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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815771/molstack-interactive-visualization-tool-for-presentation-interpretation-and-validation-of-macromolecules-and-electron-density-maps
#1
Przemyslaw J Porebski, Piotr Sroka, Heping Zheng, David R Cooper, Wladek Minor
Our understanding of the world of biomolecular structures is based upon the interpretation of macromolecular models, of which ∼ 90% are themselves the interpretation of electron density maps. This structural information guides scientific progress and exploration in many biomedical disciplines. The Protein Data Bank's web portals have made these structures available for mass scientific consumption and greatly broaden the scope of information presented in scientific publications. The portals provide numerous quality metrics; however, the portion of the structure that is most vital for interpretation of the function may have the most difficult to interpret electron density and this ambiguity is not reflected by any single metric...
August 17, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813440/invasive-australian-acacia-seed-banks-size-and-relationship-with-stem-diameter-in-the-presence-of-gall-forming-biological-control-agents
#2
Matthys Strydom, Ruan Veldtman, Mzabalazo Z Ngwenya, Karen J Esler
Australian Acacia are invasive in many parts of the world. Despite significant mechanical and biological efforts to control their invasion and spread, soil-stored seed banks prevent their effective and sustained removal. In response South Africa has had a strong focus on employing seed reducing biological control agents to deal with Australian Acacia invasion, a programme that is considered as being successful. To provide a predictive understanding for their management, seed banks of four invasive Australian acacia species (Acacia longifolia, A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812222/ethics-and-phishing-experiments
#3
David B Resnik, Peter R Finn
Phishing is a fraudulent form of email that solicits personal or financial information from the recipient, such as a password, username, or social security or bank account number. The scammer may use the illicitly obtained information to steal the victim's money or identity or sell the information to another party. The direct costs of phishing on consumers are exceptionally high and have risen substantially over the past 12 years. Phishing experiments that simulate real world conditions can provide cybersecurity experts with valuable knowledge they can use to develop effective countermeasures and prevent people from being duped by phishing emails...
August 15, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810934/does-cyberbullying-prevalence-among-adolescents-relate-with-country-socioeconomic-and-development-indicators-an-ecological-study-of-31-countries
#4
Sara Soares, Sandra Brochado, Henrique Barros, Sílvia Fraga
BACKGROUND: In addition to individual characteristics, it is also important to evaluate how the environment may influence the dynamics of cyberbullying. We aim to study the correlation between cyberbullying prevalence among adolescents and selected country-level indicators. METHODS: We used two different data sources: data from a previously published literature review, to identify information on cyberbullying prevalence across countries, and data from the World Bank databases, to extract information on country-level indicators...
August 15, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810833/population-effectiveness-of-the-pentavalent-and-monovalent-rotavirus-vaccines-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#5
Daniel Hungerford, Katie Smith, Angela Tucker, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Roberto Vivancos, Catherine McLeonard, Nigel A Cunliffe, Neil French
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus was the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in infants and young children prior to the introduction of routine vaccination. Since 2006 there have been two licensed vaccines available; with successful clinical trials leading the World Health Organization to recommend rotavirus vaccination for all children worldwide. In order to inform immunisation policy we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observation studies to assess population effectiveness against acute gastroenteritis...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808947/the-sydney-heart-bank-improving-translational-research-while-eliminating-or-reducing-the-use-of-animal-models-of-human-heart-disease
#6
REVIEW
C G Dos Remedios, S P Lal, A Li, J McNamara, A Keogh, P S Macdonald, R Cooke, E Ehler, R Knöll, S B Marston, J Stelzer, H Granzier, C Bezzina, S van Dijk, F De Man, G J M Stienen, J Odeberg, F Pontén, W Linke, J van der Velden
The Sydney Heart Bank (SHB) is one of the largest human heart tissue banks in existence. Its mission is to provide high-quality human heart tissue for research into the molecular basis of human heart failure by working collaboratively with experts in this field. We argue that, by comparing tissues from failing human hearts with age-matched non-failing healthy donor hearts, the results will be more relevant than research using animal models, particularly if their physiology is very different from humans. Tissue from heart surgery must generally be used soon after collection or it significantly deteriorates...
August 14, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806300/improving-benchmarks-for-global-surgery-nationwide-enumeration-of-operations-performed-in-ghana
#7
Adam Gyedu, Barclay Stewart, Cameron Gaskill, Godfred Boakye, Ebenezer Appiah-Denkyira, Peter Donkor, Ronald Maier, Robert Quansah, Charles Mock
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the operation rate in Ghana and characterize it by types of procedures and hospital level. BACKGROUND: The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery recommended an annual rate of 5000 operations/100,000 people as a benchmark at which low- and middle-income countries could achieve most of the population-wide benefits of surgery, but did not define procedure-type benchmarks. METHODS: Data on operations performed from June 2014 to May 2015 were obtained from representative samples of 48 of 124 district-level (first-level) hospitals, 9 of 11 regional (referral) hospitals, and 3 of 5 tertiary hospitals, and scaled-up to nationwide estimates...
August 10, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799002/intolerance-and-violence-against-doctors
#8
REVIEW
Meharban Singh
Intolerance and grouse against doctors is a global phenomenon but India seems to lead the world in violence against doctors. According to World Health Organization, about 8-38% healthcare workers suffer physical violence at some point in their careers. Many more are verbally abused or threatened. Public is almost behaving like health sector terrorists. The spate of increasing attacks on doctors by damaging their property and causing physical injury is not acceptable by any civilized society. The public is becoming increasingly intolerant to a large number of social issues because of poor governance and vote bank politics...
August 11, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797037/the-world-s-user-generated-road-map-is-more-than-80-complete
#9
Christopher Barrington-Leigh, Adam Millard-Ball
OpenStreetMap, a crowdsourced geographic database, provides the only global-level, openly licensed source of geospatial road data, and the only national-level source in many countries. However, researchers, policy makers, and citizens who want to make use of OpenStreetMap (OSM) have little information about whether it can be relied upon in a particular geographic setting. In this paper, we use two complementary, independent methods to assess the completeness of OSM road data in each country in the world. First, we undertake a visual assessment of OSM data against satellite imagery, which provides the input for estimates based on a multilevel regression and poststratification model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791127/patterns-of-genomic-and-phenomic-diversity-in-wine-and-table-grapes
#10
Zoë Migicovsky, Jason Sawler, Kyle M Gardner, Mallikarjuna K Aradhya, Bernard H Prins, Heidi R Schwaninger, Carlos D Bustamante, Edward S Buckler, Gan-Yuan Zhong, Patrick J Brown, Sean Myles
Grapes are one of the most economically and culturally important crops worldwide, and they have been bred for both winemaking and fresh consumption. Here we evaluate patterns of diversity across 33 phenotypes collected over a 17-year period from 580 table and wine grape accessions that belong to one of the world's largest grape gene banks, the grape germplasm collection of the United States Department of Agriculture. We find that phenological events throughout the growing season are correlated, and quantify the marked difference in size between table and wine grapes...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789698/multiple-disparities-in-adult-mortality-in-relation-to-social-and-health-care-perspective-results-from-different-data-sources
#11
Chhabi Lal Ranabhat, Chun-Bae Kim, Myung-Bae Park, Sambhu Acharaya
BACKGROUND: Disparity in adult mortality (AM) with reference to social dynamics and health care has not been sufficiently examined. This study aimed to identify the gap in the understanding of AM in relation to religion, political stability, economic level, and universal health coverage (UHC). METHODS: A cross-national study was performed with different sources of data, using the administrative record linkage theory. Data was created from the 2013 World Bank data catalogue by region, The Economist (Political instability index 2013), Stuckler David et al...
August 8, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767813/-new-changes-old-systems-health-policies-in-mexico-and-colombia-in-the-21st-century
#12
Monica Uribe-Gómez
Recent years have witnessed discussion on the need for changes in the health systems of Latin America. This initiative, spearheaded once again by the World Bank as Universal Health Coverage, focuses on strategies for protection against financial risks and unified access to essential services and medicines. Although the World Bank approaches have been incorporated in different ways by the region's countries since the 1980s, there have also been important breaks with this trend, for example in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, and Ecuador, which have sought at different times to implement policies and programs emphasizing non-market-driven values...
July 27, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766313/interventions-for-emergency-contraception
#13
REVIEW
Jie Shen, Yan Che, Emily Showell, Ke Chen, Linan Cheng
BACKGROUND: Emergency contraception (EC) is using a drug or copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) to prevent pregnancy shortly after unprotected intercourse. Several interventions are available for EC. Information on the comparative effectiveness, safety and convenience of these methods is crucial for reproductive healthcare providers and the women they serve. This is an update of a review previously published in 2009 and 2012. OBJECTIVES: To determine which EC method following unprotected intercourse is the most effective, safe and convenient to prevent pregnancy...
August 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764720/setting-performance-based-financing-in-the-health-sector-agenda-a-case-study-in-cameroon
#14
Isidore Sieleunou, Anne-Marie Turcotte-Tremblay, Jean-Claude Taptué Fotso, Denise Magne Tamga, Habakkuk Azinyui Yumo, Estelle Kouokam, Valery Ridde
BACKGROUND: More than 30 countries in sub-Saharan Africa have introduced performance-based financing (PBF) in their healthcare systems. Yet, there has been little research on the process by which PBF was put on the national policy agenda in Africa. This study examines the policy process behind the introduction of PBF program in Cameroon. METHODS: The research is an explanatory case study using the Kingdon multiple streams framework. We conducted a document review and 25 interviews with various types of actors involved in the policy process...
August 1, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753173/the-wfsa-global-anesthesia-workforce-survey
#15
Peter Kempthorne, Wayne W Morriss, Jannicke Mellin-Olsen, Julian Gore-Booth
BACKGROUND: Safe anesthesia and surgical care are not available when needed for 5 billion of the world's 7 billion people. There are major deficiencies in the specialist surgical workforce in many parts of the world, and specific data on the anesthesia workforce are lacking. METHODS: The World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists conducted a workforce survey during 2015 and 2016. The aim of the survey was to collect detailed information on physician anesthesia provider (PAP) and non-physician anesthesia provider (NPAP) numbers, distribution, and training...
September 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739910/identifying-early-modern-human-ecological-niche-expansions-and-associated-cultural-dynamics-in-the-south-african-middle-stone-age
#16
Francesco d'Errico, William E Banks, Dan L Warren, Giovanni Sgubin, Karen van Niekerk, Christopher Henshilwood, Anne-Laure Daniau, María Fernanda Sánchez Goñi
The archaeological record shows that typically human cultural traits emerged at different times, in different parts of the world, and among different hominin taxa. This pattern suggests that their emergence is the outcome of complex and nonlinear evolutionary trajectories, influenced by environmental, demographic, and social factors, that need to be understood and traced at regional scales. The application of predictive algorithms using archaeological and paleoenvironmental data allows one to estimate the ecological niches occupied by past human populations and identify niche changes through time, thus providing the possibility of investigating relationships between cultural innovations and possible niche shifts...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733958/the-study-of-postmortem-human-synaptosomes-for-understanding-alzheimer-s-disease-and-other-neurological-disorders-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Jia-Fong Jhou, Hwan-Ching Tai
Synaptic dysfunction is thought to play important roles in the pathophysiology of many neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. Over the past few decades, there have been systematic efforts to collect postmortem brain tissues via autopsies, leading to the establishment of dozens of human brain banks around the world. From cryopreserved human brain tissues, it is possible to isolate detached-and-resealed synaptic terminals termed synaptosomes, which remain metabolically and enzymatically active...
July 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728174/a-global-view-on-output-and-outcomes-of-cataract-surgery-with-national-indices-of-socioeconomic-development
#18
Wei Wang, William Yan, Andreas Müller, Mingguang He
Purpose: Cataract blindness accounts for a substantial proportion of blindness worldwide. Understanding the correlations between national levels of socioeconomic development with the quantity and quality of cataract surgery may provide insight for the prioritization and resource allocation for blindness prevention programs. Methods: The relationships between human development index (HDI), gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and cataract surgical coverage (CSC) and visual outcome of cataract surgery were examined in a multinational study utilizing secondary data from the repository for Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB), World Health Organization, Global Burden of Disease, United Nations, and the World Bank...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720089/analysis-of-the-association-between-millennium-development-goals-4-5-and-the-physician-workforce-across-international-economic-strata
#19
Christopher P Morley, Dongliang Wang, Emily M Mader, Kyle P Plante, Lindsey N Kingston, Azadeh Rabiei
BACKGROUND: The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are 8 international development goals voluntarily adopted by 189 nations. The goals included health related aims to reduce the under-five child mortality rate by two-thirds (MDG4), and to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters (MDG5). To assess the relationship between the healthcare workforce and MDGs 4-5, we examined the physician workforces of countries around the globe, in terms of the Physician Density Level (PDL, or number of physicians per 1000 population), and compared this rate across a number of years to several indicator variables specified as markers of progress towards MDG4 and MDG5...
July 18, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713636/ranking-causal-anomalies-via-temporal-and-dynamical-analysis-on-vanishing-correlations
#20
Wei Cheng, Kai Zhang, Haifeng Chen, Guofei Jiang, Zhengzhang Chen, Wei Wang
Modern world has witnessed a dramatic increase in our ability to collect, transmit and distribute real-time monitoring and surveillance data from large-scale information systems and cyber-physical systems. Detecting system anomalies thus attracts significant amount of interest in many fields such as security, fault management, and industrial optimization. Recently, invariant network has shown to be a powerful way in characterizing complex system behaviours. In the invariant network, a node represents a system component and an edge indicates a stable, significant interaction between two components...
August 2016: KDD: Proceedings
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