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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914434/long-term-musical-experience-and-auditory-and-visual-perceptual-abilities-under-adverse-conditions
#1
Esperanza M Anaya, David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger
Musicians have been shown to have enhanced speech perception in noise skills. It is unclear whether these improvements are limited to the auditory modality, as no research has examined musicians' visual perceptual abilities under degraded conditions. The current study examined associations between long-term musical experience and visual perception under noisy or degraded conditions. The performance of 11 musicians and 11 age-matched nonmusicians was compared on several auditory and visual perceptions in noise measures...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910232/strategies-of-readers-with-autism-when-responding-to-inferential-questions-an-eye-movement-study
#2
Martina Micai, Holly Joseph, Mila Vulchanova, David Saldaña
Previous research suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties with inference generation in reading tasks. However, most previous studies have examined how well children understand a text after reading or have measured on-line reading behavior without response to questions. The aim of this study was to investigate the online strategies of children and adolescents with autism during reading and at the same time responding to a question by monitoring their eye movements. The reading behavior of participants with ASD was compared with that of age-, language-, nonverbal intelligence-, reading-, and receptive language skills-matched participants without ASD (control group)...
December 2, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896703/spreading-activation-in-nonverbal-memory-networks
#3
Paul S Foster, Candias Wakefield, Scott Pryjmak, Katelyn M Roosa, Kaylei K Branch, Valeria Drago, David W Harrison, Ronald Ruff
Theories of spreading activation primarily involve semantic memory networks. However, the existence of separate verbal and visuospatial memory networks suggests that spreading activation may also occur in visuospatial memory networks. The purpose of the present investigation was to explore this possibility. Specifically, this study sought to create and describe the design frequency corpus and to determine whether this measure of visuospatial spreading activation was related to right hemisphere functioning and spreading activation in verbal memory networks...
November 28, 2016: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894183/the-effect-of-the-snapps-summarize-narrow-analyze-probe-plan-and-select-method-versus-teacher-centered-education-on-the-clinical-gynecology-skills-of-midwifery-students-in-iran
#4
Hamideh Barangard, Poorandokht Afshari, Parvin Abedi
This study aimed to determine the effect of the SNAPPS (summarize, narrow, analyze, probe, plan, and select) method versus teacher-centered education on the clinical skills of midwifery students in Iran. In this clinical trial, 36 midwifery students in their 4th year of education in 2015 were enrolled and divided into 6 groups, 3 groups for teacher-centered education and 3 groups for the SNAPPS method, with each group spending 10 days in the outpatient gynecology clinic. A questionnaire and a checklist were used to gather data...
2016: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889465/the-role-of-oxytocin-in-modulating-interpersonal-space-a-pharmacological-fmri-study
#5
Daniela Cohen, Anat Perry, Gadi Gilam, Naama Mayseless, Tal Gonen, Talma Hendler, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory
Interpersonal space is a nonverbal indicator of affiliation and closeness. In this study we investigated the effects of oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide known for its social role in humans, on interpersonal space. In a double blind placebo controlled study we measured the effect of intranasal OT on the personal distance preferences of different familiar (friend) and unfamiliar (stranger) protagonists. Behavioral results showed that participants preferred to be closer to a friend than to a stranger. Intranasal OT was associated with an overall distancing effect, but this effect was significant for the stranger and not for the friend...
November 10, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885946/epilepsy-surgery-in-patients-with-autism
#6
Malgosia A Kokoszka, Patricia E McGoldrick, Maite La Vega-Talbott, Hillary Raynes, Christina A Palmese, Steven M Wolf, Cynthia L Harden, Saadi Ghatan
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to report outcomes of epilepsy surgery in 56 consecutive patients with autism spectrum disorder. METHODS Medical records of 56 consecutive patients with autism who underwent epilepsy surgery were reviewed with regard to clinical characteristics, surgical management, postoperative seizure control, and behavioral changes. RESULTS Of the 56 patients with autism, 39 were male, 45 were severely autistic, 27 had a history of clinically significant levels of aggression and other disruptive behaviors, and 30 were considered nonverbal at baseline...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883911/examining-the-relationship-between-rapid-automatized-naming-and-arithmetic-fluency-in-chinese-kindergarten-children
#7
Jiaxin Cui, George K Georgiou, Yiyun Zhang, Yixun Li, Hua Shu, Xinlin Zhou
Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been found to predict mathematics. However, the nature of their relationship remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine how RAN (numeric and non-numeric) predicts a subdomain of mathematics (arithmetic fluency) and (b) to examine what processing skills may account for the RAN-arithmetic fluency relationship. A total of 160 third-year kindergarten Chinese children (83 boys and 77 girls, mean age=5.11years) were assessed on RAN (colors, objects, digits, and dice), nonverbal IQ, visual-verbal paired associate learning, phonological awareness, short-term memory, speed of processing, approximate number system acuity, and arithmetic fluency (addition and subtraction)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880650/deconstructing-chronic-low-back-pain-in-the-older-adult-step-by-step-evidence-and-expert-based-recommendations-for-evaluation-and-treatment-part-xi-dementia
#8
Rollin Wright, Monica Malec, Joseph W Shega, Eric Rodriguez, Joseph Kulas, Lisa Morrow, Juleen Rodakowski, Todd Semla, Debra K Weiner
: OBJECTIVE : To present the 11th in a series of articles designed to deconstruct chronic low back pain (CLBP) in older adults. The series presents CLBP as a syndrome, a final common pathway for the expression of multiple contributors rather than a disease localized exclusively to the lumbosacral spine. Each article addresses one of 12 important contributions to pain and disability in older adults with CLBP. This article focuses on dementia. METHODS:  A modified Delphi technique was used to develop an algorithm for an approach to treatment for older adults living with CLBP and dementia...
November 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874023/methylphenidate-and-memory-and-attention-adaptation-training-for-persistent-cognitive-symptoms-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Brenna C McDonald, Laura A Flashman, David B Arciniegas, Robert J Ferguson, Li Xing, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Gwen C Sprehn, Flora M Hammond, Arthur C Maerlender, Carrie L Kruck, Karen L Gillock, Kim Frey, Rachel N Wall, Andrew J Saykin, Thomas W McAllister
The purpose of this multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two cognitive rehabilitation interventions (Memory and Attention Adaptation Training (MAAT) and Attention Builders Training (ABT)), with and without pharmacologic enhancement (ie, with methylphenidate (MPH) or placebo), for treating persistent cognitive problems after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adults with a history of TBI at least four months prior to study enrollment with either objective cognitive deficits or subjective cognitive complaints were randomized to receive MPH or placebo and MAAT or ABT, yielding four treatment combinations: MAAT/MPH (N=17), ABT/MPH (N=19), MAAT/placebo (N=17), and ABT/placebo (N=18)...
November 22, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870941/nonverbal-behaviors-are-associated-with-increased-vagal-activity-in-major-depressive-disorder-implications-for-the-polyvagal-theory
#10
Raquel A Fernandes, Juliana T Fiquer, Clarice Gorenstein, Lais Boralli Razza, Renério Fraguas, Lucas Borrione, Isabela M Benseñor, Paulo A Lotufo, Eduardo Miranda Dantas, Andre F Carvalho, André R Brunoni
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with impairments in nonverbal behaviors (NVBs) and vagal activity. The polyvagal theory proposes that vagal activity regulates heart rate and NVBs by modulating a common anatomically and neurophysiologically discrete social engagement system. However, the association between these putative endophenotypes has not yet been explored. We hypothesize that in MDD, NVBs indicating positive affects and social interest and those indicating negative feelings and social disinterest could be associated with different patterns of vagal activity...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869881/-the-art-and-science-of-engaging-patients-into-medical-research-using-professional-recruiters-experiences-to-inform-physicians-and-scientific-directors-strategic-choices
#11
Aurora Occa, Susan E Morgan
In order to advance medical care, it is necessary to invest resources, both human and financial, in medical research. However, these investments sometimes are not sufficient to ensure the success of research studies. No progress can be made without the participation of patients in research studies and clinical trials. These potential participants are normally identified by their physicians, or by professional recruiters, depending on the patient clinical profile. However, often patients are intimidated by the idea of engaging in clinical trials for several reasons, including the fear of side effects, to the difficulty of understanding specific research-related terms...
November 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869518/gender-differences-in-identifying-emotions-from-auditory-and-visual-stimuli
#12
Teija Waaramaa
The present study focused on gender differences in emotion identification from auditory and visual stimuli produced by two male and two female actors. Differences in emotion identification from nonsense samples, language samples and prolonged vowels were investigated. It was also studied whether auditory stimuli can convey the emotional content of speech without visual stimuli, and whether visual stimuli can convey the emotional content of speech without auditory stimuli. The aim was to get a better knowledge of vocal attributes and a more holistic understanding of the nonverbal communication of emotion...
November 21, 2016: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868194/randomized-controlled-trial-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Khaled Saad, Ahmed A Abdel-Rahman, Yasser M Elserogy, Abdulrahman A Al-Atram, Amira A El-Houfey, Hisham A K Othman, Geir Bjørklund, Feiyong Jia, Mauricio A Urbina, Mohamed Gamil M Abo-Elela, Faisal-Alkhateeb Ahmad, Khaled A Abd El-Baseer, Ahmed E Ahmed, Ahmad M Abdel-Salam
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a frequent developmental disorder characterized by pervasive deficits in social interaction, impairment in verbal and nonverbal communication, and stereotyped patterns of interests and activities. It has been previously reported that there is vitamin D deficiency in autistic children; however, there is a lack of randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation in ASD children. METHODS: This study is a double-blinded, randomized clinical trial (RCT) that was conducted on 109 children with ASD (85 boys and 24 girls; aged 3-10 years)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866349/the-emergent-literacy-skills-of-preschool-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
M F Westerveld, J Paynter, D Trembath, A A Webster, A M Hodge, J Roberts
A high percentage of school-age students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have reading comprehension difficulties leading to academic disadvantage. These difficulties may be related to differences in children's emergent literacy development in the preschool years. In this study, we examined the relationship between emergent literacy skills, broader cognitive and language ability, autism severity, and home literacy environment factors in 57 preschoolers with ASD. The children showed strengths in code-related emergent literacy skills such as alphabet knowledge, but significant difficulties with meaning-related emergent literacy skills...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863627/a-mismatch-negativity-study-in-mandarin-speaking-children-with-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#15
Mingfu Fu, Liyan Wang, Mengchao Zhang, Ying Yang, Xibin Sun
OBJECTIVE: a) To examine the effects of sensorineural hearing loss on the discriminability of linguistic and non-linguistic stimuli at the cortical level, and b) to examine whether the cortical responses differ based on the chronological age at intervention, the degree of hearing loss, or the acoustic stimulation mode in children with severe and profound hearing loss. METHODS: Mismatch negativity (MMN) responses were collected from 43 children with severe and profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, and 20 children with normal hearing (age: 3-6 years)...
December 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859630/does-environmental-experience-shape-spatial-cognition-frames-of-reference-among-ancash-quechua-speakers-peru
#16
Joshua A Shapero
Previous studies have shown that language contributes to humans' ability to orient using landmarks and shapes their use of frames of reference (FoRs) for memory. However, the role of environmental experience in shaping spatial cognition has not been investigated. This study addresses such a possibility by examining the use of FoRs in a nonverbal spatial memory task among residents of an Andean community in Peru. Participants consisted of 97 individuals from Ancash Quechua-speaking households (8-77 years of age) who spoke Quechua and/or Spanish and varied considerably with respect to the extent of their experience in the surrounding landscape...
November 17, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859007/nonverbal-executive-function-is-mediated-by-language-a-study-of-deaf-and-hearing-children
#17
Nicola Botting, Anna Jones, Chloe Marshall, Tanya Denmark, Joanna Atkinson, Gary Morgan
Studies have suggested that language and executive function (EF) are strongly associated. Indeed, the two are difficult to separate, and it is particularly difficult to determine whether one skill is more dependent on the other. Deafness provides a unique opportunity to disentangle these skills because in this case, language difficulties have a sensory not cognitive basis. In this study, deaf (n = 108) and hearing (n = 125) children (age 8 years) were assessed on language and a wide range of nonverbal EF tasks...
November 10, 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856108/foundations-of-reading-comprehension-in-children-with-intellectual-disabilities
#18
Evelien van Wingerden, Eliane Segers, Hans van Balkom, Ludo Verhoeven
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about predictors for reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) is still fragmented. AIMS: This study compared reading comprehension, word decoding, listening comprehension, and reading related linguistic and cognitive precursor measures in children with mild ID and typically developing controls. Moreover, it was explored how the precursors related to reading achievement. METHOD AND PROCEDURES: Children with mild ID and typical controls were assessed on reading comprehension, decoding, language comprehension, and linguistic (early literacy skills, vocabulary, grammar) and cognitive (rapid naming, phonological short-term memory, working memory, temporal processing, nonverbal reasoning) precursor measures...
November 14, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856107/a-sequence-learning-impairment-in-dyslexia-it-depends-on-the-task
#19
Lisa M Henderson, Meesha Warmington
Language acquisition is argued to be dependent upon an individuals' sensitivity to serial-order regularities in the environment (sequential learning), and impairments in reading and spelling in dyslexia have recently been attributed to a deficit in sequential learning. The present study examined the learning and consolidation of sequential knowledge in 30 adults with dyslexia and 29 typical adults matched on age and nonverbal ability using two tasks previously reported to be sensitive to a sequence learning deficit...
November 14, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856031/nonverbal-components-of-theory-of-mind-in-typical-and-atypical-development
#20
Dora Kampis, Dóra Fogd, Ágnes Melinda Kovács
To successfully navigate the human social world one needs to realize that behavior is guided by mental states such as goals and beliefs. Humans are highly proficient in using mental states to explain and predict their conspecific's behavior, which enables adjusting one's own behavior in online social interactions. Whereas according to recent studies even young infants seem to integrate others' beliefs into their own behavior, it is unclear what processes contribute to such competencies and how they may develop...
November 14, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
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