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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342056/-product-versus-process-measures-in-assessing-speech-recognition-outcomes-in-adults-with-cochlear-implants
#1
Aaron C Moberly, Irina Castellanos, Kara J Vasil, Oliver F Adunka, David B Pisoni
HYPOTHESES: 1) When controlling for age in postlingual adult cochlear implant (CI) users, information-processing functions, as assessed using "process" measures of working memory capacity, inhibitory control, information-processing speed, and fluid reasoning, will predict traditional "product" outcome measures of speech recognition. 2) Demographic/audiologic factors, particularly duration of deafness, duration of CI use, degree of residual hearing, and socioeconomic status, will impact performance on underlying information-processing functions, as assessed using process measures...
January 16, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340132/effect-of-epilepsy-on-autism-symptoms-in-angelman-syndrome
#2
Kristin A Bakke, Patricia Howlin, Lars Retterstøl, Øivind J Kanavin, Arvid Heiberg, Terje Nærland
Background: Autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy often co-occur; however, the extent to which the association between autism symptoms and epilepsy is due to shared aetiology or to the direct effects of seizures is a topic of ongoing debate. Angelman syndrome (AS) is presented as a suitable disease model to explore this association. Methods: Data from medical records and questionnaires were used to examine the association between age of epilepsy onset, autism symptoms, genetic aberration and communication level...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338843/current-status-of-animal-models-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-behavioral-and-biological-phenotypes-and-future-challenges-in-improving-translation
#3
REVIEW
Jessica Deslauriers, Mate Toth, Andre Der-Avakian, Victoria B Risbrough
Increasing predictability of animal models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has required active collaboration between clinical and preclinical scientists. Modeling PTSD is challenging, as it is a heterogeneous disorder with ≥20 symptoms. Clinical research increasingly utilizes objective biological measures (e.g., imaging, peripheral biomarkers) or nonverbal behaviors and/or physiological responses to complement verbally reported symptoms. This shift toward more-objectively measurable phenotypes enables refinement of current animal models of PTSD, and it supports the incorporation of homologous measures across species...
November 20, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337761/children-s-recognition-of-emotional-prosody-in-spectrally-degraded-speech-is-predicted-by-their-age-and-cognitive-status
#4
Anna R Tinnemore, Danielle J Zion, Aditya M Kulkarni, Monita Chatterjee
OBJECTIVES: It is known that school-aged children with cochlear implants show deficits in voice emotion recognition relative to normal-hearing peers. Little, however, is known about normal-hearing children's processing of emotional cues in cochlear implant-simulated, spectrally degraded speech. The objective of this study was to investigate school-aged, normal-hearing children's recognition of voice emotion, and the degree to which their performance could be predicted by their age, vocabulary, and cognitive factors such as nonverbal intelligence and executive function...
January 15, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321232/hypermyelination-of-the-left-auditory-cortex-in-developmental-dyslexia
#5
Michael A Skeide, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Robert Trampel, Andreas Schäfer, Claudia Männel, Katharina von Kriegstein, Angela D Friederici
OBJECTIVE: Cortical malformations are documented postmortem in speech processing areas of the dyslexic human brain. The goal of this pilot study was to find out if such anatomic anomalies can be detected noninvasively and in vivo. METHODS: We developed a reconstruction of left perisylvian cortex profiles at a resolution of 400 μm using T1 data acquired with ultra-high-field MRI at 7T. Cortical thickness, myelinated cortical thickness, and layer-wise myelination were then compared in 6 men with developmental dyslexia and 6 healthy controls matched for age, sex, handedness, education level, and nonverbal IQ...
January 10, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316872/piecing-it-together-the-effect-of-background-music-on-children-s-puzzle-assembly
#6
Louis Koolidge, Robyn M Holmes
This study explored the effects of background music on cognitive (puzzle assembly) task performance in young children. Participants were 87 primarily European-American children (38 boys, 49 girls; mean age = 4.77 years) enrolled in early childhood classes in the northeastern United States. Children were given one minute to complete a 12-piece puzzle task in one of three background music conditions: music with lyrics, music without lyrics, and no music. The music selection was "You're Welcome" from the Disney movie "Moana...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315542/making-unformulated-experience-real-through-painting-painting-and-psychoanalytic-psychotherapy-practice-as-two-ways-of-making-sense
#7
Karen M Schwartz
I contend that painting, like psychoanalytic psychotherapy, is an intersubjective process able to connect hearts and minds of painters and viewers alike, because the creative process of making a painting brings painters into more complex and more animated relationship with themselves. My own painting process is largely nonverbal. Interactions between me and my evolving artwork-in-process reveal experiences, thoughts, and feelings not yet formulated in words, and so, not available explicitly to conscious awareness until visual representation allows questions of meaning and intention to be thought about and elaborated in the usual, verbal sense...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313237/simians-in-the-shape-school-a-comparative-study-of-executive-attention
#8
Kristin French, Michael J Beran, Kimberly Andrews Espy, David A Washburn
Executive functions (EF) have been studied extensively in children and adults. However, EF tasks for young children can be difficult to administer and interpret. Espy (1997, Developmental Neuropsychology, 13, 495-499) designed the Shape School task to measure inhibition and switching in preschool-aged children. Shape School presents cartoon-like characters that children must flexibly name by their color, their shape, or both, depending on cues that indicate the appropriate rule. Shape School has been found to be age sensitive as well as predictive of performance on other EF tasks...
January 8, 2018: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309294/speed-of-language-comprehension-at-18-months-old-predicts-school-relevant-outcomes-at-54-months-old-in-children-born-preterm
#9
Virginia A Marchman, Elizabeth C Loi, Katherine A Adams, Melanie Ashland, Anne Fernald, Heidi M Feldman
OBJECTIVE: Identifying which preterm (PT) children are at increased risk of language and learning differences increases opportunities for participation in interventions that improve outcomes. Speed in spoken language comprehension at early stages of language development requires information processing skills that may form the foundation for later language and school-relevant skills. In children born full-term, speed of comprehending words in an eye-tracking task at 2 years old predicted language and nonverbal cognition at 8 years old...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305746/verbal-and-nonverbal-anticipatory-mechanisms-in-bilinguals
#10
Lorenzo Desideri, Paola Bonifacci
Empirical evidence collected so far has revealed that the bilingual advantage cannot be reduced to a single component of the executive functioning, and point to the need to understand the effects of bilingual experience on cognition as influencing a wider family of mental processes, including, but not limited to, cognitive control. The present study aims to explore a relatively underinvestigated domain of bilingual cognitive processes, namely anticipation, through a series of different paradigms tapping proactive and reactive mechanisms at different levels of cognitive complexity and linguistic components...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297763/communication-accommodation-in-text-messages-exploring-liking-power-and-sex-as-predictors-of-textisms
#11
Aubrie Adams, Jai Miles, Norah E Dunbar, Howard Giles
This mixed-methods study applies Communication Accommodation Theory to explore how liking, power, and sex predict one's likelihood for using textisms in digital interpersonal interactions. Textisms are digital cues that convey nonverbal meaning and emotion in text communication. The main experiment used a hypothetical texting scenario to manipulate textism amounts (none/many) and participant's perceived power levels (low/equal/high) during texting interactions to examine the number of textisms participants used in subsequent responses in comparison to the number of textisms they viewed...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297109/beyond-just-saying-no-a-preliminary-evaluation-of-strategies-college-students-use-to-refuse-sexual-activity
#12
Tiffany L Marcantonio, Kristen N Jozkowski, Wen-Juo Lo
Preventing sexual assault is a core goal for universities as prevalence rates of sexual assault remain high, particularly among college students. A key mechanism thought to decrease rates of sexual assault is teaching college students how to give clear, explicit, verbal refusals. However, there is a paucity of research regarding how college students refuse sex. Thus, the purpose of this study was to understand different behavioral strategies college students would use to refuse sex. A sample of 773 heterosexual college students (523 women, 250 men) were recruited from two large southern universities in the USA to complete a survey on sexual communication...
January 2, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286511/cerebral-impact-of-prenatal-irradiation-by-131i-an-experimental-model-of-clinical-neuroradioembryological-effects
#13
V V Talko, K M Loganovsky, I P Drozd, Ye V Tukalenko, T K Loganovska, S Yu Nechayev, S V Masiuk, Ye M Prokhorova
Human brain in prenatal period is a most vulnerable to ionizing radiation body structure. Unlike atomic bombings or radiological interventions in healthcare leading at most to external irradiation the intensive internal exposure may occur upon nuclear reactor accidents followed by substantial release and fallout of radioactive 131I. The latter can lead to specific neuroradioembryological effects. OBJECTIVE: To create an experimental model of prenatal cerebral radiation effects of 131I in human and to determine the experimental and clinical neuroradioembryological effects...
December 2017: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284801/comprehensive-management-of-autism-current-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Manjiri Deshpande Shenoy, Vishal Indla, Harish Reddy
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and restricted repetitive behavior. The goals of treatment are to target core behaviors, improve social interactions and communication, and reduce disruptive behavior. The present paper discusses the role of applied behavioral analysis and pharmacotherapy.
November 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278615/risk-for-speech-and-language-impairments-in-pre-school-aged-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-with-in-utero-combination-antiretroviral-exposure
#15
Mabel L Rice, Jonathan S Russell, Toni Frederick, Murli Purswani, Paige L Williams, George K Siberry, Sean M Redmond, Howard J Hoffman, Tzy-Jyun Yao
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children have elevated risk of late language emergence at age 1 year, with possible links to in utero antiretroviral (ARV) exposure. We investigated possible risks for speech impairments (SI) and language impairments (LI) in preschool monolingual HEU children in the United States. METHODS: Speech and language assessments were conducted as part of the PHACS Surveillance Monitoring of ART Toxicities (SMARTT) study at ages 3 (N= 208) and 5 (N = 429) years...
December 22, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276332/beating-time-how-ensemble-musicians-cueing-gestures-communicate-beat-position-and-tempo
#16
Laura Bishop, Werner Goebl
Ensemble musicians typically exchange visual cues to coordinate piece entrances. "Cueing-in" gestures indicate when to begin playing and at what tempo. This study investigated how timing information is encoded in musicians' cueing-in gestures. Gesture acceleration patterns were expected to indicate beat position, while gesture periodicity, duration, and peak gesture velocity were expected to indicate tempo. Same-instrument ensembles (e.g., piano-piano) were expected to synchronize more successfully than mixed-instrument ensembles (e...
January 2018: Psychology of Music
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273913/effectiveness-of-working-memory-training-among-children-with-dyscalculia-evidence-for-transfer-effects-on-mathematical-achievement-a-pilot-study
#17
Smail Layes, Robert Lalonde, Yamina Bouakkaz, Mohamed Rebai
We examined whether the working memory (WM) capacity of developmentally dyscalculic children can be improved by a WM training program and whether outcomes relate to mathematical performance. The experimental design comprised two groups with developmental dyslexia with grade 4 schooling: an experimental group (n = 14; mean age = 129.74 months) and a control group (n = 14; mean age = 126.9 months). All participants were assessed on measures of WM, mathematic attainment, and nonverbal mental ability (Raven test) before and after training...
December 22, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262471/-correlation-between-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-level-and-core-symptoms-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children
#18
H Y Dong, B Wang, H H Li, L Shan, F Y Jia
Objective: To explore the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children. Method: In this cross-sectional study, ASD children 4 to 6 years of age who were diagnosed in Department of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, First Hospital of Jilin university from January to May 2017 were assigned to ASD group, and children for routine growth and development assessment in Jilin province were assigned to control group. The two groups were well matched for age and sex, and none of them had received vitamin D supplementation...
December 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248926/comprehension-of-narrow-focus-by-adolescents-in-the-autism-spectrum
#19
Osnat Segal, Dafna Kaplan, Smadar Patael, Liat Kishon-Rabin
OBJECTIVE: The study compared the performance of adolescents with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) to that of age-matched peers with typical development (TD) and cognitive language-matched peers with TD on measures of identification and comprehension of "narrow focus." PARTICIPANTS: Forty-nine participants, 17 autistic, 17 TD peers matched for age and sex, and 15 TD children matched for expressive vocabulary participated in the study. METHOD: The Hebrew Narrow Focus Test (HNFT) was used...
2017: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239208/the-perceptual-maze-test-revisited-evaluating-the-difficulty-of-automatically-generated-mazes
#20
Bao Sheng Loe, John Rust
The Elithorn perceptual maze test is widely used in clinical research and practice. However, there is little evidence of its psychometric properties, and its application is limited by the technical difficulty of developing more mazes. The current research aims to adopt a rigorous approach to evaluate 18 mazes that were automatically generated by a novel R software package. Various item response theory models were employed to examine the difficulty parameters. The findings suggested that the data best fitted the Rasch model...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
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