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STATs, Cytokine, RSV

Indranil Sarkar, Ravendra Garg, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes acute respiratory tract infections in infants, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. No licensed vaccine is available against RSV. We previously reported that intranasal immunization of rodents and lambs with a RSV vaccine candidate (ΔF/TriAdj) induces protective immunity with a good safety profile. ΔF/TriAdj promoted innate immune responses in respiratory mucosal tissues in vivo, by local chemokine and cytokine production, as well as infiltration and activation of immune cells including macrophages...
March 17, 2018: Vaccine
Cheng Chang, Yanzheng Zhao, Guozhi Song, Kun She
Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R injury) can cause neuronal deficits even death. Recent studies demonstrated that resveratrol (RSV) exerts neuroprotective effects in ischemia and several signaling pathways were involved in the process. However, it is still possible that other signaling pathway participates in the neuronal protective process. Our study examines the possible mechanism underlying RSV treatment. We randomly divided rats into four groups: the sham group, I/R group, I/R group, I/R+RSV group, I/R+vehicle group...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Xiaodong Xu, Junwen Zheng, Kun Zheng, Yan Hou, Feng Zhao, Dongchi Zhao
OBJECTIVES: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nonstructural protein NS1 (NS1) has been shown to block interferon (IFN)-inducible antiviral signaling. The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) gene family could utilize a feedback loop to block the activation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, further inhibiting the activation of host type I IFN. We evaluated the role of the SOCS1 and SOCS3 genes in this antiviral mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A humanized stable NS1 (rich in GC)-expressing plasmid was constructed, and A549 cells were transfected with it...
2014: Intervirology
Allan R Brasier, Yingxin Zhao
Asthma is an idiopathic disease associated with episodic inflammation and reversible airway obstruction that is triggered by environmental agents. Allergic and infectious agents trigger asthmatic exacerbations through the innate immune response (IIR). The IIR is activated by sentinel cells in the airways to elaborate inflammatory cytokines and protective mucosal interferons whose actions are designed to limit the spread of the organism, as well as to activate the adaptive immune response. We address the structure of the IIR pathway in sentinel cells of the airway and describe observations on its dysregulation...
2014: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Russell K Durbin, Sergei V Kotenko, Joan E Durbin
Interferons (IFNs) are produced in response to virus infection and induce an antiviral state in virtually all cell types. In addition to upregulating the transcription of genes that inhibit virus replication, type I (or -α/β) IFNs also act to orchestrate the adaptive immune response to virus infection. Recently a new family of antiviral cytokines, the type III (or -λ) IFNs, has been identified that activate the same antiviral pathways via a distinct receptor. Although the identical transcription factor, IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 is activated by either IFN-α/β or IFN-λ signaling, differences in the induction and action of these two cytokine families are beginning to be appreciated...
September 2013: Immunological Reviews
Zhijun Jie, Darrell L Dinwiddie, Albert P Senft, Kevin S Harrod
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dendritic cells (DCs) act as a portal for virus invasion as well as potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) involved in the antiviral host response. Interferons (IFNs) are produced in response to bacterial and viral infection and activate innate immune responses to efficiently counteract and remove pathogenic invaders. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) could inhibit IFN-mediated signaling pathway in epithelial cells; however, the effects of RSV on IFN signaling in the dendritic cells (DCs) are still unknown...
March 2011: Virus Research
Koichi Hashimoto, Kei Ishibashi, Ken Ishioka, Dongchi Zhao, Masatoki Sato, Shinichiro Ohara, Yusaku Abe, Yukihiko Kawasaki, Yuka Sato, Shin-Ichi Yokota, Nobuhiro Fujii, Ray Stokes Peebles, Mitsuaki Hosoya, Tatsuo Suzutani
Human RSV causes an annual epidemic of respiratory tract illness in infants and in elderly. Mechanisms by which RSV antagonizes IFN-mediated antiviral responses include inhibition of type I IFN mRNA transcription and blocking signal transduction of JAK/STAT family members. The suppressor of cytokines signaling (SOCS) gene family utilizes a feedback loop to inhibit cytokine responses and block the activation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. To evaluate the potential of SOCS molecules to subvert the innate immune response to RSV infection, eight SOCS family genes were examined...
September 1, 2009: Virology
Koichi Hashimoto, Joan E Durbin, Weisong Zhou, Robert D Collins, Samuel B Ho, Jay K Kolls, Patricia J Dubin, James R Sheller, Kasia Goleniewska, Jamye F O'Neal, Sandra J Olson, Daphne Mitchell, Barney S Graham, R Stokes Peebles
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading infectious cause of respiratory failure and wheezing in infants and young children. Prematurity is the greatest risk factor for severe RSV-induced disease, and recent studies suggest that premature children have lower levels of the type I IFNs (alpha/beta), for which signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 is a critical intracellular signaling molecule. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that RSV infection in STAT 1 knockout (STAT 1 KO) mice would result in both increased airway resistance and airway hyperresponsiveness...
September 2005: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Tianshuang Liu, Shawn Castro, Allan R Brasier, Mohammad Jamaluddin, Roberto P Garofalo, Antonella Casola
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of epidemic respiratory tract illness in children in the United States and worldwide. RSV infection of airway epithelial cells induces formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), whose production mediates the expression of cytokines and chemokines involved the immune/inflammatory responses of the lung. In this study, we have investigated the role of ROS in RSV-induced signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) activation and interferon regulatory factor (IRF) gene expression in human airway epithelial cells...
January 23, 2004: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yuhong Zhang, Mohammad Jamaluddin, Shaofei Wang, Bing Tian, Roberto P Garofalo, Antonella Casola, Allan R Brasier
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a mucosa-restricted virus that is a leading cause of epidemic respiratory tract infections in children. RSV replication is a potent activator of the epithelial-cell genomic response, influencing the expression of a spectrum of cellular pathways, including proinflammatory chemokines of the CC, CXC, and CX(3)C subclasses. Ribavirin (1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide) is a nontoxic antiviral agent currently licensed for the treatment of severe RSV lower respiratory tract infections...
May 2003: Journal of Virology
K K Tekkanat, H Maassab, A A Berlin, P M Lincoln, H L Evanoff, M H Kaplan, N W Lukacs
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a respiratory pathogen that can cause significant morbidity in infants and young children. Interestingly, the majority of children who acquire a RSV infection do not exhibit severe symptoms. Development of a Th1 response has been associated with resolution of symptoms in viral infections and may explain mild RSV illness. The current study investigated the cytokine response observed in mild disease in C57BL/6 mice that had low airway resistance and mucus production with little pulmonary inflammation...
August 2001: American Journal of Pathology
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