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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921278/bronchobiliary-fistula-caused-after-hepatectomy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-case-report
#1
Seikan Hai, Yuji Iimuro, Tadamichi Hirano, Kazuhiro Suzumura, Akito Yada, Jiro Fujimoto
BACKGROUND: A bronchobiliary fistula, an intercommunication between the biliary tract and bronchial trees, is an extremely rare complication after hepatectomy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 70-year-old male underwent partial resection of the liver for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma under a thoracoabdominal approach. The immediate postoperative clinical course was uneventful, but the patient was febrile and laboratory examinations revealed leukocytosis on the 15th postoperative day...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921045/clinical-scenario-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Swantje Brede, Georg Serfling, Johanna Klement, Sebastian M Schmid, Hendrik Lehnert
The term metabolic syndrome (MeS) refers to a cluster of associated symptoms composed of impaired fasting glucose, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. MeS is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and diabetes-associated morbidity and mortality. The increased amount of visceral fat together with a chronic inflammatory state predisposes to the development of arteriosclerosis. Furthermore, insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidemia are associated with fatty liver disease. In addition, MeS is linked to non-cardiovascular diseases such as cancer as well as psychiatric or endocrine disorders...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920719/bile-acids-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Hayley D Ackerman, Glenn S Gerhard
Bile acids, a structurally related group of molecules derived from cholesterol, have a long history as therapeutic agents in medicine, from treatment for primarily ocular diseases in ancient Chinese medicine to modern day use as approved drugs for certain liver diseases. Despite evidence supporting a neuroprotective role in a diverse spectrum of age-related neurodegenerative disorders, including several small pilot clinical trials, little is known about their molecular mechanisms or their physiological roles in the nervous system...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920250/renal-anemia-model-mouse-established-by-transgenic-rescue-with-erythropoietin-gene-lacking-kidney-specific-regulatory-elements
#4
Ikuo Hirano, Norio Suzuki, Shun Yamazaki, Hiroki Sekine, Naoko Minegishi, Ritsuko Shimizu, Masayuki Yamamoto
The erythropoietin (Epo) gene is under tissue-specific inducible regulation. Because kidney is the primary EPO-producing tissue in adults, impaired EPO production in chronic kidney disorders results in serious renal anemia. The Epo gene contains a liver-specific enhancer in the 3' region, but the kidney-specific enhancer for gene expression in renal EPO-producing (REP) cells remains elusive. Here, we examined a Conserved-Upstream-element for Renal-Epo-regulation (CURE) region that spans 17.4 kb to 3.6 kb upstream of the Epo gene and harbors several phylogenetically conserved elements...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918349/soft-palate-ulcer-an-unusual-presentation-of-a-posttransplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder
#5
Maryam Bahmanyar, Nader Shakibazad, Mohammad Hadi Imanieh, Seyed Mohsen Dehghani
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication of solid organ transplantation. It has several clinical manifestations, including infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome, lymphadenopathy, and other organ involvement. Soft palate ulcer is a rare manifestation of PTLD. The aim of this study is to present a 17-year-old girl with liver transplantation due to metastatic liver disease. After transplantation, she presented with a painful whitish ulcerative lesion accompanied by central necrosis in the right soft palate area measuring about 3 cm×3...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916647/ppars-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#6
REVIEW
Kim H H Liss, Brian N Finck
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a range of liver pathology ranging from simple steatosis to varying degrees of inflammation, hepatocyte injury and fibrosis. Without intervention it can progress to end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Given its close association with obesity, the prevalence of NAFLD has increased dramatically worldwide. Currently, there are no FDA-approved medications for the treatment of NAFLD and although lifestyle modifications with appropriate diet and exercise have been shown to be beneficial, this has been difficult to achieve and sustain for the majority of patients...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916445/outcomes-following-partial-external-biliary-diversion-in-patients-with-progressive-familial-intrahepatic-cholestasis
#7
Caroline Lemoine, Tanya Bhardwaj, Lee M Bass, Riccardo A Superina
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: PFIC is a family of bile acid (BA) transport disorders that may result in serious liver disease requiring transplantation. We reviewed our experience with PEBD as a method to improve liver function and avoid transplantation. METHODS: All patients with PFIC were reviewed. Outcomes included changes in serum BA, conversion to ileal bypass (IB), and survival without transplantation. Statistics were obtained using paired t-test and Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients with PFIC were identified...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915987/sex-differences-in-alcohol-use-disorder
#8
Roberta Agabio, Claudia Pisanu, Gian Luigi Gessa, Flavia Franconi
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a common and disabling mental disorder associated with a significant burden of medical consequences and high socioeconomic costs. Although a growing number of studies support the existence of sex differences in several aspects of alcohol consumption and AUD, the majority of investigations have been conducted in men. OBJECTIVE: This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in AUD, focusing on epidemiology, neurobiology, pharmacokinetics, susceptibility to medical consequences, and treatment...
December 1, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914885/blind-percutaneous-liver-biopsy-in-infants-and-children-comparison-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-percussion-technique-and-ultrasound-assisted-technique
#9
Engy A Mogahed, Yasmeen A Mansy, Yasmeen Al Hawi, Rokaya El-Sayed, Mona El-Raziky, Hanaa El-Karaksy
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Liver biopsy remains the most reliable method to diagnose various hepatic disorders in children. We aimed to assess the technical success and complication rate of ultrasound (US) assisted percutaneous liver biopsy versus transthoracic percussion guided technique in paediatrics. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This randomized controlled study included all cases performing liver biopsy at Paediatric Hepatology Unit, Cairo University Paediatric Hospital over 12months...
November 30, 2016: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914698/under-prescription-of-statins-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
M Del Ben, F Baratta, L Polimeni, D Pastori, L Loffredo, M Averna, F Violi, F Angelico
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease associated with high cardiovascular risk. Management of dyslipidaemia plays a pivotal role in the prevention of CV events and statins have proved to be safe in these patients. However, in everyday clinical practice statin prescription is sometimes limited because of the concern of physicians about side-effects. The aim of the study was to investigate if the presence of NAFLD affects the prescription of lipid-lowering treatment in a large series of patients with cardio-metabolic disorders...
September 28, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914214/antithrombin-improves-the-maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-but-not-the-angiogenic-factors-in-extremely-growth-restricted-fetuses-at-28-weeks-of-gestation
#11
Midori Fujisaki, Ken Furuta, Masanao Ohhashi, Seishi Furukawa, Yuki Kodama, Yasuyuki Kawagoe, Hiroshi Sameshima, Tsuyomu Ikenoue
AIMS: Severe preterm fetal growth restriction (FGR) remote from term is problematic. We aimed to investigate the effect of maternally-administered antithrombin on maternal and neonatal outcomes. A prospective, one-arm, pilot study was performed in 14 women with severe FGR (≤5th centile) at <28 weeks of gestation, without hypertensive disorders. Maternal plasma concentrations of soluble Feline McDonough Sarcoma (FMS)-like trypsin kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) were measured and categorized into three groups: group 1; low sFlt-1 and high PlGF, group 2; moderate sFlt-1 and low PlGF, and group 3; high sFlt-1 and low PlGF...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913488/platelets-in-liver-and-renal-disease
#12
Michele P Lambert
This review will discuss how 2 common and morbid conditions, renal disease and liver disease, alter platelet number and function. It will review the impact of thrombocytopenia on bleeding complications in patients with these disorders and whether the low platelet count actually correlates with bleeding risk. Emerging data also suggest that platelets are much more than bystanders in both renal and liver disease, but instead play an active role in the pathobiology of these disorders. This review will briefly cover the emerging information on novel roles of platelets in the biology of renal and liver disease...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913223/hepatitis-e-virus-infection-beyond-the-liver
#13
REVIEW
S Pischke, J Hartl, S D Pas, A W Lohse, B C Jacobs, A A van der Eijk
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are not limited to the liver but may also affect other organs. Several diseases, including Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy, glomerulonephritis, cryoglobulinemia, pancreatitis, lymphoma, thrombopenia, meningitis, thyreoiditis and myocarditis have been observed in the context of hepatitis E. To date the definite pathophysiological links between HEV and extrahepatic manifestations are not yet established. However, it is suggested that HEV-infection might be causative based on serological studies, case series, in vitro data and animal models...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911810/in-vivo-bioluminescence-imaging-reveals-copper-deficiency-in-a-murine-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Marie C Heffern, Hyo Min Park, Ho Yu Au-Yeung, Genevieve C Van de Bittner, Cheri M Ackerman, Andreas Stahl, Christopher J Chang
Copper is a required metal nutrient for life, but global or local alterations in its homeostasis are linked to diseases spanning genetic and metabolic disorders to cancer and neurodegeneration. Technologies that enable longitudinal in vivo monitoring of dynamic copper pools can help meet the need to study the complex interplay between copper status, health, and disease in the same living organism over time. Here, we present the synthesis, characterization, and in vivo imaging applications of Copper-Caged Luciferin-1 (CCL-1), a bioluminescent reporter for tissue-specific copper visualization in living animals...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909908/obesity-and-liver-cancer
#15
Krasimira Aleksandrova, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Sabrina Schlesinger
Obesity and related metabolic disorders have become globally prevalent posing a challenge for the chronically damaged liver and predisposing the development and progression of cancer. The rising phenomenon of "obesity epidemic" may provide means for understanding why liver cancer is one of the few malignancies with rising incidence in developed countries over the last decades. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes is an increasingly recognized trigger for liver cancer in Western populations characterized by low prevalence of established risk factors for liver cancer such as viral hepatitis and hepatotoxin exposure...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908782/adaptive-responses-of-neuronal-mitochondria-to-bioenergetic-challenges-roles-in-neuroplasticity-and-disease-resistance
#16
REVIEW
Sophia M Raefsky, Mark P Mattson
An important concept in neurobiology is "neurons that fire together, wire together" which means that the formation and maintenance of synapses is promoted by activation of those synapses. Very similar to the effects of the stress of exercise on muscle cells, emerging findings suggest that neurons respond to activity by activating signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+), CREB, PGC-1α, NF-κB) that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular stress resistance. These pathways are also activated by aerobic exercise and food deprivation, two bioenergetic challenges of fundamental importance in the evolution of the brains of all mammals, including humans...
November 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907033/normalization-of-patient-identified-plasma-biomarkers-in-smn%C3%AE-7-mice-following-postnatal-smn-restoration
#17
W David Arnold, Sandra Duque, Chitra C Iyer, Phillip Zaworski, Vicki L McGovern, Shannon J Taylor, Katharine M von Herrmann, Dione T Kobayashi, Karen S Chen, Stephen J Kolb, Sergey V Paushkin, Arthur H M Burghes
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive motor neuron disorder. SMA is caused by homozygous loss of the SMN1 gene and retention of the SMN2 gene resulting in reduced levels of full length SMN protein that are insufficient for motor neuron function. Various treatments that restore levels of SMN are currently in clinical trials and biomarkers are needed to determine the response to treatment. Here, we sought to investigate in SMA mice a set of plasma analytes, previously identified in patients with SMA to correlate with motor function...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906097/a-10-year-old-child-presenting-with-syndromic-paucity-of-bile-ducts-alagille-syndrome-a-case-report
#18
Girish Kumar Pati, Ayaskanta Singh, Preetam Nath, Jimmy Narayan, Pradeep Kumar Padhi, Prasanta Kumar Parida, Kaumudee Pattnaik, Chittaranjan Panda, Shivaram Prasad Singh
BACKGROUND: Alagille syndrome, a rare genetic disorder with autosomal dominant transmission, manifests with five major features: paucity of interlobular bile ducts, characteristic facies, posterior embryotoxon, vertebral defects, and peripheral pulmonary stenosis. Globally, only 500 cases have so far been reported, with only five cases reported in the Indian subcontinent. Rarely, Alagille syndrome also presents with skin manifestations and early-onset chronic liver disease, which was found in our case...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905939/causes-of-death-in-vanuatu
#19
Karen Carter, Viran Tovu, Jeffrey Tila Langati, Michael Buttsworth, Lester Dingley, Andy Calo, Griffith Harrison, Chalapati Rao, Alan D Lopez, Richard Taylor
BACKGROUND: The population of the Pacific Melanesian country of Vanuatu was 234,000 at the 2009 census. Apart from subsistence activities, economic activity includes tourism and agriculture. Current completeness of vital registration is considered too low to be usable for national statistics; mortality and life expectancy (LE) are derived from indirect demographic estimates from censuses/surveys. Some cause of death (CoD) data are available to provide information on major causes of premature death...
March 15, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904656/the-berlin-treatment-algorithm-recommendations-for-tailored-innovative-therapeutic-strategies-for-multiple-sclerosis-related-fatigue
#20
REVIEW
Christian Veauthier, Helge Hasselmann, Stefan M Gold, Friedemann Paul
More than 80% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients suffer from fatigue. Despite this, there are few therapeutic options and evidence-based pharmacological treatments are lacking. The associated societal burden is substantial (MS fatigue is a major reason for part-time employment or early retirement), and at least one out of four MS patients view fatigue as the most burdensome symptom of their disease. The mechanisms underlying MS-related fatigue are poorly understood, and objective criteria for distinguishing and evaluating levels of fatigue and tiredness have not yet been developed...
2016: EPMA Journal
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