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Anil Bhatta, Lin Yao, Zhimin Xu, Haroldo A Toque, Jijun Chen, Reem T Atawia, Abdelrahman Y Fouda, Zsolt Bagi, Rudolf Lucas, Ruth B Caldwell, Robert W Caldwell
Aims: Elevation of arginase activity has been linked to vascular dysfunction in diabetes and hypertension by a mechanism involving decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability due to L-arginine depletion. Excessive arginase activity also can drive L-arginine metabolism towards the production of ornithine, polyamines, and proline, promoting proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and collagen formation, leading to perivascular fibrosis. We hypothesized that there is a specific involvement of arginase 1 expression within the vascular endothelial cells in this pathology...
September 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
Bruno Manta, Mariana Bonilla, Lucía Fiestas, Mattia Sturlese, Gustavo Salinas, Massimo Bellanda, Marcelo A Comini
<b>Significance.</b> Major pathogenic enterobacteria and protozoan parasites from the phylum Euglenozoa, such as Trypanosomatids, are endowed with glutathione-spermidine derivatives that play important roles in signaling, metal and thiol-redox homeostasis. For some Euglenozoa lineages, the glutathione-spermidine conjugates represent the main redox co-substrates around which entire new redox systems have evolved. Several proteins underwent molecular adaptations to synthesize and utilize the new polyamine-based thiols...
October 19, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Caitlin K Wotanis, William P Brennan, Anthony D Angotti, Elizabeth A Villa, Josiah P Zayner, Alexandra N Mozina, Alexandria C Rutkovsky, Richard C Sobe, Whitney G Bond, Ece Karatan
The polyamine norspermidine is one of the major polyamines synthesized by Vibrionales and has also been found in various aquatic organisms. Norspermidine is among the environmental signals that positively regulate Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation. The NspS/MbaA signaling complex detects extracellular norspermidine and mediates the response to this polyamine. Norspermidine binding to the NspS periplasmic binding protein is thought to inhibit the phosphodiesterase activity of MbaA, increasing levels of the biofilm-promoting second messenger cyclic diguanylate monophosphate, thus enhancing biofilm formation...
2017: PloS One
Manasi, Sridev Mohapatra, N Rajesh, Vidya Rajesh
In living systems, environmental stress due to biotic and abiotic factors triggers the production of myriad metabolites as a potential mechanism for combating stress. Among these metabolites are the small polycationic aliphatic amine molecules - polyamines, which are ubiquitous in all living organisms. In this work, we demonstrate a correlation between cellular concentration of three major polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) with lead exposure on bacteria for a period of 6-24 h. We report that indigenously isolated Halomonas sp...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jinu Kim
Kidney ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) is associated with a high mortality rate, which is attributed to tubular oxidative and nitrative stresses; however, an effective approach to limit IRI remains elusive. Spermidine, a naturally occurring polyamine, protects yeast cells against aging through the inhibition of oxidative stress and necrosis. In the present study, spermidine supplementation markedly attenuated histological damage and kidney dysfunction during IRI. In addition, exogenous spermidine potently inhibited poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) activation and DNA nitrative/oxidative stress following IRI...
September 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Gracia Montilla-Bascón, Diego Rubiales, Kim H Hebelstrup, Julien Mandon, Frans J M Harren, Simona M Cristescu, Luis A J Mur, Elena Prats
Nitric oxide (NO) is a key messenger in plant stress responses but its exact role in drought response remains unclear. To investigate the role of NO in drought response we employed transgenic barley plants (UHb) overexpressing the barley non-symbiotic hemoglobin gene HvHb1 that oxidizes NO to NO3(-). Reduced NO production under drought conditions in UHb plants was associated with increased drought tolerance. Since NO biosynthesis has been related to polyamine metabolism, we investigated whether the observed drought-related NO changes could involve polyamine pathway...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xian-Xuan Liu, Yan-Ting Yang, Xiao Wang, Kai-Yi Wang, Jia-Qi Liu, Lei Lei, Xiao-Min Luo, Rong Zhai, Feng-Hua Fu, Hong-Bo Wang, Yi Bi
In an attempt to arrive at a more potent cytotoxic agent than the parent compound α-hederagenin (H), 24 α-hederagenin derivatives (5-8, 11-24, 27-28, 31-32, and 35-36) were synthesized in a concise and efficient strategy and screened for in vitro cytotoxicity against the human cancer cell lines MKN45 and KB. Among these compounds, the polyamine derivative 15 exhibited more potency than the parent compound with IC50 values in the range of 4.22 μM-8.05 μM. Compound 15 increased Bax/bcl-2 ratio that disrupted the mitochondrial potential and induced apoptosis...
October 7, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Patrizia Andreozzi, Eleftheria Diamanti, Karen Rapp Py-Daniel, Paolin Rocio Cáceres-Vélez, Chiara Martinelli, Nikolaos Politakos, Ane Escobar, Marco Muzi Falconi, Ricardo Bentes Azevedo, Sergio Moya
Silencing RNA (siRNA) technologies emerge as a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of multiple diseases. An ideal nanocarrier (NC) for siRNAs should be stable at physiological pH and release siRNAs in acidic endosomal pH, fulfilling siRNA delivery only inside cells. Here, we show a novel application of polyamine phosphate NCs (PANs) based on their capacity to load negatively charged nucleic acids and their pH stability. PANs are fabricated by complexation of phosphate anions from phosphate buffer solution (PB) with the amine groups of poly(allylamine) hydrochloride as carriers for siRNAs...
October 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Iris Aloisi, Giampiero Cai, Claudia Faleri, Lorella Navazio, Donatella Serafini-Fracassini, Stefano Del Duca
Proper growth of the pollen tube depends on an elaborate mechanism that integrates several molecular and cytological sub-processes and ensures a cell shape adapted to the transport of gametes. This growth mechanism is controlled by several molecules among which cytoplasmic and apoplastic polyamines. Spermine (Spm) has been correlated with various physiological processes in pollen, including structuring of the cell wall and modulation of protein (mainly cytoskeletal) assembly. In this work, the effects of Spm on the growth of pear pollen tubes were analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hanyi Chen, Ai-Lian Piao, Xu Tan, Yuichi Nogi, Jina Yeo, Han Lu, Qing-Qing Feng, Jie Lv
A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated T5(T), was isolated from the Chishui River in Maotai town, Guizhou Province, Southwest of China. Strain T5(T) was found to grow optimally at pH 9.0 and 25 °C. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain T5(T) belongs to the family Sphingomonadaceae within the phylum Proteobacteria; the strain T5(T) clustered with the type strains of Sphingopyxis contaminans, Sphingorhabdus wooponensis and Sphingorhabdus rigui, with which it exhibits 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 96...
October 13, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Hao Zhang, Junying Wang, Lingxu Li, Nannan Chai, Yuhan Chen, Feixiang Wu, Weihua Zhang, Lina Wang, Sa Shi, Li Zhang, Shuling Bian, Changqing Xu, Ye Tian, Yajun Zhao
Aging is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Slowing or reversing the physiological impact of heart aging may reduce morbidity and mortality associated with age-related CVD. The polyamines, spermine (SP) and spermidine (SPD) are essential for cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis, and levels of both decline with age. To explore the effects of these polyamines on heart aging, we administered SP or SPD intraperitoneally to 22- to 24-month-old rats for 6 weeks. Both treatments reversed and inhibited age-related myocardial morphology alterations, myocardial fibrosis, and cell apoptosis...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
Gonzalo Pérez-Mitta, Waldemar A Marmisollé, Alberto G Albesa, María Eugenia Toimil-Molares, Christina Trautmann, Omar Azzaroni
There is currently high interest in developing nanofluidic devices whose iontronic output is defined by biological interactions. The fabrication of a phosphate responsive nanofluidic diode by using the biological relevant amine-phosphate interactions is shown. The fabrication procedure includes the modification of a track-etched asymmetric (conical) nanochannel with polyallylamine (PAH) by electrostatic self-assembly. PAH is the arcaetypical model of polyamine and it is further used to address the nanochannels with phosphate responsivity...
October 12, 2017: Small
G Rossi, M Cerquetella, S Scarpona, G Pengo, K Fettucciari, G Bassotti, A E Jergens, J S Suchodolski
Spermine (SPM) and its precursor putrescine (PUT), regulated by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and diamino-oxidase (DAO), are polyamines required for cell growth and proliferation. Only a few studies have investigated the anti-inflammatory and tumour inhibitory properties of probiotics on mucosal polyamine levels. We investigated the effects of a high concentration multistrain probiotic for human use on colonic polyamine biosynthesis in dogs. Histological sections (inflammatory bowel disease, n=10; polyposis, n=5) were assessed after receiving 112 to 225×10(9) lyophilised bacteria daily for 60 days at baseline (T0) and 30 days after treatment end (T90)...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
Jianhao Luo, Mingxi Liu, Chendong Zhang, Peipei Zhang, Jingjing Chen, Zhenfei Guo, Shaoyun Lu
Centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides [Munro] Hack.) is an important warm-season turfgrass species. Transgenic centipedgrass plants overexpressing S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from bermudagrass (CdSAMDC1) that was induced in response to cold were generated in this study. Higher levels of CdSAMDC1 transcript and sperimidine (Spd) and spermin (Spm) concentrations and enhanced freezing and chilling tolerance were observed in transgenic plants as compared with the wild type (WT). Transgenic plants had higher levels of polyamine oxidase (PAO) activity and H2O2 than WT, which were blocked by pretreatment with methylglyoxal bis (guanylhydrazone) or MGBG, inhibitor of SAMDC, indicating that the increased PAO and H2O2 were a result of expression of CdSAMDC1...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sara Cleto, Timothy K Lu
Peptides that are synthesized independently of the ribosome in plants, fungi, and bacteria can have clinically relevant anticancer, antihemochromatosis, and antiviral activities, among many other. Despite their natural origin, discovering new natural products is challenging, and there is a need to expand the chemical diversity that is accessible. In this work, we created a novel, compressed synthetic pathway for the heterologous expression and diversification of nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) based on homologs of siderophore pathways from Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae To enhance the likelihood of successful molecule production, we established a selective pressure via the iron-chelating properties of siderophores...
October 10, 2017: MBio
Toshio Shibata, Shun-Ichiro Kawabata
Transglutaminase (TG) catalyzes the formation of an isopeptide bond between glutamine and lysine residues and amine incorporation into specific glutamine residues. TG is conserved in all metazoans and functions both intracellularly and extracellularly. Here we review the existing knowledge of Drosophila TG with an emphasis on its pluripotency: Drosophila TG (i) plays a key role in cuticular morphogenesis, hemolymph coagulation, and entrapment against invading pathogens, (ii) suppresses the immune deficiency pathway to enable immune tolerance against commensal bacteria through the incorporation of polyamines into the NF-κB-like transcription factor Relish as well as through the protein-protein cross-linking of Relish, (iii) forms a physical matrix in the gut through cross-linking of chitin-binding proteins, and (iv) is involved in the maintenance of homeostasis in microbiota in the gut...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
Marcos A Vannier-Santos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
A Norrie Pearce, Marcel Kaiser, Brent R Copp
A series of artesunate-polyamine and trioxolane-polyamine conjugates have been prepared. The conjugates were evaluated for antimalarial activity towards the K1 dual drug resistant and NF54 chloroquine-sensitive strains of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and for cytotoxicity towards the rat myoblast cell line L6. (Bis)-Boc-(bis)-artesunate-polyamine and (tetra)-artesunate-polyamine conjugates exhibited potent in vitro activity towards both strains of Pf, with IC50 values in the range of 0.3-1.1 nM, comparable to the parent artesunate...
September 22, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Gabriela Moya, Zheng-Fei Yan, Kyung-Hwa Won, Jung-Eun Yang, Moo-Chang Kook, Tae-Hoo Yi
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, yellow and rod-shaped bacterial strain was isolated from forest mud located at Kyung Hee University, South Korea. Strain THG-AG6.4(T) grew at 10-35 °C, pH 6.0-9.5 and in the presence of 0-1.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, showed that strain THG-AG6.4(T) was most closely related to Flavobacterium gyeonganense HME 7524(T) (97.66 %), Flavobacterium defluvii EMB 117(T) (96.93 %) and Flavobacterium arsenitoxidans S2-3H(T) (96...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Shih-Yi Sheu, Pei-Bei Xie, Ceshing Sheu, Wen-Ming Chen
A bacterial strain designated LSN-49(T) was isolated from a brackish river in Taiwan and characterized using a polyphasic taxonomy approach. Cells of strain LSN-49(T) were Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate accumulating, motile by means of a monopolar flagellum, non-spore forming, straight rods and formed shiny and translucent colonies. Growth occurred at 20-40 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), at pH 6-10 (optimum, pH 7-8) and with 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl [optimum, 0-1 % (w/v)]. The predominant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), C17 : 1ω8c and C16 : 0...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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