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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811684/lead-as-a-risk-factor-for-osteoporosis-in-post-menopausal-women
#1
REVIEW
Anjali Manocha, L M Srivastava, Seema Bhargava
Lead exposure is increasingly becoming an important risk factor for osteoporosis. In adults, approximately 80-90 % of absorbed lead is stored in the bones. These bone lead deposits are released into the blood during periods of enhanced bone resorption like menopause, forming a potential endogenous source of lead exposure. Postmenopausal women are at a higher risk for bone lead release because of hormonal and age related changes in bone metabolism. Estrogen deficiency is associated with increase in osteoclasts number and activity leading to both the early and late form of osteoporosis...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810857/new-onset-diabetes-in-adulthood-is-associated-with-a-substantial-risk-for-mortality-at-all-ages-a-population-based-historical-cohort-study-with-a-decade-long-follow-up
#2
Inbar Zucker, Tamy Shohat, Rachel Dankner, Gabriel Chodick
BACKGROUND: Diabetes has been reported to be associated with an increased relative risk for mortality, with estimates ranging from 1.1 to 2.1. Findings are inconsistent regarding modification of the risk by gender and by age. The aim of this study was to estimate the mortality risk associated with new-onset diabetes in adulthood, by age group and gender. METHODS: From the database of a large health care provider, we identified 31,987 individuals diagnosed with diabetes during 2003-2005; and 162,656 individuals without diabetes, group-matched by age...
August 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808861/epidemiology-of-sleep-disordered-breathing-and-heart-failure-what-drives-what
#3
REVIEW
Sushma M Dharia, Lee K Brown
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The bidirectional relationships that have been demonstrated between heart failure (HF) and central sleep apnea (CSA) demand further exploration with respect to the implications that each condition has for the other. This review discusses the body of literature that has accumulated on these relationships and how CSA and its potential treatment may affect outcomes in patients with CSA. RECENT FINDINGS: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can exacerbate hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis, which are known predicates of HF...
August 14, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808419/exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-fine-particulate-matter-induces-vascular-endothelial-dysfunction-via-mir-21
#4
Jianwei Dai, Wensheng Chen, Yuyin Lin, Shiwen Wang, Xiaolan Guo, Qian-Qian Zhang
Vascular endothelial permeability transition does not cause significant lesions, but enhanced permeability may contribute to the development of vascular and other diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure and cancer. Therefore, elucidating the effect of Particulate Matter 2.5 (PM2.5) on vascular endothelial permeability could help prevent disease that might be caused by PM2.5. Our previous study and the present one revealed that PM2.5 significantly increased the permeability of vascular endothelial cells and disrupted the barrier function of the vascular endothelium in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802699/relationship-between-limited-joint-mobility-of-hand-and-carotid-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#5
Yusuke Mineoka, Michiyo Ishii, Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Muhei Tanaka, Naoto Nakamura, Yasukazu Katsumi, Motohide Isono, Michiaki Fukui
AIM: Limited joint mobility (LJM) of hand, which is one of a complication of diabetic hand, has a close association with diabetic microangiopathy. However, it remains to be elucidated about the relationships between LJM of hand and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the relationships between LJM of hand and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque score in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We evaluated the relationships between LJM of hand, and carotid IMT and plaque score, evaluated by carotid ultrasound examination, in 341 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes...
July 20, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802571/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-improve-endothelial-function-in-humans-at-risk-for-atherosclerosis-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Kayla R Zehr, Mary K Walker
Epidemiology studies and clinical trials show that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can prevent atherosclerotic morbidity and evidence suggests this may be mediated by improving endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by reduced vasodilation and a pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic state, and is an early pathological event in the development of atherosclerosis. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a gold standard for assessing endothelial dysfunction, is a predictor of future cardiovascular events and coronary heart disease risk...
August 9, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800440/low-density-lipoprotein-transport-through-patient-specific-thoracic-arterial-wall
#7
Dimitrios G Mpairaktaris, Johannes V Soulis, George D Giannoglou
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The distribution of Low density lipoprotein (LDL) within the arterial wall is helpful in understanding the onset and development of atherosclerosis. The objective of the study is to study the transport and LDL distribution within patient-specific arterial wall using computational analysis under normal and hypertensive conditions. METHODS: Patient specific model of the thoracic aorta is computationally examined. The arterial wall is treated macroscopically as homogeneous (one layered) porous media of variable thickness...
August 3, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799067/mir-448-promotes-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-migration-in-through-directly-targeting-mef2c
#8
Weimin Li, Ruihong Zhang, Li Sui, Xiaojian Hong, Mao Yang
Abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a critical process in various cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease (CAD), atherosclerosis, stroke, and hypertension. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, short, and noncoding RNAs that inhibit gene expression through binding to the 3'-UTR (3' untranslated regions) of target gene mRNAs. We showed that the expression of miR-448 was upregulated in VSMCs from coronary atherosclerotic plaques compared with normal coronary artery tissues...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796632/the-association-of-arsenic-metabolism-with-cancer-cardiovascular-disease-and-diabetes-a-systematic-review-of-the-epidemiological-evidence
#9
Chin-Chi Kuo, Katherine A Moon, Shu-Li Wang, Ellen Silbergeld, Ana Navas-Acien
BACKGROUND: The available evidence on the role of arsenic metabolism in individual susceptibility to the development of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes has not been formally and comprehensively reviewed. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to systematically investigate the association of arsenic metabolism with cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes-related outcomes in epidemiologic studies. As a secondary objective, we characterized the variation of arsenic metabolism in different populations worldwide...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796176/bridging-the-gap-between-gut-microbial-dysbiosis-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Kimberley Lau, Varun Srivatsav, Ayesha Rizwan, Andrew Nashed, Rui Liu, Rui Shen, Mahmood Akhtar
The human gut is heavily colonized by a community of microbiota, primarily bacteria, that exists in a symbiotic relationship with the host and plays a critical role in maintaining host homeostasis. The consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet has been shown to induce gut dysbiosis and reduce intestinal integrity. Recent studies have revealed that dysbiosis contributes to the progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) by promoting two major CVD risk factors-atherosclerosis and hypertension. Imbalances in host-microbial interaction impair homeostatic mechanisms that regulate health and can activate multiple pathways leading to CVD risk factor progression...
August 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794636/helicobacter-pylori-infection-and-severity-of-coronary-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-chronic-coronary-artery-disease
#11
Anita Jukic, Dorotea Bozic, Dusko Kardum, Tina Becic, Bruno Luksic, Mislav Vrsalovic, Marko Ljubkovic, Damir Fabijanic
AIM: Controversy exists concerning the relation between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to examine the relationship between HP infection and severity of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with chronic CAD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 150 patients (109 [73%] men; mean age 62.61±10.23 years) scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery were consecutively enrolled in the cross-sectional study. According to rapid urease test and/or gastric biopsy samples stained with hematoxylin and eosin and according to Giemsa, patients were classified as HP positive (n=87; 58%) or HP negative (n=63; 42%)...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789832/association-of-preterm-birth-and-small-for-gestational-age-with-metabolic-outcomes-in%C3%A2-children-and-adolescents-a-population-based-cohort-study-from-taiwan
#12
Yu-Ting Huang, Hsiang-Yu Lin, Chung-Hsing Wang, Bai-Horng Su, Che-Chen Lin
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified preterm birth and/or small for gestational age (SGA) as risk factors for features of the metabolic syndrome, including high blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and atherosclerosis, occurring later in life, with controversial results. We conducted this population-based cohort study to investigate metabolic outcomes in those with former preterm birth and/or SGA status in Taiwan. METHODS: Data were obtained from Taiwan's universal National Health Insurance Research Database...
July 25, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783817/associations-between-midlife-vascular-risk-factors-and-25-year-incident-dementia-in-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-cohort
#13
Rebecca F Gottesman, Marilyn S Albert, Alvaro Alonso, Laura H Coker, Josef Coresh, Sonia M Davis, Jennifer A Deal, Guy M McKhann, Thomas H Mosley, A Richey Sharrett, Andrea L C Schneider, B Gwen Windham, Lisa M Wruck, David S Knopman
Importance: Vascular risk factors have been associated with cognitive decline. Midlife exposure to these factors may be most important in conferring late-life risk of cognitive impairment. Objectives: To examine Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) participants in midlife and to explore associations between midlife vascular risk factors and 25-year dementia incidence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort investigation of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study was conducted from 1987-1989 through 2011-2013...
August 7, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782494/the-role-of-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-pcsk9-in-cardiovascular-homeostasis-a-non-systematic-literature-review
#14
Ahmad Hachem, Essa Hariri, Perla Saoud, Christelle Lteif, Louis Lteif, Francine Welty
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been gaining major attention recently after the emergence of data showing the promising role of these proteins in lipid homeostasis and atherosclerosis process, glucose and blood pressure regulation. PubMed, EMBASE, Scholar and Scopus databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials, observational studies, in-vitro trials and reviews about the role of PCSK9 in cardiovascular homeostasis. PCSK9 was found to have major impact on lipid homeostasis and inflammatory process through regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptors...
August 4, 2017: Current Cardiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782466/current-status-of-renal-artery-angioplasty-and-stenting-for-resistant-hypertension-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Antonis S Manolis, Antonis A Manolis, Helen Melita
BACKGROUND: Renal artery stenosis (RAS) has a high prevalence in older patients, especially in the context of general atherosclerosis. It is frequently associated with resistant hypertension and impaired renal function and their attendant consequences. The issue whether revascularization via percutaneous renal angioplasty and stenting (PRA/S) can benefit these patients remains unsettled. OBJECTIVE: To present a case series of patients with refractory hypertension and RAS undergoing PRA/S and also to provide an extensive review of the literature on the current status of PRA/S for resistant hypertension...
August 4, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781027/tobacco-exposure-as-determined-by-serum-cotinine-and-subclinical-myocardial-injury-in-individuals-free-from-cardiovascular-disease
#16
Muhammad Ali, Yabing Li, Wesley T O'Neal, Elsayed Z Soliman
Tobacco exposure including second-hand smoke is the leading preventable cause of premature death in the United States. Serum cotinine, a highly sensitive and specific biomarker for tobacco exposure, is a more accurate measure of tobacco exposure than self-reported smoking status. Although the harmful effect of tobacco exposure on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (e.g., atherosclerosis) or hard CVD outcomes (e.g., myocardial infarction) is well established, its effect on intermediate outcomes such as subclinical myocardial injury (SMI), especially in nonsmokers, is not clear...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775206/clinical-molecular-imaging-of-chemokine-receptor-cxcr4-expression-in-atherosclerotic-plaque-using-68-ga-pentixafor-pet-correlation-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-calcified-plaque-burden
#17
Desiree Weiberg, James T Thackeray, Guenter Daum, Jan M Sohns, Saskia Kropf, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Tobias L Ross, Frank M Bengel, Thorsten Derlin
The CXC-motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) represents a promising target for molecular imaging of different CXCR4+ cell types in cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and arterial wall injury. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, pattern, and clinical correlates of arterial wall accumulation of (68)Ga-Pentixafor, a specific CXCR4 ligand for positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Data of fifty-one patients who underwent (68)Ga-Pentixafor PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) for non-cardiovascular indications were retrospectively analyzed...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774484/cardiovascular-disease-risk-associated-with-serum-apolipoprotein-b-is-modified-by-serum-vitamin-a
#18
Thomas Olsen, Kathrine J Vinknes, Gard F T Svingen, Eva R Pedersen, Grethe S Tell, Rune Blomhoff, Christian A Drevon, Per M Ueland, Øivind Midttun, Helga Refsum, Ottar K Nygård
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Apolipoproteins B (apoB) and A1 (apoA1) are major protein constituents of low-density and high-density lipoproteins, respectively, and serum concentrations of these apolipoproteins are associated with risk of atherosclerosis. Vitamin A (VA) has been implicated in lipoprotein metabolism. We evaluated the associations of serum apoB, apoA1 and their ratio (apoBAR) with risk of incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the possible modification by serum VA. METHODS: Risk associations were assessed by Cox regression, and presented as hazard ratios (HRs) per standard deviation (SD) increment in log-transformed values of the lipid parameters, among 4117 patients with suspected stable angina pectoris, located in Western Norway...
July 21, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770648/effect-of-uric-acid-on-inflammatory-cox-2-and-ros-pathways-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#19
Nurgül Oğuz, Mustafa Kırça, Arzu Çetin, Akın Yeşilkaya
Hyperuricemia is thought to play a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including hypertension, coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis. However, exactly how uric acid contributes to these pathologies is unknown. An underlying mechanism of inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis, includes enhanced production of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and superoxide anion. Here, we aimed to examine the effect of uric acid on inflammatory COX-2 and superoxide anion production and to determine the role of losartan...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762019/epicardial-adipose-tissue-as-a-metabolic-transducer-role-in-heart-failure-and-coronary-artery-disease
#20
REVIEW
Vaibhav B Patel, Saumya Shah, Subodh Verma, Gavin Y Oudit
Obesity and diabetes are strongly associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders including dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and heart failure. Adipose tissue is identified as a complex endocrine organ, which by exerting a wide array of regulatory functions at the cellular, tissue and systemic levels can have profound effects on the cardiovascular system. Different terms including "epicardial," "pericardial," and "paracardial" have been used to describe adipose tissue deposits surrounding the heart...
July 31, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
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