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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203037/children-s-nonverbal-displays-of-winning-and-losing-effects-of-social-and-cultural-contexts-on-smiles
#1
Phoebe H C Mui, Martijn B Goudbeek, Marc G J Swerts, Arpine Hovasapian
We examined the effects of social and cultural contexts on smiles displayed by children during gameplay. Eight-year-old Dutch and Chinese children either played a game alone or teamed up to play in pairs. Activation and intensity of facial muscles corresponding to Action Unit (AU) 6 and AU 12 were coded according to Facial Action Coding System. Co-occurrence of activation of AU 6 and AU 12, suggesting the presence of a Duchenne smile, was more frequent among children who teamed up than among children who played alone...
2017: Journal of Nonverbal Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190942/cognitive-and-linguistic-predictors-of-mathematical-word-problems-with-and-without-irrelevant-information
#2
Amber Y Wang, Lynn S Fuchs, Douglas Fuchs
The purpose of this study was to identify cognitive and linguistic predictors of word problems with versus without irrelevant information. The sample was 701 2nd-grade students who received no specialized intervention on word problems. In the fall, they were assessed on initial arithmetic and word-problem skill as well as language ability, working memory capacity, and processing speed; in the spring, they were tested on a word-problem measure that included items with versus without irrelevant information. Significant predictors common to both forms of word problems were initial arithmetic and word problem-solving skill as well as language and working memory...
December 2016: Learning and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187370/language-comprehension-in-children-adolescents-and-adults-with-down-syndrome
#3
Bernadette Witecy, Martina Penke
BACKGROUND: There is conflicting evidence as to whether receptive language abilities of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) continue to improve into adulthood, reach a plateau in late adolescence, or even start to decline. AIM: The study aims to shed light on the question whether receptive syntactic skills change from childhood/adolescence to adulthood and provides a detailed qualitative analysis of the receptive abilities of adults with DS. METHODS: 58 individuals with DS participated in the study: 31 children/adolescents (aged: 4;6-19;0 years) and 27 adults (aged: 20;8-40;3 years)...
February 7, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182525/-catching-social-bias
#4
Allison L Skinner, Andrew N Meltzoff, Kristina R Olson
Identifying the origins of social bias is critical to devising strategies to overcome prejudice. In two experiments, we tested the hypothesis that young children can catch novel social biases from brief exposure to biased nonverbal signals demonstrated by adults. Our results are consistent with this hypothesis. In Experiment 1, we found that children who were exposed to a brief video depicting nonverbal bias in favor of one individual over another subsequently explicitly preferred, and were more prone to behave prosocially toward, the target of positive nonverbal signals...
February 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168003/cognitive-and-adaptive-correlates-of-an-ados-derived-joint-attention-composite
#5
Ashley Johnson Harrison, Zhenqiu Laura Lu, Rebecca L McLean, Stephen J Sheinkopf
Joint attention skills have been shown to predict language outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Less is known about the relationship between joint attention (JA) abilities in children with ASD and cognitive and adaptive abilities. In the current study, a subset of items from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), designed to quantify JA abilities, were used to investigate social attention among an unusually large cross-sectional sample of children with ASD (n = 1061). An examination of the association between JA and a range of functional correlates (cognitive and adaptive) revealed JA was significantly related to verbal (VIQ) and non-verbal (NVIQ) cognitive ability as well as all domains of adaptive functioning (socialization, communication, and daily living skills)...
September 2016: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167237/does-high-dose-vitamin-d-supplementation-enhance-cognition-a-randomized-trial-in-healthy-adults
#6
Jacqueline A Pettersen
BACKGROUND: Insufficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has been associated with dementia and cognitive decline. However, the effects of vitamin D supplementation on cognition are unclear. It was hypothesized that high dose vitamin D3 supplementation would result in enhanced cognitive functioning, particularly among adults whose 25(OH)D levels were insufficient (<75nmol/L) at baseline. METHODS: Healthy adults (n=82) from northern British Columbia, Canada (54° north latitude) with baseline 25(OH)D levels ≤100nmol/L were randomized and blinded to High Dose (4000IU/d) versus Low Dose (400IU/d) vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) for 18weeks...
February 3, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161297/signaling-of-noncomprehension-in-communication-breakdowns-in-fragile-x-syndrome-down-syndrome-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Gary E Martin, Jamie Barstein, Jane Hornickel, Sara Matherly, Genna Durante, Molly Losh
: The ability to indicate a failure to understand a message is a critical pragmatic (social) language skill for managing communication breakdowns and supporting successful communicative exchanges. The current study examined the ability to signal noncomprehension across different types of confusing message conditions in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome (FXS), Down syndrome (DS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and typical development (TD). Controlling for nonverbal mental age and receptive vocabulary skills, youth with comorbid FXS and ASD and those with DS were less likely than TD controls to signal noncomprehension of confusing messages...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148630/dysarthria-and-broader-motor-speech-deficits-in-dravet-syndrome
#8
Samantha J Turner, Amy Brown, Marta Arpone, Vicki Anderson, Angela T Morgan, Ingrid E Scheffer
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the oral motor, speech, and language phenotype in 20 children and adults with Dravet syndrome (DS) associated with mutations in SCN1A. METHODS: Fifteen verbal and 5 minimally verbal DS patients with SCN1A mutations (aged 15 months-28 years) underwent a tailored assessment battery. RESULTS: Speech was characterized by imprecise articulation, abnormal nasal resonance, voice, and pitch, and prosody errors. Half of verbal patients had moderate to severely impaired conversational speech intelligibility...
February 1, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148556/cognitive-testing-in-patients-with-ckd-the-problem-of-missing-cases
#9
Denise Neumann, Maxi Robinski, Wilfried Mau, Matthias Girndt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive testing is only valid in individuals with sufficient visual and motor skills and motivation to participate. Patients on dialysis usually suffer from limitations, such as impaired vision, motor difficulties, and depression. Hence, it is doubtful that the true value of cognitive functioning can be measured without bias. Consequently, many patients are excluded from cognitive testing. We focused on reasons for exclusion and analyzed characteristics of nontestable patients...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142067/is-nonverbal-behavior-in-patients-and-interviewers-relevant-to-the-assessment-of-depression-and-its-recovery-a-study-with-dutch-and-brazilian-patients
#10
Juliana Teixeira Fiquer, Ricardo Alberto Moreno, Janette Z Canales, Andre Cavalcanti, Clarice Gorenstein
Nonverbal behaviors exhibited by patients with depression in their interactions with others may reflect social maladjustment and depression maintenance. Investigations of associations between unipolar depression and both patients' and interviewers' behaviors have been scarce and restricted to European samples. This study examined whether nonverbal behavior in patients and their interviewers is associated with depression severity and recovery. Cultural differences were explored. Seventy-eight depressed outpatients (28 Brazilians, 50 Dutch) were evaluated before and after 8-week pharmacological treatment...
January 22, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141730/-footprints-in-the-bathroom-the-role-of-spirituality-in-patient-diagnosis
#11
Veronica Meneses, Douglas Vanderbilt, Linda Barnes, Marilyn Augustyn
Lucy is a 12-year-old Latina whose mother brought her to the pediatric clinic for help with her anxiety symptoms, "hearing voices," and episodes of "spacing out." Lucy did not cry at birth secondary to vocal cord paralysis and still has the tracheostomy performed at a few days of life. In addition to her neonatal intensive care unit stay, she has been hospitalized for pneumonia. Her mother says she is "sickly" and has a weak immune system due to her asthma symptoms. Lucy also experiences somatic complaints related to gastroesophageal reflux and constipation...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141725/acute-agitation-and-self-injury-in-a-5-year-old-with-autism
#12
Jason Schweitzer, Christine James, Willough Jenkins, Michael I Reiff, Martin T Stein
A 5-year-old nonverbal child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was admitted to inpatient pediatrics with new onset agitation and self-injurious behavior. His parents described him as a pleasant child without previous episodes of self-injury. Four days before admission, the parents noted new irritability followed by 2 days of self-injury to the face without clear precipitant. His hitting intensified with closed fist to face, and he required parental physical restraint to prevent further injury. Car rides and ibuprofen provided only temporary relief...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141716/apraxia-autism-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-do-we-have-a-new-spectrum
#13
Jayna Schumacher, Kristine E Strand, Marilyn Augustyn
Gio is a bilingual 6-year 10-month-old boy new to your practice who presents for an unscheduled visit with concerns for speech and language delay. He was born in Portugal, and his native language is Portuguese. When he was 21 months old, his family moved to Italy and then moved to the United States 3 years later. He had very little contact with other children while living in Italy, but his parents report that he has made friends quickly in the United States. His family speaks Portuguese at home, although his father is fluent in English...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141707/bullying-and-adhd-which-came-first-and-does-it-matter
#14
Robert Keder, Robert Sege, Peter C Raffalli, Marilyn Augustyn
Aiden, a 13-year-old boy in the sixth grade who is relatively new to your practice, is seen for follow-up after his routine physical last month when you noted concerns for possible attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and gave the family Vanderbilt Scales to complete. Aiden has a family history of ADHD, specific learning disabilities, and mood disorder.His mother reports that she is concerned about how Aiden is doing at school; his teachers are complaining that he is not doing his work, and she is worried that he may be kept back in school...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129066/individual-differences-in-rhythmic-skills-links-with-neural-consistency-and-linguistic-ability
#15
Adam Tierney, Travis White-Schwoch, Jessica MacLean, Nina Kraus
Durational patterns provide cues to linguistic structure, and so variations in rhythm skills may have consequences for language development. Understanding individual differences in rhythm skills, therefore, could help explain variability in language ability across the population. We investigated the neural foundations of rhythmic proficiency and its relation to language skills in young adults. We hypothesized that rhythmic abilities can be characterized by at least two constructs, which are tied to independent language abilities and neural profiles...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128987/preliminary-report-on-neuroanatomical-differences-among-reading-disabled-nonverbally-gifted-and-gifted-reading-disabled-college-students
#16
Jeffrey W Gilger, Mollie Bayda, Olumide A Olulade, Meaghan N Altman, Michael O'Boyle
Regional comparisons (cortical surface area and thickness) were performed on a well described sample of adults with reading disability alone (RD), nonverbal giftedness alone (G), and reading disability and nonverbal giftedness combined (GRD). These anatomical results are considered in relation to behavioral and functional work previously reported on this sample. GRD-RD regional differences were found in both hemispheres and were more common than GRD-G differences. Regional differences were found in the temporal, parietal, occipital and frontal lobes...
January 27, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125077/cognitive-outcomes-and-age-of-detection-of-severe-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-1
#17
Scott D Grosse, Wendy K K Lam, Lisa D Wiggins, Alex R Kemper
The US Secretary of Health and Human Services recommended in February 2016 that mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS I) be added to the recommended uniform screening panel for state newborn screening programs. One of the key factors in this decision was the evidence suggesting that earlier treatment with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for the most severe form, Hurler syndrome (MPS IH), would lead to improved cognitive outcomes. Consistent evidence from peer-reviewed studies suggests that transplantation in the first year of life is associated with improved developmental quotient or intelligence quotient and continued cognitive growth, with earlier age of treatment associated with improved outcomes...
January 26, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122382/auditory-processing-in-children-with-migraine-a-controlled-study
#18
Larissa Mendonça Agessi, Thaís Rodrigues Villa, Deusvenir de Souza Carvalho, Liliane Desgualdo Pereira
Background This study aimed to investigate central auditory processing performance in children with migraine and compared with controls without headache. Methods Twenty-eight children of both sexes, aged between 8 and 12 years, diagnosed with migraine with and without aura, and a control group of the same age range and with no headache history, were included. Gaps-in-noise (GIN), duration pattern test (DPT), synthetic sentence identification (SSI) test, and nonverbal dichotic test (NVDT) were used to assess central auditory processing performance...
January 25, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120370/modelling-gesture-use-and-early-language-development-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Stacy S Manwaring, Danielle L Mead, Lauren Swineford, Audrey Thurm
BACKGROUND: Nonverbal communication abilities, including gesture use, are impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little is known about how common gestures may influence or be influenced by other areas of development. AIMS: To examine the relationships between gesture, fine motor and language in young children with ASD compared with a comparison group using multiple measures and methods in a structural equation modelling framework. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Participants included 110 children with ASD and a non-ASD comparison group of 87 children (that included children with developmental delays (DD) or typical development (TD)), from 12 to 48 months of age...
January 24, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119183/word-and-object-recognition-during-reading-acquisition-meg-evidence
#20
Sendy Caffarra, Clara D Martin, Mikel Lizarazu, Marie Lallier, Asier Zarraga, Nicola Molinaro, Manuel Carreiras
Studies on adults suggest that reading-induced brain changes might not be limited to linguistic processes. It is still unclear whether these results can be generalized to reading development. The present study shows to which extent neural responses to verbal and nonverbal stimuli are reorganized while children learn to read. MEG data of thirty Basque children (4-8y) were collected while they were presented with written words, spoken words and visual objects. The evoked fields elicited by the experimental stimuli were compared to their scrambled counterparts...
January 10, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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