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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945004/tlr3-contributes-to-persistent-autophagy-and-heart-failure-in-mice-after-myocardial-infarction
#1
Ting Gao, Shao-Ping Zhang, Jian-Fei Wang, Li Liu, Yin Wang, Zhi-Yong Cao, Qi-Kuan Hu, Wen-Jun Yuan, Li Lin
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential immunoreceptors involved in host defence against invading microbes. Recent studies indicate that certain TLRs activate immunological autophagy to eliminate microbes. It remains unknown whether TLRs regulate autophagy to play a role in the heart. This study examined this question. The activation of TLR3 in cultured cardiomyocytes was observed to increase protein levels of autophagic components, including LC3-II, a specific marker for autophagy induction, and p62/SQSTM1, an autophagy receptor normally degraded in the final step of autophagy...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944454/an-inhibitory-epitope-of-human-toll-like-receptor-4-resides-on-leucine-rich-repeat-13-and-is-recognized-by-a-monoclonal-antibody
#2
Hiroki Tsukamoto, Yuki Yamagata, Ippo Ukai, Shino Takeuchi, Misaki Okubo, Yohei Kobayashi, Sao Kozakai, Kanae Kubota, Muneo Numasaki, Yoshitomi Kanemitsu, Yotaro Matsumoto, Yoshihisa Tomioka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943944/andrographolide-suppresses-proliferation-of-human-colon-cancer-sw620-cells-through-the-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mmp-9-signaling-pathway
#3
Rui Zhang, Jian Zhao, Jian Xu, De-Xin Jiao, Jian Wang, Zhi-Qiang Gong, Jian-Hui Jia
Modern pharmacological research has revealed that andrographolide has various functions, including anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral effects, immunoregulation, treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and prevention and treatment of alcoholic liver injury. The present study investigated whether andrographolide suppresses the proliferation of human colon cancer cell through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor (NF)-κB/matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) signaling pathway...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942364/toll-like-receptor-mediated-upregulation-of-cxcl16-in-psoriasis-orchestrates-neutrophil-activation
#4
Sabine Steffen, Susanne Abraham, Maik Herbig, Franziska Schmidt, Kristin Blau, Susann Meisterfeld, Stefan Beissert, Jochen Guck, Claudia Günther
Innate immune processes are central in the development of the chronic inflammatory skin disease psoriasis. Studying stimulation of keratinocytes, monocytes and dendritic cells by type I interferons or ligation of toll-like receptors TLR1/2, TLR2/6 or TLR7, but not TLR7/8, resulted in enhanced surface expression and secretion of the chemokine CXCL16. The corresponding receptor CXCR6 was expressed on neutrophils whose recruitment into skin is important especially in early psoriatic disease. Using the recently developed technique real-time deformability cytometry demonstrated that CXCL16 and IL-8 decreased the stiffness and enhanced deformation of neutrophils facilitating transmigration through vessel wall...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942130/biosynthesis-and-structure-activity-relationships-of-the-lipid-a-family-of-glycolipids
#5
REVIEW
Xirui Xiao, Karthik Sankaranarayanan, Chaitan Khosla
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a glycolipid found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is a potent elicitor of innate immune responses in mammals. A typical LPS molecule is composed of three different structural domains: a polysaccharide called the O-antigen, a core oligosaccharide, and Lipid A. Lipid A is the amphipathic glycolipid moiety of LPS. It stimulates the immune system by tightly binding to Toll-like receptor 4. More recently, Lipid A has also been shown to activate intracellular caspase-4 and caspase-5...
September 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941865/effect-of-curcumin-on-acute-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice-via-inhibition-of-inflammation-and-tak1-pathway
#6
Nanwen Zhang, Guicai Wei, Jian Ye, Lin Yang, Yunda Hong, Guisheng Liu, Huifen Zhong, Xinyi Cai
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that results in damaged spinal cord function. As a natural compound, curcumin has recently been shown to have anti-inflammatory and strong antioxidant activities. To investigate the effect of curcumin against acute spinal cord injury (SCI), we explored its induced effects in SCI mice. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is a member of the MAPKKK family and plays an essential role in TNF, IL-1, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways...
February 14, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941781/glucocorticoids-and-toll-like-receptor-2-cooperatively-induce-acute-phase-serum-amyloid-a
#7
Qi Su, Günther Weindl
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a highly conserved acute-phase protein and extrahepatic produced SAA1/2 contributes to cutaneous inflammation. Prolonged systemic or topical treatment with glucocorticoids can provoke skin diseases such as steroid-induced acne. Glucocorticoids increase Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) expression, however, an inflammatory mediator linked to this side effect remains elusive. We report that TLR2 agonists in combination with dexamethasone substantially increase SAA expression and production in human keratinocytes and epithelial cells...
September 20, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939531/transcriptome-analysis-of-immune-response-against-vibrio-harveyi-infection-in-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides
#8
Shun Maekawa, Omkar Byadgi, Yao-Chung Chen, Takashi Aoki, Haruko Takeyama, Terutoyo Yoshida, Jun-Ichi Hikima, Masahiro Sakai, Pei-Chyi Wang, Shih-Chu Chen
Vibrio harveyi is a gram-negative bacterium reported as found in many aquaculture species. To increase knowledge of the immune response against V. harveyi, in this study we performed transcriptome analysis of head kidney and spleen in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) at 1 and 2 days post-infection (dpi), using the Illumina sequencing platform. After de novo assembly, a total of 79,128 unigenes was detected with an N50 of 2511 bp. After alignments with sequences recorded in the major databases (NT, NR, Swiss-Prot COG, KEGG, Interpro and GO), based on sequence similarity, 61,208 (77...
September 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938189/the-potent-suppressive-effect-of-%C3%AE-d-mannuronic-acid-m2000-on-molecular-expression-of-the-tlr-nf-kb-signaling-pathway-in-ankylosing-spondylitis-patients
#9
Maryam Roozbehkia, Mahdi Mahmoudi, Somaye Aletaha, Nima Rezaei, Mohammad Javad Fattahi, Fahimeh Jafarnezhad-Ansariha, Anis Barati, Abbas Mirshafiey
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease characterized by the inflammation of sacroiliac joints and axial skeleton. A combination of genetic, environmental and immunological factors are involved in AS's pathogenesis. TLRs are type I transmembrane glycoproteins that play a crucial role in the innate immune responses against invading pathogens. Observational studies have demonstrated a possible association between TLR dysregulation and AS. The β-d-mannuronic acid (M2000), as a novel NSAID with immunosuppressive property, has shown an inhibitory effect on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4 signaling in HEK293 cells...
September 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936222/the-soybean-rfg1-gene-restricts-nodulation-by-sinorhizobium-fredii-usda193
#10
Yinglun Fan, Jinge Liu, Shanhua Lyu, Qi Wang, Shengming Yang, Hongyan Zhu
Sinorhizobium fredii is a fast-growing rhizobial species that can establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with a wide range of legume species including soybeans (Glycine max). In soybeans, this interaction shows a high level of specificity such that particular S. fredii strains nodulate only a limited set of plant genotypes. Here we report the identification of a dominant gene in soybeans that restricts nodulation with S. fredii USDA193. Genetic mapping in an F2 population revealed co-segregation of the underlying locus with the previously cloned Rfg1 gene...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935206/tlr7-8-agonists-stimulate-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-to-initiate-a-th17-deviated-acute-contact-dermatitis-in-humans
#11
Natalie Garzorz-Stark, Felix Lauffer, Linda Krause, Jenny Thomas, Anne Atenhan, Regina Franz, Sophie Roenneberg, Alexander Boehner, Manja Jargosch, Richa Batra, Nikola S Mueller, Stefan Haak, Christina Groß, Olaf Groß, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Fabian J Theis, Carsten B Schmidt-Weber, Tilo Biedermann, Stefanie Eyerich, Kilian Eyerich
BACKGROUND: A standardized human model to study early pathogenic events in psoriasis is missing. Activation of Toll-like receptor 7/8 by topical application of imiquimod is the most commonly used mouse model of psoriasis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential of a human imiquimod patch test model to resemble human psoriasis. METHODS: Imiquimod (Aldara® 5% cream) was applied twice a week onto the back of volunteers (n=18) and the development of skin lesions was monitored over a time period of four weeks...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933920/multi-tissue-transcriptomics-delineates-the-diversity-of-airway-t-cell-functions-in-asthma
#12
Akul Singhania, Joshua C Wallington, Caroline G Smith, Daniel Horowitz, Karl J Staples, Peter H Howarth, Stephan D Gadola, Ratko Djukanović, Christopher H Woelk, Timothy Sc Hinks
Asthma arises from the complex interplay of inflammatory pathways in diverse cell types and tissues. We sought to undertake a comprehensive transcriptomic assessment of the epithelium and airway T cells that remain understudied in asthma, and investigate interactions between multiple cells and tissues. Epithelial brushings and flow-sorted CD3+ T cells from sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage were obtained from healthy subjects (N=19) and asthmatic patients (mild, moderate and severe asthma; N=46). Gene expression was assessed using Affymetrix HT HG-U133+ PM GeneChips and results were validated by real-time quantitative PCR...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933050/toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-mediates-inflammation-and-tissue-injury-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#13
REVIEW
Giacomo Garibotto, Annalisa Carta, Daniela Picciotto, Francesca Viazzi, Daniela Verzola
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of receptors of the innate immune system which detect pathogen-associated and danger-associated molecular patterns in order to initiate an inflammatory response. TLR2 and TLR4 downward signaling causes the production of proinflammatory cytokines that can induce insulin resistance and cardiovascular damage in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In diabetic nephropathy, TLR4, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2), and NLRP3 inflammasome are involved in the production and persistence of inflammation...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932081/-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-enhances-poly-i-c-induced-interferon-%C3%AE-1-production-and-inhibits-hepatitis-c-virus-replication-in-hepatocytes
#14
Yi-Zhong Wang, Jie-Liang Li, Xu Wang, Ting Zhang, Wen-Zhe Ho
AIM: To investigate the effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C)-triggered intracellular innate immunity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in hepatocytes. METHODS: A cell culture model of HCV infection was generated by infecting a hepatoma cell line, Huh7, with HCV JFH-1 strain (JFH-1-Huh7). Poly I:C with a high molecular weight and EGCG were used to stimulate the JFH-1-Huh7 cells. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression levels of intracellular mRNAs and of intracellular and extracellular HCV RNA...
August 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931589/oral-supplementation-of-glutamine-attenuates-the-progression-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#15
Cathrin Sellmann, Anja Baumann, Annette Brandt, Cheng Jun Jin, Anika Nier, Ina Bergheim
Background: Universally accepted therapeutic strategies for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are still lacking. Studies suggest a preventive effect of oral Gln supplementation on the development of NASH; however, whether Gln also has therapeutic potential for pre-existing NASH has not yet been clarified.Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine whether Gln prevents the progression of diet-induced NASH in mice.Methods: For 8 wk, female C57BL/6J mice (6-8 wk old) were pair-fed a liquid Western-style diet [WSD, 25% of energy from fat, 50% wt:wt fructose, 0...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930914/the-protective-effect-of-a-short-peptide-derived-from-cold-inducible-rna-binding-protein-in-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#16
Joseph McGinn, Fangming Zhang, Monowar Aziz, Weng-Lang Yang, Jeffrey Nicastro, Gene F Coppa, Ping Wang
Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) functions as damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) and has been demonstrated to be responsible in part for the damage occurring after renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). A short peptide derived from CIRP, named C23, binds to myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2), a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) co-receptor. We hypothesize that C23 reduces renal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR) injury by blocking CIRP. We observed that pre-treatment with C23 significantly decreased the levels of recombinant mouse CIRP-induced TNF-α in a dose-dependent fashion in cultured macrophages...
September 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930616/development-of-a-semi-automated-image-based-high-throughput-drug-screening-system
#17
Remzi Onur Eren, Dmitry Kopelyanskiy, Dimitri Moreau, Julien Bortoli Chapalay, Marc Chambon, Gerardo Turcatti, Lon-Fye Lye, Stephen M Beverley, Nicolas Fasel
We previously reported that the innate sensing of the endosymbiont Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV1) within Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis through Toll-like receptor 3, worsens the pathogenesis of parasite infection in mice. The presence of LRV1 has been associated with the failure of first-line treatment in patients infected with LRV1 containing -L. guyanensis and -L. braziliensis parasites. Here, we established a semi-automated image-based high-throughput drug screening (HTDS) protocol to measure parasiticidal activity of the Prestwick chemical library in primary murine macrophages infected with LRV1-containing L...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930589/procoagulant-activity-during-viral-infections
#18
Saravanan Subramaniam, Inge Scharrer
The abundance of evidence suggest that inflammation of immune and non-immune cells may lead to an imbalance of the pro- and anti-coagulant state during viral infections. During systemic infections, the endothelium plays a critical role in regulating hemostasis, and severe imbalances of endothelial function and activation can contribute to organ failure. Viral infections may elevate plasma levels of procoagulant markers such as TAT and D-dimer TF-positive MPs as well as von Willebrand factor (vWF). Although multiple clinical studies are showing the association of viral infection and increased prothrombotic risk, the pathological mechanisms have not been fully identified for most viral infections...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930570/gut-microbiota-architects-of-small-intestinal-capillaries
#19
Avinash Khandagale, Christoph Reinhardt
The commensal gut microbiota is an environmental factor that exerts manifold effects on host physiology. One obvious trait is the impact of this densely colonized ecosystem on small intestinal mucosal vascularization. At present, the microbiota-triggered signaling pathways influencing small intestinal renewal, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling are largely unexplored. While the interplay of gut microbial communities with pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, in intestinal homeostasis is increasingly understood, it is unresolved how commensal microbiota affect the signaling pathways responsible for the formation of capillary networks in the intestinal mucosa...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930057/tlr4-methylation-moderates-the-relationship-between-alcohol-use-severity-and-gray-matter-loss
#20
Hollis C Karoly, Rachel E Thayer, Sarah L Hagerty, Kent E Hutchison
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are associated with decreased gray matter, and neuroinflammation is one mechanism through which alcohol may confer such damage, given that heavy alcohol use may promote neural damage via activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated inflammatory signaling cascades. We previously demonstrated that TLR4 is differentially methylated in AUD compared with control subjects, and the present study aims to extend this work by examining whether TLR4 methylation moderates the relationship between alcohol use and gray matter...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
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