keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

H3K4me2

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811844/lsd1-dual-function-in-mediating-epigenetic-corruption-of-the-vitamin-d-signaling-in-prostate-cancer
#1
Sebastiano Battaglia, Ellen Karasik, Bryan Gillard, Jennifer Williams, Trisha Winchester, Michael T Moser, Dominic J Smiraglia, Barbara A Foster
BACKGROUND: Lysine-specific demethylase 1A (LSD1) is a key regulator of the androgen (AR) and estrogen receptors (ER), and LSD1 levels correlate with tumor aggressiveness. Here, we demonstrate that LSD1 regulates vitamin D receptor (VDR) activity and is a mediator of 1,25(OH)2-D3 (vitamin D) action in prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: Athymic nude mice were xenografted with CWR22 cells and monitored weekly after testosterone pellet removal. Expression of LSD1 and VDR (IHC) were correlated with tumor growth using log-rank test...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805231/the-histone-methyltransferase-mixed-lineage-leukemia-mll-3-may-play-a-potential-role-on-clinical-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#2
Ding-Sheng Jiang, Xin Yi, Rui Li, Yun-Shu Su, Jing Wang, Min-Lai Chen, Li-Gang Liu, Min Hu, Cai Cheng, Ping Zheng, Xue-Hai Zhu, Xiang Wei
Histone modifications play a critical role in the pathological processes of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). While the role and expression pattern of histone methyltransferases (HMTs), especially mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) families on DCM are unclear. To this end, twelve normal and fifteen DCM heart samples were included in the present study. A murine cardiac remodelling model was induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Real-time PCR was performed to detect the expression levels of MLL families in the mouse and human left ventricles...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780481/ht-2-toxin-affects-development-of-porcine-parthenotes-by-altering-dna-and-histone-methylation-in-oocytes-matured-in%C3%A2-vitro
#3
Yue Zhang, Ru-Xia Jia, Meng-Hao Pan, Yujie Lu, Xiang-Shun Cui, Nam-Hyung Kim, Shao-Chen Sun
T-2 toxin is a type A mycotoxin produced by various Fusarium species, while HT-2 toxin is a major metabolite of T-2 toxin. Both T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin are known to have deleterious effects on animals. Our previous work showed that HT-2 treatment caused the failure of porcine oocyte maturation. In this study, we reported that HT-2 also affected porcine embryo development. In HT-2 toxin treated group, all the percentages of embryos in 2-cell, 4-cell and blastocyst stage were significantly lower compared with those in control groups...
July 31, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667019/retrotransposons-are-the-major-contributors-to-the-expansion-of-the-drosophila-ananassae-muller-f-element
#4
Wilson Leung, Christopher D Shaffer, Elizabeth J Chen, Thomas J Quisenberry, Kevin Ko, John M Braverman, Thomas C Giarla, Nathan T Mortimer, Laura K Reed, Sheryl T Smith, Srebrenka Robic, Shannon R McCartha, Danielle R Perry, Lindsay M Prescod, Zenyth A Sheppard, Ken J Saville, Allison McClish, Emily A Morlock, Victoria R Sochor, Brittney Stanton, Isaac C Veysey-White, Dennis Revie, Luis A Jimenez, Jennifer J Palomino, Melissa D Patao, Shane M Patao, Edward T Himelblau, Jaclyn D Campbell, Alexandra L Hertz, Maddison F McEvilly, Allison R Wagner, James Youngblom, Baljit Bedi, Jeffery Bettincourt, Erin Duso, Maiye Her, William Hilton, Samantha House, Masud Karimi, Kevin Kumimoto, Rebekah Lee, Darryl Lopez, George Odisho, Ricky Prasad, Holly Lyn Robbins, Tanveer Sandhu, Tracy Selfridge, Kara Tsukashima, Hani Yosif, Nighat P Kokan, Latia Britt, Alycia Zoellner, Eric P Spana, Ben T Chlebina, Insun Chong, Harrison Friedman, Danny A Mammo, Chun L Ng, Vinayak S Nikam, Nicholas U Schwartz, Thomas Q Xu, Martin G Burg, Spencer M Batten, Lindsay M Corbeill, Erica Enoch, Jesse J Ensign, Mary E Franks, Breanna Haiker, Judith A Ingles, Lyndsay D Kirkland, Joshua M Lorenz-Guertin, Jordan Matthews, Cody M Mittig, Nicholaus Monsma, Katherine J Olson, Guillermo Perez-Aragon, Alen Ramic, Jordan R Ramirez, Christopher Scheiber, Patrick A Schneider, Devon E Schultz, Matthew Simon, Eric Spencer, Adam C Wernette, Maxine E Wykle, Elizabeth Zavala-Arellano, Mitchell J McDonald, Kristine Ostby, Peter Wendland, Justin R DiAngelo, Alexis M Ceasrine, Amanda H Cox, James E B Docherty, Robert M Gingras, Stephanie M Grieb, Michael J Pavia, Casey L Personius, Grzegorz L Polak, Dale L Beach, Heaven L Cerritos, Edward A Horansky, Karim A Sharif, Ryan Moran, Susan Parrish, Kirsten Bickford, Jennifer Bland, Juliana Broussard, Kerry Campbell, Katelynn E Deibel, Richard Forka, Monika C Lemke, Marlee B Nelson, Catherine O'Keeffe, S Mariel Ramey, Luke Schmidt, Paola Villegas, Christopher J Jones, Stephanie L Christ, Sami Mamari, Adam S Rinaldi, Ghazal Stity, Amy T Hark, Mark Scheuerman, Cathy Silver Key, Briana D McRae, Adam S Haberman, Sam Asinof, Harriette Carrington, Kelly Drumm, Terrance Embry, Richard McGuire, Drew Miller-Foreman, Stella Rosen, Nadia Safa, Darrin Schultz, Matt Segal, Yakov Shevin, Petros Svoronos, Tam Vuong, Gary Skuse, Don W Paetkau, Rachael K Bridgman, Charlotte M Brown, Alicia R Carroll, Francesca M Gifford, Julie Beth Gillespie, Susan E Herman, Krystal L Holtcamp, Misha A Host, Gabrielle Hussey, Danielle M Kramer, Joan Q Lawrence, Madeline M Martin, Ellen N Niemiec, Ashleigh P O'Reilly, Olivia A Pahl, Guadalupe Quintana, Elizabeth A S Rettie, Torie L Richardson, Arianne E Rodriguez, Mona O Rodriguez, Laura Schiraldi, Joanna J Smith, Kelsey F Sugrue, Lindsey J Suriano, Kaitlyn E Takach, Arielle M Vasquez, Ximena Velez, Elizabeth J Villafuerte, Laura T Vives, Victoria R Zellmer, Jeanette Hauke, Charles R Hauser, Karolyn Barker, Laurie Cannon, Perouza Parsamian, Samantha Parsons, Zachariah Wichman, Christopher W Bazinet, Diana E Johnson, Abubakarr Bangura, Jordan A Black, Victoria Chevee, Sarah A Einsteen, Sarah K Hilton, Max Kollmer, Rahul Nadendla, Joyce Stamm, Antoinette E Fafara-Thompson, Amber M Gygi, Emmy E Ogawa, Matt Van Camp, Zuzana Kocsisova, Judith L Leatherman, Cassie M Modahl, Michael R Rubin, Susana S Apiz-Saab, Suzette M Arias-Mejias, Carlos F Carrion-Ortiz, Patricia N Claudio-Vazquez, Debbie M Espada-Green, Marium Feliciano-Camacho, Karina M Gonzalez-Bonilla, Mariela Taboas-Arroyo, Dorianmarie Vargas-Franco, Raquel Montañez-Gonzalez, Joseph Perez-Otero, Myrielis Rivera-Burgos, Francisco J Rivera-Rosario, Heather L Eisler, Jackie Alexander, Samatha K Begley, Deana Gabbard, Robert J Allen, Wint Yan Aung, William D Barshop, Amanda Boozalis, Vanessa P Chu, Jeremy S Davis, Ryan N Duggal, Robert Franklin, Katherine Gavinski, Heran Gebreyesus, Henry Z Gong, Rachel A Greenstein, Averill D Guo, Casey Hanson, Kaitlin E Homa, Simon C Hsu, Yi Huang, Lucy Huo, Sarah Jacobs, Sasha Jia, Kyle L Jung, Sarah Wai-Chee Kong, Matthew R Kroll, Brandon M Lee, Paul F Lee, Kevin M Levine, Amy S Li, Chengyu Liu, Max Mian Liu, Adam P Lousararian, Peter B Lowery, Allyson P Mallya, Joseph E Marcus, Patrick C Ng, Hien P Nguyen, Ruchik Patel, Hashini Precht, Suchita Rastogi, Jonathan M Sarezky, Adam Schefkind, Michael B Schultz, Delia Shen, Tara Skorupa, Nicholas C Spies, Gabriel Stancu, Hiu Man Vivian Tsang, Alice L Turski, Rohit Venkat, Leah E Waldman, Kaidi Wang, Tracy Wang, Jeffrey W Wei, Dennis Y Wu, David D Xiong, Jack Yu, Karen Zhou, Gerard P McNeil, Robert W Fernandez, Patrick Gomez Menzies, Tingting Gu, Jeremy Buhler, Elaine R Mardis, Sarah C R Elgin
The discordance between genome size and the complexity of eukaryotes can partly be attributed to differences in repeat density. The Muller F element (~5.2 Mb) is the smallest chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster, but it is substantially larger (>18.7 Mb) in Drosophila ananassae To identify the major contributors to the expansion of the F element and to assess their impact, we improved the genome sequence and annotated the genes in a 1.4 Mb region of the D. ananassae F element, and a 1.7 Mb region from the D element for comparison...
June 30, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645561/boris-up-regulates-oct4-via-histone-methylation-to-promote-cancer-stem-cell-like-properties-in-human-liver-cancer-cells
#5
Qiuying Liu, Kefei Chen, Zhongjian Liu, Yuan Huang, Rongce Zhao, Ling Wei, Xiaoqin Yu, Jingyang He, Jun Liu, Jianguo Qi, Yang Qin, Bo Li
Accumulating evidence has revealed the importance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in chemoresistance and recurrence. BORIS, a testes-specific CTCF paralog, has been shown to be associated with stemness traits of embryonic cancer cells and epithelial CSCs. We previously reported that BORIS is correlated with the expression of the CSC marker CD90 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These results encourage us to wonder whether BORIS exerts functions on CSC-like traits of human liver cancer cells. Here, we report that BORIS was enriched in HCC tissues...
June 20, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642444/upregulation-of-cd11b-and-cd86-through-lsd1-inhibition-promotes-myeloid-differentiation-and-suppresses-cell-proliferation-in-human-monocytic-leukemia-cells
#6
Jianwu Fang, Haiyan Ying, Ting Mao, Yanjia Fang, Yuan Lu, He Wang, Irene Zang, Zhaofu Wang, Ying Lin, Mengxi Zhao, Xiao Luo, Zongyao Wang, Yan Zhang, Chao Zhang, Wei Xiao, Yan Wang, Wei Tan, Zhui Chen, Chris Lu, Peter Atadja, En Li, Kehao Zhao, Jianfeng Liu, Justin Gu
LSD1 (Lysine Specific Demethylase1)/KDM1A (Lysine Demethylase 1A), a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent histone H3K4/K9 demethylase, sustains oncogenic potential of leukemia stem cells in primary human leukemia cells. However, the pro-differentiation and anti-proliferation effects of LSD1 inhibition in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are not yet fully understood. Here, we report that small hairpin RNA (shRNA) mediated LSD1 inhibition causes a remarkable transcriptional activation of myeloid lineage marker genes (CD11b/ITGAM and CD86), reduction of cell proliferation and decrease of clonogenic ability of human AML cells...
June 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640886/epigenomic-diversification-within-the-genus-lupinus
#7
Karolina Susek, Agnieszka Braszewska-Zalewska, Adam J Bewick, Robert Hasterok, Robert J Schmitz, Barbara Naganowska
Deciphering the various chemical modifications of both DNA and the histone compound of chromatin not only leads to a better understanding of the genome-wide organisation of epigenetic landmarks and their impact on gene expression but may also provide some insights into the evolutionary processes. Although both histone modifications and DNA methylation have been widely investigated in various plant genomes, here we present the first study for the genus Lupinus. Lupins, which are members of grain legumes (pulses), are beneficial for food security, nutrition, health and the environment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627608/silencing-of-lsd1-gene-modulates-histone-methylation-and-acetylation-and-induces-the-apoptosis-of-jeko-1-and-molt-4-cells
#8
Zhong-Kai Zou, Yi-Qun Huang, Yong Zou, Xu-Ke Zheng, Xu-Dong Ma
Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) has been identified and biochemically characterized in epigenetics; however, the pathological roles of its dysfunction in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia remain to be elucidated. In this study, we evaluated LSD1, and histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4)me1 and H3K4me2 expression in patients with MCL and silenced LSD1 in JeKo‑1 and MOLT‑4 cells, in order to define its role in JeKo‑1 and MOLT‑4 cell proliferation and apoptosis. We retrospectively analyzed the protein expression of LSD1, and mono- and dimethylated H3K4 (H3K4me1 and H3K4me2), and cyclin D1 and Ki67 in 30 cases of MCL by immunohistochemistry...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609469/muscle-relevant-genes-marked-by-stable-h3k4me2-3-profiles-and-enriched-myod-binding-during-myogenic-differentiation
#9
Huanhuan Cui, Vikas Bansal, Marcel Grunert, Barbora Malecova, Alessandra Dall'Agnese, Lucia Latella, Sole Gatto, Tammy Ryan, Kerstin Schulz, Wei Chen, Cornelia Dorn, Pier Lorenzo Puri, Silke R Sperling
Post-translational modifications of histones play a key role in the regulation of gene expression during development and differentiation. Numerous studies have shown the dynamics of combinatorial regulation by transcription factors and histone modifications, in the sense that different combinations lead to distinct expression outcomes. Here, we investigated gene regulation by stable enrichment patterns of histone marks H3K4me2 and H3K4me3 in combination with the chromatin binding of the muscle tissue-specific transcription factor MyoD during myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588035/control-of-a-novel-spermatocyte-promoting-factor-by-the-male-germline-sex-determination-factor-phf7-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Shu Yuan Yang, Yi-Chieh Chang, Yu Hsin Wan, Cale Whitworth, Ellen M Baxter, Shekerah Primus, Haiwei Pi, Mark Van Doren
A key aspect of germ cell development is to establish germline sexual identity and initiate a sex-specific developmental program to promote spermatogenesis or oogenesis. Previously, we have identified the histone reader Plant Homeodomain Finger 7 (PHF7) as an important regulator of male germline identity. To understand how PHF7 directs sexual differentiation of the male germline, we investigated the downstream targets of PHF7 by combining transcriptome analyses, which reveal genes regulated by Phf7, with genomic profiling of histone H3K4me2, the chromatin mark that is bound by PHF7...
June 6, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582417/genome-wide-alteration-in-dna-hydroxymethylation-in-the-sperm-from-bisphenol-a-exposed-men
#11
Huajun Zheng, Xiaoyu Zhou, De-Kun Li, Fen Yang, Hongjie Pan, Tianqi Li, Maohua Miao, Runsheng Li, Wei Yuan
Environmental BPA exposure has been shown to impact human sperm concentration and motility, as well as rodent spermatogenesis. However, it is unclear whether BPA exposure is associated with alteration in DNA hydroxymethylation, a marker for epigenetic modification, in human sperm. A genome-wide DNA hydroxymethylation study was performed using sperm samples of men who were occupationally exposed to BPA. Compared with controls who had no occupational BPA exposure, the total levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmc) increased significantly (19...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550207/atx3-atx4-and-atx5-encode-putative-h3k4-methyltransferases-and-are-critical-for-plant-development
#12
Li-Qun Chen, Jin-Hong Luo, Zhen-Hai Cui, Ming Xue, Li Wang, Xiao-Yu Zhang, Wojciech P Pawlowski, Yan He
Methylation of Lys residues in the tail of the H3 histone is a key regulator of chromatin state and gene expression, conferred by a large family of enzymes containing an evolutionarily conserved SET domain. One of the main types of SET domain proteins are those controlling H3K4 di- and trimethylation. The genome of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) encodes 12 such proteins, including five ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX (ATX) proteins and seven ATX-Related proteins. Here, we examined three until-now-unexplored ATX proteins, ATX3, ATX4, and ATX5...
July 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526911/dynamics-of-post-translationally-modified-histones-during-barley-pollen-embryogenesis-in-the-presence-or-absence-of-the-epi-drug-trichostatin-a
#13
Pooja Pandey, Diaa S Daghma, Andreas Houben, Jochen Kumlehn, Michael Melzer, Twan Rutten
Improving pollen embryogenesis. Despite the agro-economic importance of pollen embryogenesis, the mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. We describe the dynamics of chromatin modifications (histones H3K4me2, H3K9ac, H3K9me2, and H3K27me3) and chromatin marks (RNA polymerase II CDC phospho-Ser5, and CENH3) during barley pollen embryogenesis. Immunolabeling results show that, in reaction to stress, immature pollen rapidly starts reorganizing several important chromatin modifications indicative of a change in cell fate...
May 19, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522800/single-cell-single-mrna-analysis-of-ccnb1-promoter-regulation
#14
Nidhi Vishnoi, Jie Yao
Promoter activation drives gene transcriptional output. Here we report generating site-specifically integrated single-copy promoter transgenes and measuring their expression to indicate promoter activities at single-mRNA level. mRNA counts, Pol II density and Pol II firing rates of the Ccnb1 promoter transgene resembled those of the native Ccnb1 gene both among asynchronous cells and during the cell cycle. We observed distinct activation states of the Ccnb1 promoter among G1 and G2/M cells, suggesting cell cycle-independent origin of cell-to-cell variation in Ccnb1 promoter activation...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517045/set-domain-group701-encodes-a-h3k4-methytransferase-and-regulates-multiple-key-processes-of-rice-plant-development
#15
Kunpeng Liu, Yu Yu, Aiwu Dong, Wen-Hui Shen
Chromatin-based epigenetic information plays an important role in developmental gene regulation, in response to environment, and in natural variation of gene expression levels. Histone H3 lysine 4 di/trimethylation (H3K4me2/3) is abundant in euchromatin and is generally associated with transcriptional activation. Strikingly, however, enzymes catalyzing H3K4me2/3 remain poorly characterized in crops so far. Here, we investigated the function of the rice SET DOMAIN GROUP 701 (SDG701) gene by molecular and biochemical characterization of the gene product, and by studying effects of its loss or gain of function on plant growth and development...
May 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506463/rna-pol-ii-dynamics-modulate-co-transcriptional-chromatin-modification-ctd-phosphorylation-and-transcriptional-direction
#16
Nova Fong, Tassa Saldi, Ryan M Sheridan, Michael A Cortazar, David L Bentley
Eukaryotic genes are marked by conserved post-translational modifications on the RNA pol II C-terminal domain (CTD) and the chromatin template. How the 5'-3' profiles of these marks are established is poorly understood. Using pol II mutants in human cells, we found that slow transcription repositioned specific co-transcriptionally deposited chromatin modifications; histone H3 lysine 36 trimethyl (H3K36me3) shifted within genes toward 5' ends, and histone H3 lysine 4 dimethyl (H3K4me2) extended farther upstream of start sites...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498828/kdm1a-lsd1-regulates-the-differentiation-and-maintenance-of-spermatogonia-in-mice
#17
Dexter A Myrick, Michael A Christopher, Alyssa M Scott, Ashley K Simon, Paul G Donlin-Asp, William G Kelly, David J Katz
The proper regulation of spermatogenesis is crucial to ensure the continued production of sperm and fertility. Here, we investigated the function of the H3K4me2 demethylase KDM1A/LSD1 during spermatogenesis in developing and adult mice. Conditional deletion of Kdm1a in the testis just prior to birth leads to fewer spermatogonia and germ cell loss before 3 weeks of age. These results demonstrate that KDM1A is required for spermatogonial differentiation, as well as germ cell survival, in the developing testis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481366/the-zinc-finger-transcriptional-factor-slug-transcriptionally-downregulates-er%C3%AE-by-recruiting-lysine-specific-demethylase-1-in-human-breast-cancer
#18
J-W Bai, M-N Chen, X-L Wei, Y-Ch Li, H-Y Lin, M Chen, J-W Li, C-W Du, K Man, G-J Zhang
Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is related with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion and metastasis, and serves as an important therapeutic predictor and prognostic factor in breast cancer patients. The triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by loss of hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2), and lacks effective targeted therapy with poor prognosis. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms of ERα deficiency, which becomes hormone independent and results in resistance to endocrine therapy, remain to be elucidated in breast cancer...
May 8, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476938/chromatin-organization-at-the-nuclear-periphery-as-revealed-by-image-analysis-of-structured-illumination-microscopy-data
#19
Jindřiška Fišerová, Michaela Efenberková, Tomáš Sieger, Miloslava Maninová, Jana Uhlířová, Pavel Hozák
Nuclear periphery (NP) plays substantial role in chromatin organization. Heterochromatin at the NP is intermitted with active chromatin surrounding nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), however, details of the peripheral chromatin organization are missing. To discern the distributions of epigenetic marks at the NP of HeLa nuclei, we used structured illumination microscopy combined with a new MATLAB software tool for an automatic NP and NPC detection, measurements of fluorescent intensity and statistical analysis of measured data...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468635/prc2-represses-transcribed-genes-on-the-imprinted-inactive-x-chromosome-in-mice
#20
Emily Maclary, Michael Hinten, Clair Harris, Shriya Sethuraman, Srimonta Gayen, Sundeep Kalantry
BACKGROUND: Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) catalyzes histone H3K27me3, which marks many transcriptionally silent genes throughout the mammalian genome. Although H3K27me3 is associated with silenced gene expression broadly, it remains unclear why some but not other PRC2 target genes require PRC2 and H3K27me3 for silencing. RESULTS: Here we define the transcriptional and chromatin features that predict which PRC2 target genes require PRC2/H3K27me3 for silencing by interrogating imprinted mouse X-chromosome inactivation...
May 3, 2017: Genome Biology
keyword
keyword
32726
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"