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Toll-like receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734203/exenatide-mitigated-diet-induced-vascular-aging-and-atherosclerotic-plaque-growth-in-apoe-deficient-mice-under-chronic-stress
#1
Guang Yang, Yanna Lei, Aiko Inoue, Limei Piao, Lina Hu, Haiying Jiang, Takeshi Sasaki, Hongxian Wu, Wenhu Xu, Chenglin Yu, Guangxian Zhao, Shinyu Ogasawara, Kenji Okumura, Masafumi Kuzuya, Xian-Wu Cheng
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Exposure to psychosocial stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Because the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) agonist prevents cardiovascular injury, we investigated the beneficial effects and mechanism of the GLP-1 analogue exenatide on stress-related vascular senescence and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. METHODS: ApoE(-/-) mice fed the HF diet were assigned to non-stressed and immobilized-stress groups for 12 weeks...
July 13, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730622/susceptibility-to-hiv-1-infection-is-influenced-by-toll-like-receptor-2-196-to-174-polymorphism-in-north-indian-population
#2
Sanjukta Vidyant, Animesh Chatterjee, Vikas Agarwal, Tapan N Dhole
INTRODUCTION: Toll like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors, recognize molecular patterns of pathogens and play an important role in innate immunity. Recent studies have identified that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in TLR gene impairs the response to TLR ligands in some individuals and is associated with susceptibility to various infectious diseases. AIM: The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of four SNPs in the TLR2 gene, -196 to -174 Ins/Del, 2258 G/A (Arg753Gln), 2029 C/T (Arg677Trp) and 1892 C/A (Pro631His) with susceptibility and progression to HIV-1 in North Indian individuals...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730487/a-methodology-for-comprehensive-analysis-of-toll-like-receptor-signaling-in-macrophages
#3
Marijke Koppenol-Raab, Aleksandra Nita-Lazar
A combination of high-throughput, multiplexed, quantitative methods with computational modeling and statistical approaches is required to obtain system-level understanding of biological function. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has emerged as a preferred tool for the analysis of changes in protein abundance and their post-translational modification (PTM) levels at a global scale, comparable with genomic experiments and generating data suitable for use in mathematical modeling of signaling pathways. Here we describe a set of parallel bottom-up proteomic approaches to detect and quantify the global protein changes in total intracellular proteins, their phosphorylation, and the proteins released by active and passive secretion or shedding mechanisms (referred to as the secretome as reviewed in Makridakis and Vlahou, J Proteome 73:2291-2305, 2010) in response to the stimulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) with specific ligands in cultured macrophages...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730145/prokaryotic-rna-associated-to-bacterial-viability-induces-polymorphonuclear-neutrophil-activation
#4
Nahuel Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Luis A Castillo, Verónica I Landoni, Daiana Martire-Greco, M Ayelén Milillo, Paula Barrionuevo, Gabriela C Fernández
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the first cellular line of antibacterial host defense. They sense pathogens through recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by innate pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether PMN sense bacterial viability and explore which viability factor could be involved in this phenomenon. For this purpose, different functions were evaluated in isolated human PMN using live Escherichia coli (Ec) and heat-killed Ec (HK-Ec)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729076/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-the-toll-like-receptor-2-tlr2-gene-are-associated-with-sporadic-parkinson-s-disease-in-the-north-eastern-han-chinese-population
#5
Xiaoyuan Li, Li Xue, Jinfang Sun, Yanping Sun, Anmu Xie
Growing evidences suggested that inflammatory process played a critical role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Given that TLR2 has been implicated in the perpetuation of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system (CNS), we investigated the association between two genetic variants (rs3804099 and rs3804100) of TLR2 and sporadic PD in Han Chinese population. 395 Han Chinese sporadic PD patients and 413 healthy age and gender-matched controls were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729074/proteomic-analysis-of-the-effects-of-nur77-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-microglial-activation
#6
Yan Chen, Yuexinzi Jin, Hui Zhan, Jian Chen, Yanting Chen, Hailan Meng, Jiali Jin, Linjie Yu, Xiang Cao, Yun Xu
Microglia are critical components of the immune response in the central nervous system. Our study aims to explore potential role of Nur77 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation. Primary wild-type and Nur77(-/-) microglia were stimulated with LPS and protein extracts were detected via mass spectrometry. Q-PCR and western blotting were performed to validate candidate proteins. A total of 2004 proteins were identified, with 749 and 677 significantly differentially expressed proteins in wild-type and Nur77(-/-) microglia in resting and activated states, respectively...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727987/associations-of-autoimmunity-immunodeficiency-lymphomagenesis-and-gut-microbiota-in-mice-with-knockins-for-a-pathogenic-autoantibody
#7
Shweta Jain, Jerrold M Ward, Dong-Mi Shin, Hongsheng Wang, Zohreh Naghashfar, Alexander L Kovalchuk, Herbert C Morse
A number of mouse strains transgenic for B-cell receptors specific for nucleic acids or other autoantigens have been generated to understand how autoreactive B cells are regulated in normal and autoimmune mice. Previous studies of nonautoimmune C57BL/6 mice heterozygous for both the IgH and IgL knockins of the polyreactive autoantibody, 564, produced high levels of autoantibodies in a largely Toll-like receptor 7-dependent manner. Herein, we describe studies of mice homozygous for the knockins that also expressed high levels of autoantibodies but, unlike the heterozygotes, exhibited a high incidence of mature B-cell lymphomas and enhanced susceptibility to bacterial infections...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726298/faah-but-not-magl-inhibition-modulates-acute-tlr3-induced-neuroimmune-signaling-in-the-rat-independent-of-sex
#8
Lisa E Flannery, Rebecca J Henry, Daniel M Kerr, David P Finn, Michelle Roche
Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 is a key component of the innate immune response to viral infection. The present study firstly examined whether sex differences exist in TLR3-induced inflammatory, endocrine, and sickness responses. The data revealed that TLR3-induced expression of interferon- or NFkB-inducible genes (IFN-α/β, IP-10, or TNF-α), either peripherally (spleen) or centrally (hypothalamus), did not differ between male and female rats, with the exception of TLR3-induced IFN-α expression in the spleen of female, but not male, rats 8 hr post TLR3 activation...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725012/phycocyanin-attenuates-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-the-tlr2-myd88-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#9
Chengcheng Li, Yan Yu, Wenjun Li, Bo Liu, Xudong Jiao, Xinyu Song, Changjun Lv, Song Qin
Our aim was to investigate the effects of phycocyanin (PC) on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF). In this study, C57 BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice and toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 deficient mice were treated with PC for 28 days following BLM exposure. Serum and lung tissues were collected on days 3, 7 and 28. Data shows PC significantly decreased the levels of hydroxyproline (HYP), vimentin, surfactant-associated protein C (SP-C), fibroblast specific protein-1 (S100A4) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) but dramatically increased E-cadherin and podoplanin (PDPN) expression on day 28...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724955/mushroom-lectin-overcomes-hepatitis-b-virus-tolerance-via-tlr6-signaling
#10
Meina He, Dan Su, Qinghong Liu, Wenjuan Gao, Youmin Kang
Currently, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a serious public health problem in the world. Recombinant HBV vaccine, as a preventive strategy against HBV infection, generates high antibody level, but it is not effective to activate innate and cellular immunity for chronic HBV infection therapy. Lectins from mushroom are natural and active proteins which have been shown important biological functions. However, little is known about the immunological mechanism engaged by mushroom lectins. Here we report that, lectin from Pleurotus ostreatus (POL) stimulated innate response by activating Toll-like receptor 6 signal pathway of dendritic cells...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724768/synthetic-tlr4-and-tlr7-ligands-work-additively-via-myd88-to-induce-protective-antiviral-immunity-in-mice
#11
Peter H Goff, Tomoko Hayashi, Wenqian He, Shiyin Yao, Howard B Cottam, Gene S Tan, Brian Crain, Florian Krammer, Karen Messer, Minya Pu, Dennis A Carson, Peter Palese, Maripat Corr
We have previously demonstrated that the combination of synthetic small molecule Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR7 ligands is a potent adjuvant for recombinant influenza virus hemagglutinin, inducing rapid and sustained immunity protective against influenza viruses in homologous, heterologous and heterosubtypic murine challenge models. Combining TLR4 and TLR7 ligands balances Th1/Th2-type immune responses for long-lived cellular and neutralizing humoral immunity against the viral hemagglutinin. Here, we demonstrate that the protective response induced in mice by this combined adjuvant is dependent upon TLR4 and TLR7 signaling via myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), indicating that the adjuvants function in vivo via their known receptors with negligible off-target effects to induce protective immunity...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724760/uv-radiation-activates-toll-like-receptor-9-expression-in-primary-human-keratinocytes-an-event-inhibited-by-human-papillomavirus-type-38-e6-and-e7-oncoproteins
#12
Laura Pacini, Maria Grazia Ceraolo, Assunta Venuti, Giusi Melita, Uzma A Hasan, Rosita Accardi, Massimo Tommasino
Several lines of evidence indicate that cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types belonging to the beta genus of the HPV phylogenetic tree synergise with UV radiation in the development of skin cancer. Accordingly, the E6 and E7 oncoproteins from some beta HPV types are able to deregulate pathways related to immune response and cellular transformation. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), in addition to playing a role in innate immunity, has been shown to be involved in the cellular stress response. Using primary human keratinocytes (PHKs) as experimental models, we have shown that UV irradiation (and other cellular stresses) activates TLR9 expression...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724396/pathogenic-roles-of-cxcl10-signaling-through-cxcr3-and-tlr4-in-macrophages-and-t-cells-relevance-for-arthritis
#13
Jong-Ho Lee, Bongjun Kim, Won Jong Jin, Hong-Hee Kim, Hyunil Ha, Zang Hee Lee
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by uncontrolled joint inflammation and destruction of bone and cartilage. We previously reported that C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10; also called IP-10) has important roles in joint inflammation and bone destruction in arthritis. However, the specific mechanisms by which CXCL10 regulates the recruitment of inflammatory cells and the production of osteoclastogenic cytokines in RA progression are not fully understood...
July 19, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724211/dexmedetomidine-preconditioning-protects-against-retinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-inhibits-inflammation-response-via-toll-like-receptor-4-tlr4-pathway
#14
Zong Chen, Ping-Yang Qiu, Chuan-Gen Ma
BACKGROUND: Retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of significant cause of visual dysopia and causes inflammatory response. Dexmedetomidine is widely applied to general/local anaesthesia and has been reported to have extensive anti-inflammatory effect. However, the role of dexmedetomidine in retinal I/R injury is currently unknown. This study investigates the effect of dexmedetomidine preconditioning on retinal I/R injury and explore the related signal mechanism toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway...
July 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723569/xiap-loss-triggers-ripk3-and-caspase-8-driven-il-1%C3%AE-activation-and-cell-death-as-a-consequence-of-tlr-myd88-induced-ciap1-traf2-degradation
#15
Kate E Lawlor, Rebecca Feltham, Monica Yabal, Stephanie A Conos, Kaiwen W Chen, Stephanie Ziehe, Carina Graß, Yifan Zhan, Tan A Nguyen, Cathrine Hall, Angelina J Vince, Simon M Chatfield, Damian B D'Silva, Kenneth C Pang, Kate Schroder, John Silke, David L Vaux, Philipp J Jost, James E Vince
X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) deficiency predisposes people to pathogen-associated hyperinflammation. Upon XIAP loss, Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation triggers RIPK3-caspase-8-mediated IL-1β activation and death in myeloid cells. How XIAP suppresses these events remains unclear. Here, we show that TLR-MyD88 causes the proteasomal degradation of the related IAP, cIAP1, and its adaptor, TRAF2, by inducing TNF and TNF Receptor 2 (TNFR2) signaling. Genetically, we define that myeloid-specific cIAP1 loss promotes TLR-induced RIPK3-caspase-8 and IL-1β activity in the absence of XIAP...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723271/development-of-three-orthogonal-assays-suitable-for-the-identification-and-qualification-of-pikfyve-inhibitors
#16
Kylie Fogarty, Mohammed Kashem, Andras Bauer, Alexandra Bernardino, Debra Brennan, Brian Cook, Neil Farrow, Teresa Molinaro, Richard Nelson
FYVE-type zinc finger-containing phosphoinositide kinase (PIKfyve) catalyzes the formation of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) from phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P). PIKfyve has been implicated in multiple cellular processes, and its role in the regulation of toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways and the production of proinflammatory cytokines has sparked interest in developing small-molecule PIKfyve inhibitors as potential therapeutics to treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We developed three orthogonal assays to identify and qualify small-molecule inhibitors of PIKfyve: (1) a purified component microfluidic enzyme assay that measures the conversion of fluorescently labeled PI(3)P to PI(3,5)P2 by purified recombinant full-length human 6His-PIKfyve (rPIKfyve); (2) an intracellular protein stabilization assay using the kinase domain of PIKfyve expressed in HEK293 cells; and (3) a cell-based functional assay that measures the production of interleukin (IL)-12p70 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with TLR agonists lipopolysaccharide and R848...
July 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722681/the-role-of-toll-like-receptor-4-in-tumor-microenvironment
#17
REVIEW
Jing Li, Fan Yang, Feng Wei, Xiubao Ren
Tumors are closely related to chronic inflammation, during which there are various changes in inflammatory sites, such as immune cells infiltration, pro-inflammation cytokines production, and interaction between immune cells and tissue cells. Besides, substances, released from both tissue cells attacked by exogenous etiologies, also act on local cells. These changes induce a dynamic and complex microenvironment favorable for tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is the first identified member of the toll-like receptor family that can recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMPs)...
July 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722236/the-membrane-type-estrogen-receptor-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-suppresses-lipopolysaccharide-induced-interleukin-6-via-inhibition-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-pathway-in-murine-macrophage-cells
#18
Mariko Okamoto, Takuto Suzuki, Yoichi Mizukami, Teruo Ikeda
The female sex hormone estrogen exerts anti-inflammatory effects. The G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) has been recently identified as a novel membrane-type estrogen receptor that can mediate non-genomic estrogenic effects on many cell types. We previously demonstrated that GPER inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6) through repression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) promoter activity using human breast cancer cells. Although several reports have indicated that GPER suppresses Toll-like receptor-induced inflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages, the molecular mechanisms of the inhibition of cytokine production via GPER remain poorly understood...
July 18, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722020/a-critical-role-of-gas6-axl-signal-in-allergic-airway-responses-during-rsv-vaccine-enhanced-disease
#19
Takehiko Shibata, Manabu Ato
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common virus that causes lower respiratory infections across a wide range of ages. A licensed RSV vaccine is not available because vaccination with formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) and the subsequent RSV infection cause not only insufficient induction of neutralizing antibodies but also severe allergic airway responses, termed FI-RSV vaccine enhanced disease (FI-RSV VED). However, the underlying mechanism has not been identified, although a Th2-biased immune response is known to be a hallmark of this disease...
July 19, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721853/us10-a-novel-npro-interacting-protein-inhibits-classical-swine-fever-virus-replication
#20
Huifang Lv, Wang Dong, Gui Qian, Jie Wang, Xiaomeng Li, Zhi Cao, Qizhuang Lv, Chengbao Wang, Kangkang Guo, Yanming Zhang
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a severe, febrile and highly contagious disease caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV) that has resulted in huge economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. CSFV Npro has been actively studied but remains incompletely understood. Few studies have investigated the cellular proteins that interact with Npro and their participation in viral replication. Here, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system was employed to screen Npro-interacting proteins from a porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cDNA library, and a blast search of the NCBI database revealed that 15 cellular proteins interact with Npro...
July 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
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