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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077071/an-integrated-analysis-of-qtl-mapping-and-rna-sequencing-provides-further-insights-and-promising-candidates-for-pod-number-variation-in-rapeseed-brassica-napus-l
#1
Jiang Ye, Yuhua Yang, Bo Chen, Jiaqin Shi, Meizhong Luo, Jiepeng Zhan, Xinfa Wang, Guihua Liu, Hanzhong Wang
BACKGROUND: As the most important yield component in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), pod number is determined by a series of successive growth and development processes. Pod number shows extensive variation in rapeseed natural germplasm, which is valuable for genetic improvement. However, the genetic and especially the molecular mechanism for this kind of variation are poorly understood. In this study, we conducted QTL mapping and RNA sequencing, respectively, using the BnaZNRIL population and its two parental cultivars Zhongshuang11 and No...
January 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076812/spermine-condenses-dna-but-not-rna-duplexes
#2
Andrea M Katz, Igor S Tolokh, Suzette A Pabit, Nathan Baker, Alexey V Onufriev, Lois Pollack
Interactions between the polyamine spermine and nucleic acids drive important cellular processes. Spermine condenses DNA and some RNAs, such as poly(rA):poly(rU). A large fraction of the spermine present in cells is bound to RNA but apparently does not condense it. Here, we study the effect of spermine binding to short duplex RNA and DNA, and compare our findings with predictions of molecular-dynamics simulations. When small numbers of spermine are introduced, RNA with a designed sequence containing a mixture of 14 GC pairs and 11 AU pairs resists condensation relative to DNA of an equivalent sequence or to 25 bp poly(rA):poly(rU) RNA...
January 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075582/the-form-in-which-nitrogen-is-supplied-affects-the-polyamines-amino-acids-and-mineral-composition-of-sweet-pepper-fruit-under-an-elevated-co2-concentration
#3
Maria Carmen Piñero, Ginés Otálora, Manuel E Porras, María-Cruz Sánchez-Guerrero, Pilar Lorenzo, Evangelina Medrano, Francisco M Del Amor
We investigated the effect of supplying nitrogen, as NO3- or as NO3-/NH4+, on the composition of fruits of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Melchor) plants grown with different CO2 concentrations ([CO2]): ambient or elevated (800 µmol mol-1). The results show that the application of NH4+ and high [CO2] affected the chroma related to the concentrations of chlorophylls. The concentrations of Ca, Cu, Mg, P, and Zn were significantly reduced in the fruits of plants nourished with NH4+, the loss of Fe being more dramatic at increased [CO2], which was also the case with the protein concentration...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068214/paenibacillus-rhizoplanae-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-rhizosphere-of-zea-mays
#4
Peter Kämpfer, Hans-Jürgen Busse, John A McInroy, Chia-Hui Hu, Joseph W Kloepper, Stefanie P Glaeser
A Gram-positive staining, aerobic, endospore-forming bacterial strain, isolated from the rhizosphere of Zea mays was studied for its detailed taxonomic allocation. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain JJ-64T was shown to be a member of the genus Paenibacillus, most closely related to the type strains of Paenibacillus silagei (99%) and Paenibacillus borealis (97.5%). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to all other Paenibacillus species was ≤ 97.5%. DNA-DNA hybridization values to the type strains of P...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064246/the-arabidopsis-n-acetylornithine-deacetylase-controls-ornithine-biosynthesis-via-a-linear-pathway-with-downstream-effects-on-polyamine-levels
#5
Barbara Molesini, Serena Zanzoni, Giuseppe Mennella, Gianluca Francese, Alessia Losa, Giuseppe L Rotino, Tiziana Pandolfini
Arabidopsis thaliana At4g17830 codes for a protein showing sequence similarity with the Escherichia coli N-acetylornithine deacetylase (EcArgE), an enzyme implicated in the linear ornithine (Orn) biosynthetic pathway. In plants, N-acetylornithine deacetylase (NAOD) activity has yet to be demonstrated; however, At4g17830-silenced and mutant (atnaod) plants display an impaired reproductive phenotype and altered foliar levels of Orn and polyamines (PAs). Here, we showed the direct connection between At4g17830 function and Orn biosynthesis, demonstrating biochemically that At4g17830 codes for a NAOD...
November 15, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052993/spermine-and-spermidine-alter-gene-expression-and-antigenic-profile-of-borrelia-burgdorferi
#6
Ying-Han Lin, Jesus A Romo, Trever C Smith, Ann N Reyes, S L Rajasekhar Karna, Christine L Miller, Tricia A Van Laar, Raghunandan Yendapally, James P Chambers, J Seshu
Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, responds to numerous host-derived signals to alter adaptive capabilities during its enzootic cycle in an arthropod vector and mammalian host. Molecular mechanisms that enable B. burgdorferi to detect, channel, and respond to these signals have become an intense area of study for developing strategies to limit transmission/infection. Bioinformatic analysis of the borrelial genome revealed the presence of polyamine transport components (PotA, B, C and D) while homologs for polyamine biosynthesis were conspicuously absent...
January 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052719/comparison-of-soybean-cultivars-for-enhancement-of-the-polyamine-contents-in-the-fermented-soybean-natto-using-bacillus-subtilis-natto
#7
Kazuya Kobayashi, Yuichiro Horii, Satoshi Watanabe, Yuji Kubo, Kumiko Koguchi, Yoshihiro Hoshi, Ken-Ichi Matsumoto, Kuniyasu Soda
Polyamines have beneficial properties to prevent aging-associated diseases. Raw soybean has relatively high polyamine contents; and the fermented soybean natto is a good source of polyamines. However, detailed information of diversity of polyamine content in raw soybean is lacking. The objectives of this study were to evaluate differences of polyamines among raw soybeans and select the high polyamine-containing cultivar for natto production. Polyamine contents were measured chromatographically in 16 samples of soybean, which showed high variation among soybeans as follows: 93-861 nmol/g putrescine, 1055-2306 nmol/g spermidine, and 177-578 nmol/g spermine...
January 5, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049629/integrated-metabolomics-and-proteomics-highlight-altered-nicotinamide-and-polyamine-pathways-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#8
REVIEW
Johannes F Fahrmann, Dmitry D Grapov, Kwanjeera Wanichthanarak, Brian C DeFelice, Michelle R Salemi, William N Rom, David R Gandara, Brett S Phinney, Oliver Fiehn, Harvey Pass, Suzanne Miyamoto
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) adenocarcinoma being the most common histological type. Early perturbations in cellular metabolism are a hallmark of cancer, but the extent of these changes in early stage lung adenocarcinoma remains largely unknown. In the current study, an integrated metabolomics and proteomics approach was utilized to characterize the biochemical and molecular alterations between malignant and matched control tissue from 27 subjects diagnosed with early stage lung adenocarcinoma...
January 3, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039518/polyamine-catabolism-adds-fuel-to-leaf-senescence
#9
REVIEW
E Sobieszczuk-Nowicka
Leaf senescence is a terminal step in plant growth and development. Considerable information on processes and signals involved in this process has been obtained, although comparatively little is known about leaf senescence in monocotyledonous plants. In particular, little is known about players involved in leaf senescence imposed by a prolonged dark treatment. New information has now been unveiled on dark-induced leaf senescence in a monocot, barley. A close association has been found between ubiquitous polyamines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and senescence of barley leaves during prolonged darkness...
December 30, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039272/micafungin-alters-the-amino-acid-nucleic-acid-and-central-carbon-metabolism-of-candida-albicans-at-subinhibitory-concentrations-novel-insights-into-mechanisms-of-action
#10
Aspasia Katragkou, Michael Williams, Sandi Sternberg, Dennis Pantazatos, Emmanuel Roilides, Thomas J Walsh
BACKGROUND: Echinocandins are an important class of antifungal agents in the treatment of invasive candidiasis. However, little is known about the metabolomic effects of echinocandins on Candida We therefore performed LC-high-resolution MS (LC-HRMS)-based metabolomics profiling of the response of Candida albicans cells to increasing concentrations of micafungin to determine the metabolic response of Candida to micafungin subinhibitory injury. METHODS: Isolates of C...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036252/pseudaminobacter-manganicus-sp-nov-isolated-from-sludge-of-a-manganese-mine
#11
Jiahong Li, Jing Huang, Shuijiao Liao, Gejiao Wang
A Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-motile, capsule-forming and rod-shaped bacterium, designated JH-7T, was isolated from sludge of a manganese mine. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JH-7T showed highest similarities to Pseudaminobacter salicylatoxidans BN12T (97.4 %), Mesorhizobium thiogangeticum SJTT (97.0 %) and Pseudaminobacter defluvii THI 051T (96.5 %). Phylogenetic trees clustered strain JH-7T together with P. salicylatoxidans BN12T and P. defluvii THI 051T. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain JH-7T and P...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032740/microcapsule-structure-with-a-tunable-textured-surface-via-the-assembly-of-polyoxomolybdate-clusters-a-bioinspired-strategy-and-enhanced-activities-in-alkene-oxidation
#12
Rakesh Chilivery, Rohit Kumar Rana
A polyamine-mediated bioinspired strategy to assemble Keggin-type phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) clusters is demonstrated for the fabrication of microcapsule (MC) structures with unique surface textures. It involves supramolecular aggregation of polyamines with multivalent anions, which then allows the assembly of negatively charged PMA into MCs in an aqueous medium under ambient conditions. Resembling the role of polyamines in biosilicification of diatoms, the polyamine-anion interaction is shown to be the key for the assembly process...
January 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029774/the-structure-of-murine-n-1-acetylspermine-oxidase-reveals-molecular-details-of-vertebrate-polyamine-catabolism
#13
Tove Sjögren, Carola M Wassvik, Arjan Snijder, Anna Aagaard, Taichi Kumanomidou, Louise Barlind, Tim P Kaminski, Akiko Kashima, Takehiro Yokota, Ola Fjellström
N(1)-Acetylspermine oxidase (APAO) catalyzes the conversion of N(1)-acetylspermine or N(1)-acetylspermidine to spermidine or putrescine, respectively, with concomitant formation of N-acetyl-3-aminopropanal and hydrogen peroxide. Here we present the structure of murine APAO in its oxidized holo form and in complex with substrate. The structures provide a basis for understanding molecular details of substrate interaction in vertebrate APAO, highlighting a key role for an asparagine residue in coordinating the N(1)-acetyl group of the substrate...
January 12, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026976/spermidine-boosts-autophagy-to-protect-from-synapse-aging
#14
Anuradha Bhukel, Frank Madeo, Stephan Sigrist
All animals form memories to adapt their behavior in a context-dependent manner. With increasing age, however, forming new memories becomes less efficient. While synaptic plasticity promotes memory formation, the etiology of age-induced memory formation remained enigmatic. Previous work showed that simple feeding of polyamine spermidine protects from age-induced memory impairment in Drosophila. Most recent work now shows that spermidine operates directly at synapses, allowing for an autophagy-dependent homeostatic regulation of presynaptic specializations...
December 27, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026167/heat-capacity-changes-for-transition-state-analogue-binding-and-catalysis-with-human-5-methylthioadenosine-phosphorylase
#15
Ross S Firestone, Scott A Cameron, Jerome M Karp, Vickery L Arcus, Vern L Schramm
Human 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) catalyzes the phosphorolysis of 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA). Its action regulates cellular MTA and links polyamine synthesis to S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) salvage. Transition state analogues with picomolar dissociation constants bind to MTAP in an entropically driven process at physiological temperatures, suggesting increased hydrophobic character or dynamic structure for the complexes. Inhibitor binding exhibits a negative heat capacity change (-ΔCp), and thus the changes in enthalpy and entropy upon binding are strongly temperature-dependent...
December 27, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025841/regulation-of-diapause-in-carnivores
#16
J C Fenelon, P L Lefèvre, A Banerjee, B D Murphy
Embryonic diapause is an evolutionary strategy to ensure that offspring are born when maternal and environmental conditions are optimal for survival. In many species of carnivores, obligate embryonic diapause occurs in every gestation. In mustelids, the regulation of diapause and reactivation is influenced by photoperiod, which then acts to regulate the secretion of pituitary prolactin. Prolactin in turn regulates ovarian steroid function. Reciprocal embryo transplant studies indicate that this state of embryonic arrest is conferred by uterine conditions and is presumed to be due to a lack of specific factors necessary for continued development...
December 27, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018606/characterization-of-spermidine-hydroxycinnamoyl-transferases-from-eggplant-solanum-melongena-l-and-its-wild-relative-solanum-richardii-dunal
#17
Hui Peng, Tianbao Yang, Bruce D Whitaker, Frances Trouth, Lingfei Shangguan, Wen Dong, Wayne M Jurick
Eggplant produces a variety of hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs) that have an important role in plant development and adaptation to environmental changes. In this study, we identified and characterized a spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (SHT) from eggplant (Solanum melongena) and its wild relative S. richardii, designated as SmSHT and SrSHT, respectively. SmSHT was abundant in flowers and fruits, whereas the level of SrSHT was remarkably low in all tissues. Heat-shock/drought treatment stimulated the expression of SmSHT in both leaves and fruits, indicating its involvement in plant stress response...
2016: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017891/self-immolative-nanoparticles-for-simultaneous-delivery-of-microrna-and-targeting-of-polyamine-metabolism-in-combination-cancer-therapy
#18
Ying Xie, Tracy Murray-Stewart, Yazhe Wang, Fei Yu, Jing Li, Laurence J Marton, Robert A Casero, David Oupický
Combination of anticancer drugs with therapeutic microRNA (miRNA) has emerged as a promising anticancer strategy. However, the promise is hampered by a lack of desirable delivery systems. We report on the development of self-immolative nanoparticles capable of simultaneously delivering miR-34a mimic and targeting dysregulated polyamine metabolism in cancer. The nanoparticles were prepared from a biodegradable polycationic prodrug, named DSS-BEN, which was synthesized from a polyamine analog N(1),N(11)-bisethylnorspermine (BENSpm)...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013404/degrons-of-yeast-and-mammalian-ornithine-decarboxylase-enzymes-make-potent-combination-for-regulated-targeted-protein-degradation
#19
Rushikesh G Joshi, C Ratna Prabha
Elevation of polyamine levels in eukaryotes leads to rapid degradation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis pathway. ODC in yeast (yODC) has two domains, the Nα/β domain consisting of α/β barrel domain (α/β) preceded by an overhang of 50 residues at its N-terminus (N50) and β sheet domain at its C-terminus. Two degradation determinant signals or degrons in yODC sequence, namely the N50 and the antizyme-binding element (AzBE) housed in the α/β domain, are responsible for its degradation by proteasomes...
December 24, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011999/transcriptome-response-and-developmental-implications-of-rnai-mediated-odc-knockdown-in-tobacco
#20
Ami Choubey, M V Rajam
Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitously present polycationic compounds that play a critical role in various growth and developmental processes including stress responses in plants. Yet, their specific functions and mode of action remain largely unknown. In the present study, we have targeted tobacco ornithine decarboxylase gene (ODC) by RNA interference to modulate cellular PA levels and study the effects at different developmental time points. Down-regulation of ODC resulted in significant physiological and morphological anomalies including reduced leaf size, reduced chlorophyll and carotene content, decreased abiotic stress tolerance, early onset of senescence, delayed flowering, partial male and female sterility, reduced seed setting, delayed seed germination, reduced seed viability, and poor in vitro regeneration response from leaf explants...
December 24, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
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