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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913560/cohort-profile-the-diabetes-tuberculosis-treatment-outcome-ditto-study-in-pakistan
#1
Fatima Mukhtar, Zahid A Butt
PURPOSE: Pakistan is faced with an increasing prevalence of diabetes in addition to its existing high burden of tuberculosis (TB). Diabetes has a detrimental effect on treatment outcomes of patients with TB, which may hinder achieving the goals of the End-TB strategy by 2030. We conducted a prospective cohort study to determine difference between treatment outcomes among patients with diabetes and new pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and patients without diabetes and new PTB. This would help generate contextual and valid scientific evidence from a developing country like Pakistan with its unique interplay of sociocultural, economic and health system factors to inform policy and practice...
December 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912859/alienation-and-alterity-age-in-the-existentialist-discourse-on-others
#2
Harm-Peer Zimmermann
Aging Studies and Postcolonial Studies belong together in a rather fundamental way, given that they share profound theoretical roots and far-reaching critical perspectives. These derive not only from the more recent poststructuralist discourse on others but also, further back, from the existentialist discourse on others - particularly in issues relating to "The Look" as elaborated by Jean-Paul Sartre in his major philosophical treatise Being and Nothingness and in his reflections on racism, colonialism and humanism...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912856/processes-of-developing-community-livability-in-older-age
#3
Kendra S Heatwole Shank, Malcolm P Cutchin
OBJECTIVE: 'Community livability' is a widely used term that is still under-conceptualized. The purpose of the project was to theorize key dynamics of livability for older adults who are aging in place in their homes and communities. METHODS: Twelve community-dwelling adults (70+) were recruited in a multiple-case study design. Interviews and naturalistic observations were used over the course of 6months. Global positioning system (GPS) devices were used to generate maps (routines, routes, type and duration of activities) to elicit additional insights through interviews...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912854/immune-to-ageism-men-s-perceptions-of-age-based-discrimination-in-everyday-contexts
#4
Hanna Ojala, Ilkka Pietilä, Pirjo Nikander
Despite long-term, conceptually and theoretically refined discussions, the phenomenon of ageism still remains empirically under-developed. To better understand the diversity of ageism, its contextual variations and gender-specific dynamics in people's daily lives, this study focuses on how different interactional contexts shape men's perceptions of ageism. Using data from 67 thematic personal interviews with 23 middle and working class men aged 50-70, this study contributes to the sorely lacking, empirically based and nuanced understanding of how ageism is experienced, and adds to the research on the internalization of ageism which to date has primarily focused on older women's experiences...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912853/-and-how-old-are-you-age-reference-as-an-interpretative-device-in-radio-counselling
#5
Nataliya Thell, Katarina Jacobsson
AIM OF STUDY: Negotiations about problem definitions are a crucial part of psychotherapeutic and counselling work. In a conversation with a psychotherapist or a counsellor, the client's initial description of his or her trouble is transformed into an expert-informed problem formulation. This study aims to explicate how reasoning about troubles and life difficulties in a dialogue with a psychotherapist may be grounded in cultural knowledge about ageing. METHOD AND DATA: We draw upon ethnomethodology, and particularly on conversation analysis and membership categorisation analysis, to describe how age identities can be invoked in reasoning about explanations and solutions of psychological problems...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912849/the-othering-of-old-age-insights-from-postcolonial-studies
#6
Silke van Dyk
When it comes to old age, we are witnessing almost revolutionary changes at the present time. After decades of ignorance and lack of public interest, old age has fundamentally been re-negotiated. A diverse range of authors have diagnosed the growing bifurcation of old age into a rather independent and capable Third Age and a deep old Fourth Age that is characterized by sickness, frailty and dependency. Against this backdrop, many gerontologists claim that the so-called young-old are praised and valued for their (ongoing) "sameness" in terms of midlife-norms and capabilities, whereas the oldest old are increasingly excluded from humanity by radical "othering"...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912847/negotiating-positive-aging-in-the-presence-of-age-related-vision-loss-arvl-the-shaping-and-perpetuation-of-disability
#7
Colleen McGrath, Debbie Laliberte Rudman, Jan Polgar, Marlee M Spafford, Barry Trentham
INTRODUCTION: While previous research has explored the meaning of positive aging discourses from the perspective of older adults, the perspective of older adults aging with a disability has not been studied. In fact the intersection of aging and disability has been largely underexplored in both social gerontology and disability studies. METHOD: This critical ethnography engaged ten older adults aging with vision loss in narrative interviews, participant observation sessions, and semi-structured in-depth interviews...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910189/a-qualitative-investigation-into-the-hiv-disclosure-process-within-an-intimate-partnership-the-moment-i-realized-that-our-relationship-was-developing-into-something-serious-i-just-had-to-tell-him
#8
Charlotte Smith, Rachel Cook, Poul Rohleder
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to elucidate the process through which people living with HIV (PLWH) in the United Kingdom disclose their status to an intimate partner (IP). DESIGN: A qualitative cross-sectional survey design was used. METHOD: A total of 95 PLWH took part. They were presented with a series of open-ended questions enquiring into their last experience of disclosing to an IP. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Disclosure became a salient issue when the discloser acknowledged their relationship as meaningful...
December 2, 2016: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907039/prosody-predicts-contest-outcome-in-non-verbal-dialogs
#9
Amélie N Dreiss, Philippe G Chatelain, Alexandre Roulin, Heinz Richner
Non-verbal communication has important implications for inter-individual relationships and negotiation success. However, to what extent humans can spontaneously use rhythm and prosody as a sole communication tool is largely unknown. We analysed human ability to resolve a conflict without verbal dialogs, independently of semantics. We invited pairs of subjects to communicate non-verbally using whistle sounds. Along with the production of more whistles, participants unwittingly used a subtle prosodic feature to compete over a resource (ice-cream scoops)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906471/negotiated-safety-components-context-and-use-an-integrative-literature-review
#10
REVIEW
NataIie M Leblanc, Jason W Mitchell, Joseph P De Santis
AIM: To examine the components and use of negotiated safety in the context of HIV prevention and to identify reported factors associated with the concept. BACKGROUND: There is an emerging interest in dyadic approaches to address HIV transmission. Although there are theoretical foundations for how interpersonal relationships influence individual behaviour, how these dyadic processes influence on health is still not wholly understood. DESIGN: Integrative review of empirical and theoretical literature...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905234/international-perspectives-on-social-media-guidance-for-nurses-a-content-analysis
#11
Gemma Ryan
Aim This article reports the results of an analysis of the content of national and international professional guidance on social media for the nursing profession. The aim was to consolidate good practice examples of social media guidelines, and inform the development of comprehensive guidance. Method A scoping search of professional nursing bodies' and organisations' social media guidance documents was undertaken using google search. Results 34 guidance documents were located, and a content analysis of these was conducted...
December 1, 2016: Nursing Management (Harrow)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900900/caregivers-perspectives-on-ethical-aspects-of-residential-and-domiciliary-care
#12
Ann Gallagher, Linus Vanlaere
Aim To explore caregivers' perspectives on ethics in older people's residential and domiciliary social care. Method Seventeen staff working in domiciliary and residential care were divided into four focus groups and invited to share their perspectives on 'ethical' or 'good' care, the ethical issues that arise in their care practice, and barriers and enablers for ethical care. Findings A thematic analysis identified four themes: negotiating relationships, boundaries and the management of emotions, the effects of negative portrayals of care, and becoming a good carer...
November 30, 2016: Nursing Older People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896940/empowering-women-to-breastfeed-does-the-baby-friendly-initiative-make-a-difference
#13
Danielle Groleau, Katherine W Pizarro, Luisa Molino, Katherine Gray-Donald, Sonia Semenic
The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFI) is currently presented worldwide as the gold standard model of care for promoting and supporting breastfeeding. However, there is a lack of understanding about the ways in which health services, including the BFI, address the cultural change from a disembodied practice (formula feeding) to an embodied one (breastfeeding) in contexts where formula feeding is the norm. We used a qualitative case study methodology to compare the embodied experience of breastfeeding and the maternal experience of breastfeeding promotion and support services between mothers receiving care from institutions with low and high levels of BFI implementation in Québec, Canada...
November 29, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896606/a-knowledge-ecologies-analysis-of-co-designing-water-and-sanitation-services-in-alaska
#14
Dena Fam, Zoë Sofoulis
Willingness to collaborate across disciplinary boundaries is necessary but not sufficient for project success. This is a case study of a transdisciplinary project whose success was constrained by contextual factors that ultimately favoured technical and scientific forms of knowledge over the cultural intelligence that might ensure technical solutions were socially feasible. In response to Alaskan Water and Sewer Challenge (AWSC), an international team with expertise in engineering, consultative design and public health formed in 2013 to collaborate on a two-year project to design remote area water and sanitation systems in consultation with two native Alaskan communities...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893346/the-preoedipal-and-oedipal-structure-of-termination-an-in-depth-case-study
#15
Trevor Lubbe
Much has been written about the Oedipus complex as a central organizing focus for the understanding of early developmental attainments as well as for the structuring of the personality, but nowhere are triangular forces more vitally active, clinically, than in the termination phase. The decision to end, once agreed upon, typically sets in motion a symmetrical process in which two dynamics occur concurrently. First, what drives the termination is a mourning process in which the primary task is to relinquish the analyst as a transference object and to establish the analyst as an internal object...
December 2016: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892696/looking-like-a-smoker-a-smokescreen-to-racism-m%C3%A4-ori-perceived-appearance-linked-to-smoking-status
#16
E Muriwai, C A Houkamau, C G Sibley
OBJECTIVES: Māori, the indigenous peoples of Aotearoa (New Zealand), continue to exhibit the highest rate of smoking of any ethnic group in the nation. Clarifying the present day factors which perpetuate Māori smoking has become matter of some urgency. DESIGN: We investigate links between subjective elements of Māori identity, demographic factors and perceived discrimination with smoking status in a national probability sample of self-identified Māori (N = 667)...
November 28, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891627/narrative-collisions-sociocultural-pressures-and-dementia-the-relational-basis-of-personhood-reconsidered
#17
Edward Tolhurst, Bernhard Weicht, Paul Kingston
The concept of personhood developed by Tom Kitwood highlights that the experience of dementia has relational dimensions that transcend the neurodegenerative impacts of the condition. This relational focus, however, has been narrowly conceptualised, with the impact of broader sociocultural factors on experience underplayed. The empirical exploration of interaction also requires reinforcement: a tendency for dyadic studies to portray findings in an individualised format hinders the interrogation of interpersonal negotiations...
November 27, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891109/pulling-rank-military-rank-affects-hormone-levels-and-fairness-in-an-allocation-experiment
#18
Benjamin Siart, Lena S Pflüger, Bernard Wallner
Status within social hierarchies has great effects on the lives of socially organized mammals. Its effects on human behavior and related physiology, however, is relatively little studied. The present study investigated the impact of military rank on fairness and behavior in relation to salivary cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) levels in male soldiers. For this purpose 180 members of the Austrian Armed Forces belonging to two distinct rank groups participated in two variations of a computer-based guard duty allocation experiment...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890129/toe-spatiotemporal-differences-between-transition-steps-when-ascending-shorter-flight-stairways-of-different-heights
#19
Toyin Ajisafe, Jianhua Wu, Mark Geil
BACKGROUND: Studies have typically treated the first and second floor-to-stair transition steps (TS1 and TS2) as one stride. However, because the foot is devoid of plantar cutaneous input from the stair surface at TS1, these steps may have different toe spatiotemporal profiles, and resultantly, different susceptibilities to a trip and/or a fall. This study compared vertical toe clearance, forward velocity, and their respective variability magnitudes between TS1 and TS2 when ascending stairs of different heights...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890032/ageism-we-are-our-own-worst-enemy
#20
Kerry Sargent-Cox
In 1969, Butler (1969) first coined the term "ageism" to confront "prejudice by one age group toward other age groups" (pp. 243). As with other "isms," such as racism and sexism, ageism leads to bigotry and discrimination, though it is a very distinct beast in that, for the most part, other "isms" refer to those different from ourselves: distinct, mutually exclusive, and impervious groups. Conversely, age is a fluid social construct in which we are all intimately bound as we move through the lifespan, transitioning in and out of different age-groups...
November 28, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
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