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Micro DNA

Ahmad A Omar, Mayara M Murata, Hesham A El-Shamy, James H Graham, Jude W Grosser
Genetic engineering approaches offer an alternative method to the conventional breeding of Citrus sp. 'W. Murcott' mandarin (a hybrid of 'Murcott' and an unknown pollen parent) is one of the most commercially important cultivars grown in many regions around the world. Transformation of 'W. Murcott' mandarin was achieved by direct DNA uptake using a protoplast transformation system. DNA construct (pAO3), encoding Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and the cDNA of Xa21, a Xanthomonas resistance gene from rice, was used to transform protoplasts of 'W...
February 14, 2018: Transgenic Research
Jingcheng Zhang, Bin Wei, Huixian Hu, Fanrong Liu, Yan Tu, Fang He
Micro (mi)RNAs are an endogenous non-coding small RNA comprised of 19-26 nucleotides. miRNAs regulate gene expression through the recognition of its 'seed sequence' and interactions with 3'-untranslated region of target miRNAs. Previous studies identified that miRNAs are associated with the onset and development of breast cancer and that a number of mutations in the coding DNA sequence of miRNAs affect its expression. Therefore, the present study aimed to screen differentially expressed miRNAs using miRNA expression profile chips to analyze the expression of miRNA (miR)-205 in 12 breast cell lines of different metastatic performance and benign proliferative variation as well as breast cancer via in-situ hybridization, and screen out single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the miR-205 coding gene region...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Chun-Wei Lee, Fan-Gang Tseng
In recent years, Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) has been widely applied to many different areas, including chemical analysis, biomolecule detection, bioagent diagnostics, DNA sequence, and environmental monitor, due to its capabilities of unlabeled fingerprint identification, high sensitivity, and rapid detection. In biomicrofluidic systems, it is also very powerful to integrate SERS based devices with specified micro-fluid flow fields to further focusing/enhancing/multiplexing SERS signals through molecule registration, concentration/accumulation, and allocation...
January 2018: Biomicrofluidics
M Haspeslagh, L Vlaminck, A Martens
The association between bovine papillomavirus (BPV) and equine sarcoids is well established, but it is unclear how the virus spreads. Although evidence in support of viral spread through direct animal contact exists, this does not explain sarcoid development in isolated equids. BPV DNA has been detected in flies, which could indicate that these insects serve as a vector. This study aimed to investigate whether BPV-negative stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans) become positive for BPV DNA after exposure to equine sarcoid or bovine papilloma tissue under experimental conditions and, if so, for how long...
January 2018: Veterinary Journal
Soo-Young Yum, Ki-Young Youn, Woo-Jae Choi, Goo Jang
The production of transgenic farm animals (e.g., cattle) via genome engineering for the gain or loss of gene functions is an important undertaking. In the initial stages of genome engineering, DNA micro-injection into one-cell stage embryos (zygotes) followed by embryo transfer into a recipient was performed because of the ease of the procedure. However, as this approach resulted in severe mosaicism and has a low efficiency, it is not typically employed in the cattle as priority, unlike in mice. To overcome the above issue with micro-injection in cattle, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was introduced and successfully used to produce cloned livestock...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Yuanqing Huang, Ning Chen, Dengshun Miao
To investigate whether pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ) plays an important role in rescuing Bmi-1-/- mice induced developmental disorders of teeth and mandible by regulating oxidative stress. We fed Bmi-1-/- mice a diet supplemented with PQQ (BKO+PQQ), BKO mice with normal diet (BKO) and wild type mice with normal diet (WT) as controls. We compared the differences of dental, mandibular phenotype by means of X-ray photography, micro CT scanning and three-dimensional reconstruction, HE staining, histochemistry, immunoistohemistry, TUNEL staining, Western blot and Flow cytometry in three groups of animals...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
María Soledad Vela Gurovic, Fátima R Viceconte, Marcelo T Pereyra, Maximiliano A Bidegain, María Amelia Cubitto
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) is a medicinal mushroom historically used in Asian countries to treat a wide variety of diseases and prolong life. In the last years, G. lucidum has been internationally recognized as an effective adjuvant in cancer treatment. Among active components, the most recent research indicates that polysaccharides modulate the immune response favoring the recovery from toxicity of chemo and radiotherapy while triterpenes are cytotoxic to tumoral cells mainly by altering gene expression...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ruiyi Li, Ling Liu, Haiyan Zhu, Zaijun Li
The paper reports synthesis of gold-palladium nanowaxberries(AuPd NWs)/dodecylamine-functionalized graphene quantum dots(D-GQDs)-graphene micro-aerogel(GMA). D-GQDs was used as a solid particle surfactant for stabilizing Pickering emulsion of toluene-in-graphene oxide aqueous dispersion. Graphene oxide sheets in the aqueous phase are reduced by hydrazine hydrate, diffused into the toluene droplet and self-assembled into graphene oxide micro-gels. Followed by freeze-drying, thermal annealing and hybridized with AuPd NWs...
May 30, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
G Kalaiarasi, S Rex Jeya Rajkumar, S Dharani, Nigam P Rath, R Prabhakaran
New Schiff base ligands are prepared by the condensation of 7-hydroxy-3-formylchromone with semicarbazone and phenyl semicarbazone. The complexation of these ligands with Cu(II) ion is proposed in the light of spectral studies (IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, Mass and ESR). In the complexes 1 and 2, the ligands coordinate to the Cu(II) ion in a neutral fashion via ONO donor atoms. The single crystal XRD studies reveal a slightly distorted square-pyramidal geometry for cationic complex (1) and an octahedral geometry for neutral complex (2)...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Stefanie Wagner, Frédéric Lagane, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Mikkel Schubert, Thibault Leroy, Erwan Guichoux, Emilie Chancerel, Inger Bech-Hebelstrup, Vincent Bernard, Cyrille Billard, Yves Billaud, Matthias Bolliger, Christophe Croutsch, Katarina Čufar, Frédérique Eynaud, Karl Uwe Heussner, Joachim Köninger, Fabien Langenegger, Frédéric Leroy, Christine Lima, Nicoletta Martinelli, Garry Momber, André Billamboz, Oliver Nelle, Antoni Palomo, Raquel Piqué, Marianne Ramstein, Roswitha Schweichel, Harald Stäuble, Willy Tegel, Xavier Terradas, Florence Verdin, Christophe Plomion, Antoine Kremer, Ludovic Orlando
Reconstructing the colonization and demographic dynamics that gave rise to extant forests is essential to forecasts of forest responses to environmental changes. Classical approaches to map how population of trees changed through space and time largely rely on pollen distribution patterns, with only a limited number of studies exploiting DNA molecules preserved in wooden tree archaeological and subfossil remains. Here, we advance such analyses by applying high throughput (HTS) DNA sequencing to wood archaeological and subfossil material for the first time, using a comprehensive sample of 167 European white oak waterlogged remains spanning a large temporal (from 550 to 9,800 years) and geographical range across Europe...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Syrie M Hermans, Hannah L Buckley, Gavin Lear
Using environmental DNA (eDNA) to assess the distribution of micro- and macro-organisms is becoming increasingly popular. However, the comparability and reliability of these studies is not well understood as we lack evidence on how different DNA extraction methods affect the detection of different organisms, and how this varies among sample types. Our aim was to quantify biases associated with six DNA extraction methods, and identify one which is optimal for eDNA research targeting multiple organisms and sample types...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Kaspar Burger, Monika Gullerova
Dicer is a key component of RNA interference (RNAi) and well-known for its role in biogenesis of micro (mi)RNA in the cytoplasm. Increasing evidence suggests that mammalian Dicer is also present and active in the nucleus. We have previously shown that phosphorylated human Dicer associates with chromatin in response to DNA damage and processes double-stranded (ds)RNA in the nucleus. However, a recent study by Much et al. investigated endogenously tagged HA-Dicer both in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (PMEFs) as well as adult homozygous viable and fertile HA-Dicer mice under physiological conditions and concluded that murine Dicer is exclusively cytoplasmic...
February 2, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Gianluca Bleve, Antonia Gallo, Claudio Altomare, Maurizio Vurro, Gabriele Maiorano, Angela Cardinali, Isabella D'Antuono, Guido Marchi, Giovanni Mita
Olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS) is causing severe damages to the olive trees in Salento (Apulia, Italy) and poses a severe threat for the agriculture of Mediterranean countries. DNA-Based Typing Methods have pointed out that OQDS is caused by a single outbreak strain of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca referred to as CoDiRO or ST53. Since no effective control measures are currently available, the objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial activities of different classes of compounds against Salento-1 isolated by a OQDS affected plant and classified as ST53...
December 27, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Jacobo Reyes-Velasco, Joseph D Manthey, Yann Bourgeois, Xenia Freilich, Stéphane Boissinot
Understanding the diversification of biological lineages is central to evolutionary studies. To properly study the process of speciation, it is necessary to link micro-evolutionary studies with macro-evolutionary mechanisms. Micro-evolutionary studies require proper sampling across a taxon's range to adequately infer genetic diversity. Here we use the grass frogs of the genus Ptychadena from the Ethiopian highlands as a model to study the process of lineage diversification in this unique biodiversity hotspot...
2018: PloS One
Jose L Gonzalez-Pimentel, Ana Z Miller, Valme Jurado, Leonila Laiz, Manuel F C Pereira, Cesareo Saiz-Jimenez
Microbial diversity in lava tubes from Canary Islands (Spain) has never been explored thus far offering a unique opportunity to study subsurface microbiology. Abundant yellow coloured mats developing on coralloid speleothems in a lava tube from La Palma Islands were studied by next-generation sequencing and DNA/RNA clone library analyses for investigating both total and metabolically active bacteria. In addition, morphological and mineralogical characterization was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), micro-computed tomography, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy to contextualize sequence data...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Angelina García, Maia Pauro, Graciela Bailliet, Claudio M Bravi, Darío A Demarchi
We present new data and analysis on the genetic variation of contemporary inhabitants of central Argentina, including a total of 812 unrelated individuals from 20 populations. Our goal was to bring new elements for understanding micro-evolutionary and historical processes that generated the genetic diversity of the region, using molecular markers of uniparental inheritance (mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome). Almost 76% of the individuals show mitochondrial lineages of American origin. The Native American haplogroups predominate in all surveyed localities, except in one...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
Casper van der Wel, Guido L van de Stolpe, Ruben W Verweij, Daniela J Kraft
Colloids coated with lipid membranes have been widely employed for fundamental studies of lipid membrane processes, biotechnological applications such as drug delivery and biosensing, and more recently, for self-assembly. The latter has been made possible by inserting DNA oligomers with covalently linked hydrophobic anchors into the membrane. The lateral mobility of the DNA linkers on micrometer-sized droplets and solid particles has opened the door to creating structures with unprecedented structural flexibility...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Mahboubeh Zarei, Navid Nezafat, Mohammad Hossein Morowvat, Ali Dehshahri, Mohammad Bagher Ghoshoon, Aydin Berenjian, Younes Ghasemi, Junhua Peng
BACKGROUND: Microgeographic studies of molecular markers could reveal the nature and dynamics of genetic diversity and the evolutionary driving forces shaping evolution. METHODS: The microclimatic genetic divergence of wild emmer wheat associated with solar radiation was investigated, in the present study, using multiple types of molecular markers including allozyme, amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), simple sequence repeat (SSR), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)...
January 24, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
L Cornara, A P Fortuna-Perez, I Bruni, A Salis, G Damonte, B Borghesi, M Clericuzio
Dried herbal preparations, based on "Zornia latifolia," are commonly sold on web, mainly for their supposed hallucinogenic properties. In this work, we demonstrate that these commercial products contain a different Fabacea, i.e., Stylosanthes guianensis, a cheaper plant, widely cultivated in tropical regions as a fodder legume. We were provided with plant samples of true Zornia latifolia from Brazil, and carried out a thorough comparison of the two species. The assignment of commercial samples was performed by means of micro-morphological analysis, DNA barcoding, and partial phytochemical investigation...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Iram Fatima, Sobia Kanwal, Tariq Mahmood
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress as well as bacterial and fungal infections are common source of diseases while plants are source of medication for curative or protective purposes. Hence, aim of study was to compare the pharmacological potential of seven grass species in two different solvents i.e. ethanol and acetone. METHODS: Preliminary phytochemical tests were done and antioxidant activities were evaluated using ELISA and their IC50 values and AAI (%) were recorded...
January 24, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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