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Toll-like receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098883/developmental-expression-of-toll%C3%A2-like-receptors-in-the-guinea-pig-lung
#1
Lingjie Ma, Jiali Yang, Li Yang, Juan Shi, Jing Xue, Yong Li, Xiaoming Liu
The guinea pig is a useful model for investigating infectious and non‑infectious lung diseases due to the sensitivity of its respiratory system and susceptibility to infectious agents. Toll‑like receptors (TLRs) are important components of the innate immune response and are critical for lung immune function. In the present study, the differentiation of epithelial cells in the guinea pig lung was examined during gestation by studying anatomic morphology and the major epithelial cell types using cell type‑specific markers...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098138/scimp-is-a-transmembrane-non-tir-tlr-adaptor-that-promotes-proinflammatory-cytokine-production-from-macrophages
#2
Lin Luo, Nilesh J Bokil, Adam A Wall, Ronan Kapetanovic, Natalie M Lansdaal, Faustine Marceline, Belinda J Burgess, Samuel J Tong, Zhong Guo, Kirill Alexandrov, Ian L Ross, Margaret L Hibbs, Jennifer L Stow, Matthew J Sweet
Danger signals activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs), thereby initiating inflammatory responses. Canonical TLR signalling, via Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor domain (TIR)-containing adaptors and proinflammatory transcription factors such as NF-κB, occurs in many cell types; however, additional mechanisms are required for specificity of inflammatory responses in innate immune cells. Here we show that SCIMP, an immune-restricted, transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP), promotes selective proinflammatory cytokine responses by direct modulation of TLR4...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096525/toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-in-high-mobility-group-box-1-protein-1-mediated-the-suppression-of-regulatory-t-cells
#3
Chunyan Luo, Huiting Liu, Hu Wang, Jiajun Wang
BACKGROUND Treg cells play a central role in the suppression of immune response, and their suppressive capacity can be modulated by toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. However, the detailed pathway of TLR ligand modulation is still unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the high mobility group box-1 protein 1 (HMGB1) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on Treg cells through TLR4 signaling. MATERIAL AND METHODS Treg cells were purified from healthy human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by magnetic-bead activity cell sorting (MACS), blocked by anti-TLR4 monoclonal antibody, and then incubated with different concentration of LPS or HMGB1...
January 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095323/pattern-recognitions-receptors-in-immunodeficiency-disorders
#4
Esameil Mortaz, Ian M Adcock, Payam Tabarsi, Ilad Alavi Darazam, Masoud Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Hamidreza Jamaati, Aliakbar Velayati
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize common microbial or host-derived macromolecules and have important roles in early activation and response of the immune system. Initiation of the innate immune response starts with the recognition of microbial structures called pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Recognition of PAMPs is performed by germline-encoded receptors expressed mainly on immune cells termed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), and Nod-like receptors (NLRs)...
January 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094890/three-months-of-western-diet-induces-small-intestinal-mucosa-alteration-in-tlr-ko-mice
#5
Claudia Sardi, Patrizia Luchini, Andrea Emanuelli, Amedeo Giannoni, Elisa Martini, Lucia M Manara, Lucia Sfondrini, Marinos Kallikourdis, Michele Sommariva, Cristiano Rumio
Several studies support the role of Western-style diet (WD) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Toll-like receptors/NOD-like receptors (TLRs/NLRs) are important to maintain a healthy epithelium as well as inducing inflammation. Given that dietary factors influence IBD development, that epithelial dysfunction is thought to be involved in initiating intestinal inflammation and that TLR-NLR are involved in maintenance of the functionality of intestinal epithelium as well as in regulating inflammation, we decided to examine the role of TLR signals in the triggering events that lead to alteration of the small intestinal epithelium associated to consumption of WD...
January 17, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093922/toll-like-receptors-and-their-soluble-forms-differ-in-the-knee-and-thumb-basal-osteoarthritic-joints
#6
Goncalo Barreto, Jerker Sandelin, Abdelhakim Salem, Dan C Nordström, Eero Waris
Background and purpose - Although the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) is not well understood, chondrocyte-mediated inflammatory responses (triggered by the activation of innate immune receptors by damage-associated molecules) are thought to be involved. We examined the relationship between Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and OA in cartilage from 2 joints differing in size and mechanical loading: the first carpometacarpal (CMC-I) and the knee. Patients and methods - Samples of human cartilage obtained from OA CMC-I and knee joints were immunostained for TLRs (1-9) and analyzed using histomorphometry and principal component analysis (PCA)...
January 17, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093813/nerolidol-protects-against-lps-induced-acute-kidney-injury-via-inhibiting-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#7
Lu Zhang, Dandan Sun, Yan Bao, Yan Shi, Yan Cui, Minghao Guo
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical care syndrome, resulting in acute reduction of renal function and up to 22% mortality of hospitalized patients. Nerolidol is a major component in several essential oils that possesses various pharmacological properties. The present study aimed to investigate the potential effect of nerolidol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI. Nerolidol dose-dependently reduced the pathological injuries of kidney induced by LPS in rats. Nerolidol significantly decreased the levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in LPS-treated rats in a dose-dependent manner...
January 17, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093679/effect-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-of-toll-like-receptor-4-tlr-4-on-reproductive-performance-and-immune-function-in-dairy-cows
#8
Takashi Shimizu, Yurie Kawasaki, Yuka Aoki, Fumie Magata, Chiho Kawashima, Akio Miyamoto
In dairy cows, inflammatory diseases caused by infection with pathogenic bacteria post calving affect ovarian functions. This study examined the relationship between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), reproductive performances [the number of artificial insemination (AI) application and days open], and immune cell functions (apoptosis and migration). Two hundred Holstein cows from the Obihiro University farm were included. The SNPs of TLR4 were genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method...
January 16, 2017: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093541/association-of-toll-like-receptor-3-and-toll-like-receptor-9-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-hepatic-fibrosis-in-egyptian-patients
#9
Rania A Zayed, Dalia Omran, Doha A Mokhtar, Zinab Zakaria, Sameera Ezzat, Mohamed A Soliman, Lamiaa Mobarak, Hossam El-Sweesy, Ghada Emam
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are recognized as fundamental contributors to the immune system function against infections. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a global health problem especially in Egypt having the highest HCV prevalence worldwide where HCV infection is a continuing epidemic. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association between genetic variation in TLR-3 and TLR-9 and HCV infection and hepatic fibrosis in chronic HCV-positive Egyptian patients. The present study included 100 naïve chronic HCV-positive patients and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093114/in-vitro-effects-of-the-toll-like-receptor-agonists-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-and-cpg-rich-oligonucleotides-on-cytokine-production-by-equine-cells
#10
A Ziegler, V Gerber, E Marti
Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an equine allergic dermatitis to Culicoides spp. antigens. Attempts at using allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) as a treatment for IBH have so far proven unsuccessful. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists can promote a shift in the immune response from the allergy-promoting T helper cell 2 (Th2) response towards a Th1 and/or regulatory response. The aim of this study was to evaluate two immunomodulatory TLR agonists in vitro as potential vaccine adjuvants for a more efficacious AIT in IBH...
January 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093098/tlr-induced-immunomodulatory-cytokine-expression-by-human-gingival-stem-progenitor-cells
#11
Mohamed K Mekhemar, Sabine Adam-Klages, Dietrich Kabelitz, Christof E Dörfer, Karim M Fawzy El-Sayed
During therapeutic application, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may interact with their environment via their expressed toll-like-receptors (TLRs) leading to pro- or anti-inflammatory immune responses. The present study aimed to describe the gingival margin-derived stem/progenitor cells' (G-MSCs) TLR-induced immune regulatory response to specific TLR agonists. Gingival cells were obtained, immunomagnetically sorted via anti-STRO-1 antibodies and seeded out to achieve colony forming units (CFUs). G-MSCs were investigated for stem cell characteristics and TLR expression...
January 10, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092772/the-expression-of-endothelin-1-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-is-controlled-by-epigenetic-mechanisms-and-extracellular-stimuli
#12
Silvia Martinelli, Rossana Maffei, Stefania Fiorcari, Chiara Quadrelli, Patrizia Zucchini, Stefania Benatti, Leonardo Potenza, Mario Luppi, Roberto Marasca
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a hormone peptide widely expressed and is involved in several biological processes, important not only for normal cell function but also for tumor development, including cell proliferation, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and osteogenesis. In accordance, ET-1 was already shown to contribute to the growth and progression of many different solid cancers. We recently demonstrated that ET-1 has a role in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) where it is abnormally expressed...
December 30, 2016: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092654/promoter-polymorphism-of-toll-like-receptor-4-is-associated-with-a-decreased-risk-of-coronary-artery-disease-a-case-control-study-in-the-chinese-han-population
#13
Dandan Sun, Liping Sun, Qian Xu, Honghu Wang, Jun Yang, Yuan Yuan
BACKGROUND Coronary artery disease (CAD) is considered a chronic inflammatory disease of the blood vessels. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a transmembrane receptor involved in inflammatory reactions. The aim of this study was to determine the association between polymorphisms in the promoter region and 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of TLR4, and the associated CAD risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study enrolled 424 participants with CAD and 424 controls without CAD. The polymorphisms in the promoter region and 3'-UTR of TLR4 were identified from the HapMap database, including rs10116253, rs10983755, and rs11536889...
January 16, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091574/an-inert-pesticide-adjuvant-synergizes-viral-pathogenicity-and-mortality-in-honey-bee-larvae
#14
Julia D Fine, Diana L Cox-Foster, Christopher A Mullin
Honey bees are highly valued for their pollination services in agricultural settings, and recent declines in managed populations have caused concern. Colony losses following a major pollination event in the United States, almond pollination, have been characterized by brood mortality with specific symptoms, followed by eventual colony loss weeks later. In this study, we demonstrate that these symptoms can be produced by chronically exposing brood to both an organosilicone surfactant adjuvant (OSS) commonly used on many agricultural crops including wine grapes, tree nuts and tree fruits and exogenous viral pathogens by simulating a horizontal transmission event...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090719/diversity-oriented-synthesis-of-cyclic-azapeptides-by-a-3-macrocyclization-provides-high-affinity-cd36-modulating-peptidomimetics
#15
Jinqiang Zhang, Mukandila Mulumba, Huy Ong, William D Lubell
Macrocyclization has enabled the use of peptides in drug discovery creating a need for methods to synthesize diverse peptide macrocycles. Azapeptides have advanced to clinically used drugs, however, few cyclic azapeptides have been studied. A multiple component "A(3) -macrocyclization" strategy is described for the preparation of diverse cyclic azapeptides and is demonstrated by the synthesis of 15 growth hormone releasing hormone-6 (GHRP-6) analogs. Certain cyclic aza-GHRP-6 analogs exhibited unprecedented affinity for the CD36 receptor, and capacity to modulate Toll-like receptor agonist-induced overproduction of nitric oxide, and reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in macrophages...
January 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090564/hepatocyte-toll-like-receptor-5-promotes-bacterial-clearance-and-protects-mice-against-high-fat-diet-induced-liver-disease
#16
Lucie Etienne-Mesmin, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Andrew T Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Innate immune dysfunction can promote chronic inflammatory diseases of the liver. For example, mice lacking the flagellin receptor Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) show microbial dysbiosis and predisposition to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis. The extent to which hepatocytes play a direct role in detecting bacterial products in general, or flagellin in particular, is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of hepatocyte TLR5 in recognizing flagellin, policing bacteria, and protecting against liver disease...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090296/endotoxin-and-mechanical-stress-induced-epigenetic-changes-in-the-regulation-of-the-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-promoter
#17
Venkateswaran Ramamoorthi Elangovan, Sara M Camp, Gabriel T Kelly, Ankit A Desai, Djanybek Adyshev, Xiaoguang Sun, Stephen M Black, Ting Wang, Joe G N Garcia
Mechanical ventilation, a lifesaving intervention for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also unfortunately contributes to excessive mechanical stress and impaired lung physiological and structural integrity. We have elsewhere established the pivotal role of increased nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) transcription and secretion as well as its direct binding to the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the progression of this devastating syndrome; however, regulation of this critical gene in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is not well characterized...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090274/the-role-of-m2000-as-an-anti-inflammatory-agent-in-toll-like-receptor-2-microrna-155-pathway
#18
Fatemeh Pourgholi, Mahsa Hajivalili, Rasoul Razavi, Shadi Esmaeili, Behzad Baradaran, Ali Akbar Movasaghpour, Sanam Sadreddini, Hamidreza Goodarzynejad, Abbas Mirshafiey, Mehdi Yousefi
BACKGROUND: M2000 is a newly designed and safe Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of M2000 on expression levels of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-1 (SOCS-1) and Src Homology-2 domain-containing inositol-5'-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) proteins via Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 2/microRNA-155 pathway. METHODS: HEK293 TLR2 cell line and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) were treated by different concentrations of M2000 in MTT assay...
January 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089910/glioblastoma-cancer-stem-cells-evade-innate-immune-suppression-of-self-renewal-through-reduced-tlr4-expression
#19
Alvaro G Alvarado, Praveena S Thiagarajan, Erin E Mulkearns-Hubert, Daniel J Silver, James S Hale, Tyler J Alban, Soumya M Turaga, Awad Jarrar, Ofer Reizes, Michelle S Longworth, Michael A Vogelbaum, Justin D Lathia
Tumors contain hostile inflammatory signals generated by aberrant proliferation, necrosis, and hypoxia. These signals are sensed and acted upon acutely by the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to halt proliferation and activate an immune response. Despite the presence of TLR ligands within the microenvironment, tumors progress, and the mechanisms that permit this growth remain largely unknown. We report that self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs) in glioblastoma have low TLR4 expression that allows them to survive by disregarding inflammatory signals...
December 27, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089363/pertussis-toxin-targets-the-innate-immunity-through-dap12-fcr%C3%AE-and-myd88-adaptor-proteins
#20
Vongsavanh Phongsisay, Ei'ichi Iizasa, Hiromitsu Hara, Hiroki Yoshida
Activation of the innate immunity by adjuvants, such as pertussis toxin (PTX), in the presence of autoreactive lymphocytes and antigen mimicry is sufficient to trigger autoimmunity. Toll-like, C-type lectin, and immunglobulin-like receptors play an important role in the innate immunity by sensing a variety of microbial products through several adaptor proteins, including MyD88, DAP12, and FcRγ. This study investigated the interaction between PTX and innate immune components. The direct interactions between coated PTX and receptor-fusion proteins were examined using ELISA-based binding assays...
December 30, 2016: Immunobiology
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