie T Broyles, Tiago V Barreira, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Mikael Fogelholm, Gang Hu, Rebecca Kuriyan, Anura Kurpad, Estelle V Lambert, Carol Maher, Jose Maia, Victor Matsudo, Tim Olds, Vincent Onywera, Olga L Sarmiento, Martyn Standage, Mark S Tremblay, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Pei Zhao, Peter T Katzmarzyk
We investigated whether associations of neighborhood social environment attributes and physical activity differed among 12 countries and levels of economic development using World Bank classification (low/lower-middle-, upper-middle- and high- income countries) among 9-11 year old children (N=6161) from the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle, and the Environment (ISCOLE). Collective efficacy and perceived crime were obtained via parental/guardian report. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed with waist-worn Actigraph accelerometers...
May 22, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542615/taking-dietary-habits-into-account-a-computational-method-for-modeling-food-choices-that-goes-beyond-price
#20
Rahmatollah Beheshti, Jessica C Jones-Smith, Takeru Igusa
Computational models have gained popularity as a predictive tool for assessing proposed policy changes affecting dietary choice. Specifically, they have been used for modeling dietary changes in response to economic interventions, such as price and income changes. Herein, we present a novel addition to this type of model by incorporating habitual behaviors that drive individuals to maintain or conform to prior eating patterns. We examine our method in a simulated case study of food choice behaviors of low-income adults in the US...
2017: PloS One
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