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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934526/mechanisms-of-memory-retrieval-in-slow-wave-sleep
#1
Scott A Cairney, Justyna M Sobczak, Shane Lindsay, M Gareth Gaskell
Study Objectives: Memories are strengthened during sleep. The benefits of sleep for memory can be enhanced by re-exposing the sleeping brain to auditory cues; a technique known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR). Prior studies have not assessed the nature of the retrieval mechanisms underpinning TMR: the matching process between auditory stimuli encountered during sleep and previously encoded memories. We carried out two experiments to address this issue. Methods: In Experiment 1, participants associated words with verbal and nonverbal auditory stimuli before an overnight interval in which subsets of these stimuli were replayed in slow-wave sleep...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933954/criterion-validity-of-the-rorschach-developmental-index-with-children
#2
Ana Cristina Resende, Donald J Viglione, Liliane Domingos Martins, Latife Yazigi
The Rorschach Developmental Index (DI) is a composite measure of psychological development. The aim of this study was to examine the criterion validity of the DI by investigating its relationship with age, nonverbal intelligence, and the impact of institutionalization in a sample of Brazilian children. The sample included 231 children, ages 7 to 11, who were either living with their families or in an institutionalized setting. The results indicated that the DI is strongly associated with nonverbal intelligence...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933902/individual-differences-in-verbal-working-memory-underlie-a-tradeoff-between-semantic-and-structural-processing-difficulty-during-language-comprehension-an-erp-investigation
#3
Albert E Kim, Leif Oines, Akira Miyake
This study investigated the processes reflected in the widely observed N400 and P600 event-related potential (ERP) effects and tested the hypothesis that the N400 and P600 effects are functionally linked in a tradeoff relationship, constrained in part by individual differences in cognitive ability. Sixty participants read sentences, and ERP effects of semantic anomaly, relative to plausible words, were calculated for each participant. Results suggested qualitatively different ERP patterns across participants: Some individuals generated N400-dominated effects, whereas others generated P600-dominated effects, for the same stimuli...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932060/synophrys-epidemiological-study
#4
Pramod Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Fusion of eyebrows above the bridge of nose is known as synophrys and is a normal variation. This variation is also recognized as a clinical feature of several genetic disorders, Cornelia De Lange syndrome being the commonest. Several studies, on aesthetics of face and eyebrows have been conducted, also on the role of eyebrows in emotional expression and nonverbal communication. A recent study has pointed a gene associated with synophrys. Surprisingly, however synophrys and its prevalence in the normal population is not known thus we conducted a study of its prevalence in Oman...
July 2017: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930710/at-the-intersection-of-faith-culture-and-family-dynamics-a-complex-case-of-refusal-of-treatment-for-childhood-cancer
#5
Amy E Caruso Brown
Refusing treatment for potentially curable childhood cancers engenders much discussion and debate. I present a case in which the competent parents of a young Amish child with acute myeloid leukemia deferred authority for decision making to the child's maternal grandfather, who was vocal in his opposition to treatment. I analyze three related concerns that distinguish this case from other accounts of refused treatment. First, I place deference to grandparents as decision makers in the context of surrogate decision making more generally...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921543/language-growth-in-children-with-heterogeneous-language-disorders-a-population-study
#6
Courtenay Frazier Norbury, George Vamvakas, Debbie Gooch, Gillian Baird, Tony Charman, Emily Simonoff, Andrew Pickles
BACKGROUND: Language development has been characterised by significant individual stability from school entry. However, the extent to which trajectories of language growth vary in children with language disorder as a function of co-occurring developmental challenges is a question of theoretical import, with implications for service provision. METHODS: SCALES employed a population-based survey design with sample weighting procedures to estimate growth in core language skills over the first three years of school...
October 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918222/vision-assessments-and-interventions-for-infants-0-2-years-at-high-risk-for-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Olena D Chorna, Andrea Guzzetta, Nathalie L Maitre
We performed a systematic review and evaluated the level of evidence of vision interventions and assessments for infants at high risk for or with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy from 0 to 2 years of age. Articles were evaluated based on the level of methodologic quality, evidence, and clinical utilization. Thirty publications of vision assessments and five of vision interventions met criteria for inclusion. Assessments included standard care neuroimaging, electrophysiology, and neuro-ophthalmologic examination techniques that are utilized clinically with any preverbal or nonverbal pediatric patient...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915511/children-s-comprehension-of-object-relative-sentences-it-s-extant-language-knowledge-that-matters-not-domain-general-working-memory
#8
Yazmin Ahmad Rusli, James W Montgomery
Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether extant language (lexical) knowledge or domain-general working memory is the better predictor of comprehension of object relative sentences for children with typical development. We hypothesized that extant language knowledge, not domain-general working memory, is the better predictor. Method: Fifty-three children (ages 9-11 years) completed a word-level verbal working-memory task, indexing extant language (lexical) knowledge; an analog nonverbal working-memory task, representing domain-general working memory; and a hybrid sentence comprehension task incorporating elements of both agent selection and cross-modal picture-priming paradigms...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901542/effects-of-response-contingent-stimulus-pairing-on-vocalizations-of-nonverbal-children-with-autism
#9
Tracy L Lepper, Anna Ingeborg Petursdottir
Research on stimulus-stimulus pairing to induce novel vocalizations in nonverbal children has typically employed response-independent pairing (RIP) procedures to condition speech sounds as reinforcers. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a response-contingent pairing (RCP) procedure on the vocalizations of three nonverbal boys diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. During RCP, adult-delivered sounds that were either paired with a preferred item (target sounds) or not (nontarget sounds) were presented contingent on a button-press response...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898705/relationships-of-bullying-involvement-with-intelligence-attention-and-executive-function-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Tai-Ling Liu, Nai-Wen Guo, Ray C Hsiao, Huei-Fan Hu, Cheng-Fang Yen
This study investigated the relationship of bullying victimization and perpetration with the levels of intelligence, attention, and executive function in children who had received a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The experiences of bullying involvement in 105 children with ADHD were assessed using the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. Their scores for four intelligence indexes on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4th Edition-Chinese version were determined...
September 8, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894969/categorical-speech-perception-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-conditions
#11
Mary E Stewart, Alexandra M Petrou, Mitsuhiko Ota
This study tested whether individuals with autism spectrum conditions (n = 23) show enhanced discrimination of acoustic differences that signal a linguistic contrast (i.e., /g/ versus /k/ as in 'goat' and 'coat') and whether they process such differences in a less categorical fashion as compared with 23 IQ-matched typically developed adults. Tasks administered were nonverbal IQ, verbal IQ, 5 language measures, a speech perception task, and the ADOS. The speech perception task measured the discrimination of paired exemplars along the /g/-/k/ continuum...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890634/the-role-of-domain-general-cognitive-abilities-and-decimal-labels-in-at-risk-fourth-grade-students-decimal-magnitude-understanding
#12
Amelia S Malone, Abbey M Loehr, Lynn S Fuchs
The purpose of the study was to determine whether individual differences in at-risk 4(th) graders' language comprehension, nonverbal reasoning, concept formation, working memory, and use of decimal labels (i.e., place value, point, incorrect place value, incorrect fraction, or whole number) are related to their decimal magnitude understanding. Students (n = 127) completed 6 cognitive assessments, a decimal labeling assessment, and 3 measures of decimal magnitude understanding (i.e., comparing decimals to the fraction [Formula: see text] benchmark task, estimating where decimals belong on a 0-1 number line, and identifying fraction and decimal equivalencies)...
August 2017: Learning and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888192/what-counts-in-preschool-number-knowledge-a-bayes-factor-analytic-approach-toward-theoretical-model-development
#13
Yi Mou, Ilaria Berteletti, Daniel C Hyde
Preschool children vary tremendously in their numerical knowledge, and these individual differences strongly predict later mathematics achievement. To better understand the sources of these individual differences, we measured a variety of cognitive and linguistic abilities motivated by previous literature to be important and then analyzed which combination of these variables best explained individual differences in actual number knowledge. Through various data-driven Bayesian model comparison and selection strategies on competing multiple regression models, our analyses identified five variables of unique importance to explaining individual differences in preschool children's symbolic number knowledge: knowledge of the count list, nonverbal approximate numerical ability, working memory, executive conflict processing, and knowledge of letters and words...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885725/supporting-spirituality-in-the-care-of-older-people-living-with-dementia-a-hermeneutic-phenomenological-inquiry-into-nurses-experiences
#14
Kristiina Toivonen, Andreas Charalambous, Riitta Suhonen
BACKGROUND: Spirituality is defined as a search for answers to existential questions about the meaning of life and the individual's relationship with the sacred or transcendent. This relationship may or may not involve affiliation with a specific religion. Studies on spirituality have focused on palliative care, and there are limited studies into the spirituality in the care of older people with dementia. AIM: To describe the experiences of nurses supporting spirituality in the care of older people living with dementia...
September 8, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884651/nonverbal-contention-and-contempt-in-u-k-parliamentary-oversight-hearings-on-fiscal-and-monetary-policy
#15
Cheryl Schonhardt-Bailey
In parliamentary committee oversight hearings on fiscal policy, monetary policy, and financial stability, where verbal deliberation is the focus, nonverbal communication may be crucial in the acceptance or rejection of arguments proffered by policymakers. Systematic qualitative coding of these hearings in the 2010-15 U.K. Parliament finds the following: (1) facial expressions, particularly in the form of anger and contempt, are more prevalent in fiscal policy hearings, where backbench parliamentarians hold frontbench parliamentarians to account, than in monetary policy or financial stability hearings, where the witnesses being held to account are unelected policy experts; (2) comparing committees across chambers, hearings in the House of Lords committee yield more reassuring facial expressions relative to hearings in the House of Commons committee, suggesting a more relaxed and less adversarial context in the former; and (3) central bank witnesses appearing before both the Lords and Commons committees tend toward expressions of appeasement, suggesting a willingness to defer to Parliament...
2017: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877090/academic-achievement-deficits-and-their-neuropsychological-correlates-in-children-born-extremely-preterm
#16
Natacha Akshoomoff, Robert M Joseph, H Gerry Taylor, Elizabeth N Allred, Timothy Heeren, Thomas M OʼShea, Karl C K Kuban
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the risks associated with learning disabilities (LDs) in a large sample of children born extremely preterm. We predicted higher than expected rates of LD, particularly in math, and children with LD in math, reading, or both would have lower intelligence quotients (IQs) and specific patterns of neuropsychological deficits. METHODS: We evaluated academic achievement, rates of LD, and their neuropsychological correlates in the Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns (ELGANs) Study cohort of 10-year-old children born at 23 to 27 weeks gestational age...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873844/design-of-a-behavior-of-robot-that-attracts-the-interest-of-the-mildly-demented-elderly
#17
Misato Nihei, Natsuki Sakuma, Hiroyuki Yabe, Minoru Kamata, Takenobu Inoue
In this study, using the unexpected intervention overturning the interaction amount of the field and the mental model, an interaction of a robot system that enables sustained nonverbal communication with the mildly demented elderly was proposed and its effectiveness was shown in the group home of the mildly demented elderly.
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872331/how-do-people-think-about-interdependence-a-multidimensional-model-of-subjective-outcome-interdependence
#18
Fabiola H Gerpott, Daniel Balliet, Simon Columbus, Catherine Molho, Reinout E de Vries
Interdependence is a fundamental characteristic of social interactions. Interdependence Theory states that 6 dimensions describe differences between social situations. Here we examine if these 6 dimensions describe how people think about their interdependence with others in a situation. We find that people (in situ and ex situ) can reliably differentiate situations according to 5, but not 6, dimensions of interdependence: (a) mutual dependence, (b) power, (c) conflict, (d) future interdependence, and (e) information certainty...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872043/representations-of-their-own-sexuality-and-aging-body-by-old-people-phenomenological-and-psychodynamic-approach
#19
Lucile Meyrignac, Noureddine Bouati, Alain Sagne, Gaëtan Gavazzi, Anne-Claire Zipper
The sexuality of the elderly is rarely mentioned in general medicine although it holds an important place in many old people's life, and sexual well-being is a part of the global well-being according to the World Health Organization. To explore the representations of their own sexuality and aging body by the elderly. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews in 15 healthy elderly people over 65 years of age, living at home. In-depth interviews were transcribed and submitted to qualitative content using a phenomenological and a psychodynamic analysis...
September 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869662/parent-caring-response-scoring-system-development-and-psychometric-evaluation-in-the-context-of-childhood-cancer-related-port-starts
#20
Jinbing Bai, Kristen Swanson, Felicity W K Harper, Louis A Penner, Sheila J Santacroce
RATIONALE: Multiple observational coding systems have been developed and validated to assess parent-child interactions during painful procedures. Most of these coding systems are neither theory-based nor do they well represent parent nonverbal behaviours. AIMS: Develop the Parent Caring Response Scoring System (P-CaReSS) based on Swanson's Theory of Caring and test its psychometric properties in children in cancer port starts. METHODS: A hybrid approach of inductive and deductive coding was used to formulate the preliminary observational codes for the P-CaReSS...
September 4, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
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