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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319816/dna-polyplexes-with-dendritic-glycopolymer-entrapped-gold-nanoparticles
#1
Jens Rumschöttel, Sabine Kosmella, Claudia Prietzel, Dietmar Appelhans, Joachim Koetz
Polyplexes, composed of Salmon DNA and very small gold nanoparticles embedded into a dendritic glycopolymer architecture of sugar-modified poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI-Mal) with a molar mass of about 25,000g/mol, were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements, micro differential scanning calorimetry (μ-DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The PEI-Mal-entrapped gold nanoparticles of about 2nm in diameter influence the polyplex formation of the hyperbranched PEI containing bulky maltose, and in consequence the DNA is more compactized in the inner part of spherical polyplex particles of about 150nm in diameter...
March 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319809/abt-737-synergizes-with-cisplatin-bypassing-aberration-of-apoptotic-pathway-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
Eun Young Kim, Ji Ye Jung, Arum Kim, Yoon Soo Chang, Se Kyu Kim
A subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which does not have a druggable driver mutation, is treated with platinum-based cytotoxic chemotherapy, but it develops resistance triggered by DNA damage responses. Here, we investigated the effect of activation of STAT3 by cisplatin on anti-apoptotic proteins and the effectiveness of a co-treatment with cisplatin and a BH3 mimetic, ABT-737. We analyzed the relationship between cisplatin and STAT3 pathway and effect of ABT-737, when combined with cisplatin in NSCLC cells and K-ras mutant mouse models...
March 17, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319143/toxicity-effects-of-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-to-eisenia-fetida-at-enzyme-cellular-and-genetic-levels
#3
Tingting Ma, Wei Zhou, Li'ke Chen, Longhua Wu, Peter Christie, Haibo Zhang, Yongming Luo
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a dominant phthalic acid ester (PAE) that has aroused public concern due to its resistance to degradation and its toxicity as an endocrine-disrupting compound. Effects of different concentrations of DEHP on Eisenia fetida in spiked natural soil have been studied in the body of the earthworm by means of soil cultivation tests 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after exposure. The results indicated that, in general, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, metallothionein (MT) content, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) and all the tested geno-toxicity parameters are promoted as time elapses and with increasing concentration of DEHP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316112/molecular-ecology-studies-of-species-radiations-current-research-gaps-opportunities-and-challenges
#4
Marylaure de la Harpe, Margot Paris, Dirk N Karger, Jonathan Rolland, Michael Kessler, Nicolas Salamin, Christian Lexer
Understanding the drivers and limits of species radiations is a crucial goal of evolutionary genetics and molecular ecology, yet research on this topic has been hampered by the notorious difficulty of connecting micro- and macro-evolutionary approaches to studying the drivers of diversification. To chart the current research gaps, opportunities, and challenges of molecular ecology approaches to studying radiations, we examine the literature in the journal Molecular Ecology and re-visit recent high-profile examples of evolutionary genomic research on radiations...
March 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315820/evaluating-differential-nuclear-dna-yield-rates-and-osteocyte-numbers-among-human-bone-tissue-types-a-synchrotron-radiation-micro-ct-approach
#5
Janna M Andronowski, Amy Z Mundorff, Isaac V Pratt, Jon M Davoren, David M L Cooper
Molecular human identification has conventionally focused on DNA sampling from dense, weight-bearing cortical bone tissue, typically from femora or tibiae. A comparison of skeletal elements from three contemporary individuals demonstrated that elements with high quantities of cancellous bone yielded nuclear DNA at the highest rates, suggesting that preferentially sampling cortical bone may be suboptimal (Mundorff & Davoren, 2014). Despite these findings, the reason for the differential DNA yields between cortical and cancellous bone tissues remains unknown...
March 6, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306142/the-effect-of-smoking-on-inflammatory-and-bone-remodeling-markers-in-gingival-crevicular-fluid-and-subgingival-microbiota-following-periodontal-therapy
#6
D F Bunaes, M Mustafa, H G Mohamed, S A Lie, K N Leknes
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Periodontal health is mediated by suppressing microorganisms inducing a local inflammatory host response. Smoking may impair this process. This study compares gingival crevicular fluid levels of inflammatory and bone remodeling markers in heavy smokers and non-smokers following active and supportive periodontal therapy in patients with chronic periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gingival crevicular fluid and subgingival plaque were collected from the deepest periodontal pocket in 50 patients, 25 smokers and 25 non-smokers, at baseline (T0), following active (T1) and 12 mo of supportive periodontal therapy (T2)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302537/mcm2-expression-in-serrated-polyps-demonstrates-aberrant-cellular-proliferation
#7
Danielle Fortuna, Bruce Boman, Raymond O'Neil, Juan Palazzo
In normal colonic epithelium, the proliferative zone is limited to the lower half of the colonic crypt. Evaluating the changes in the colonic epithelial proliferation can be useful in understanding pathophysiology of various diseases. Our aim was to investigate the proliferative compartment of serrated polyps (SPs) using MCM2, a protein involved in DNA replication, and assess for changes along the SP spectrum. Immunohistochemistry was performed on serrated polyps (16 microvesicular-type hyperplastic polyps (HP), 58 sessile serrated adenomas (SSA), seven SSAs with dysplasia) and six sections of normal colon using anti-MCM2 antibody...
March 13, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297643/effects-of-polymer-length-and-salt-concentration-on-the-transport-of-ssdna-in-nanofluidic-channels
#8
Weixin Qian, Kentaro Doi, Satoyuki Kawano
Electrokinetic phenomena in micro/nanofluidic channels have attracted considerable attention because precise control of molecular transport in liquids is required to optically and electrically capture the behavior of single molecules. However, the detailed mechanisms of polymer transport influenced by electroosmotic flows and electric fields in micro/nanofluidic channels have not yet been elucidated. In this study, a Langevin dynamics simulation was used to investigate the electrokinetic transport of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in a cylindrical nanochannel, employing a coarse-grained bead-spring model that quantitatively reproduced the radius of gyration, diffusion coefficient, and electrophoretic mobility of the polymer...
March 14, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292668/free-dna-precipitates-calcium-phosphate-apatite-crystals-in-the-arterial-wall-in%C3%A2-vivo
#9
Raphaël Coscas, Marie Bensussan, Marie-Paule Jacob, Liliane Louedec, Ziad Massy, Jeremy Sadoine, Michel Daudon, Catherine Chaussain, Dominique Bazin, Jean-Baptiste Michel
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The arterial wall calcium score and circulating free DNA levels are now used in clinical practice as biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. Calcium phosphate apatite retention in the arterial wall necessitates precipitation on an anionic platform. Here, we explore the role of tissue-free DNA as such a platform. METHODS: The first step consisted of histological observation of samples from human and rat calcified arteries. Various stains were used to evaluate colocalization of free DNA with calcified tissue (alizarin red, fluorescent Hoechst, DNA immunostaining and TUNEL assay)...
March 4, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276344/a-new-fluorescence-turn-on-nanobiosensor-for-the-detection-of-micro-rna-21-based-on-a-dna-gold-nanocluster
#10
Morteza Hosseini, Elnaz Ahmadi, Yasaman-Sadat Borghei, Mohammad Reza Ganjali
In this study, DNA/gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) were used to develop an AuNC-based turn-on fluorescence probe for the analysis of mi-RNA-21, which is a potential screening biomarker for cancer detection. AuNCs on a DNA scaffold were prepared through a one-pot wet-chemical route and evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Experiments revealed that the fluorescence intensity of the DNA-AuNCs showed a gradual increase with the addition of the target species in a concentration range from 1pM to 10 nM...
March 8, 2017: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273634/dynamic-changes-of-epigenetic-signatures-during-chondrogenic-and-adipogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#11
REVIEW
Navid Saidi, Majdedin Ghalavand, Mohammad Sadegh Hashemzadeh, Ruhollah Dorostkar, Hamed Mohammadi, Ahmad Mahdian-Shakib
Extensive studies have been performed to clarify the processes during which mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into their lineage fates. In vitro differentiation of MSCs into distinct lineages have attracted the focus of a large number of clinical investigations. Although the gene expression profiling during differentiation of MSC toward bone, cartilage, and adipocytes is well established, the master regulators by which MSC fate can be controlled are not entirely determined. During differentiation of MSCs into a special cell fate, epigenetic mechanisms considered as the primary mediators that suppress the irrelevant genes and activate the genes required for a specific cell lineage...
March 5, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272420/a-millisecond-micro-rna-separation-technique-by-a-hybrid-structure-of-nanopillars-and-nanoslits
#12
Qiong Wu, Noritada Kaji, Takao Yasui, Sakon Rahong, Takeshi Yanagida, Masaki Kanai, Kazuki Nagashima, Manabu Tokeshi, Tomoji Kawai, Yoshinobu Baba
A millisecond micro-RNA separation of a mixture of total RNA and genomic DNA, extracted from cultured HeLa cells, was successfully achieved using a hybrid structure of nanopillars and nanoslits contained inside a microchannel. The nanopillars, 250-nm in diameter and 100-nm in height, were fabricated with a 750-nm space inside the nanoslits, which were 100-nm in height and 25-μm in width; the nanopillars were then applied as a new sieve matrix. This ultra-fast technique for the separation of miRNA can be an effective pretreatment for semiconductor nanopore DNA sequencing, which has an optimum reading speed of 1 base/ms to obtain effective signal-to-noise ratio and discriminate each base by ion or tunneling current during the passage of nucleic acids...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252872/powerplex%C3%A2-fusion-6c-system-evaluation-study-for-analysis-of-casework-and-database-samples
#13
Selena Cisana, Nicoletta Cerri, Alessandro Bosetti, Andrea Verzeletti, Venusia Cortellini
AIM: To report on the successful analysis of amplicons obtained with PowerPlex® Fusion 6C System, a highly robust 27-plex genotyping kit developed for human identification laboratories, on the Applied Biosystems® 3500 Genetic Analyzer. METHOD: We performed characterization and evaluation studies following the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) validation guidelines, examining several critical areas of kit performance. We report the results of sensitivity, robustness, heterozygous peak height ratio, precision, concordance, caseworks, and mixture interpretations...
February 28, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250429/exploring-the-microbial-community-microflora-associated-with-ovine-haemonchus-contortus-macroflora-field-strains
#14
Saeed El-Ashram, Xun Suo
High-throughput sequencing technology has shown tremendous promise for microbial community composition and diversity. Illumina MiSeq platform was exploited to study the microbial community associated with the different stages of the life-cycle of ovine Haemonchus contortus field strains using two distinct amplification primer sets (targeting V3-V4, and V5-V7). Scanning electron microscope and polymerase chain reaction coupled with Illumina MiSeq platform were employed to confirm the absence of any parasite surface contamination by intact bacteria or their DNA products...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247070/synthesis-spectral-characterization-sem-antimicrobial-antioxidative-activity-evaluation-dna-binding-and-dna-cleavage-investigation-of-transition-metal-ii-complexes-derived-from-a-tetradentate-schiff-base-bearing-thiophene-moiety
#15
Ayman A Abdel Aziz, Sabry H Seda
A novel series of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) mononuclear complexes have been synthesized involving a potentially tetradentate Schiff base ligand, which was obtained by condensation of 2-aminophenol with 2,5-thiophene-dicarboxaldehyde. The complexes were synthesized via reflux reaction of methanolic solution of the appropriate Schiff base ligand with one equivalent of corresponding metal acetate salt. Based on different techniques including micro analysis, FT-IR, NMR, UV-Vis, ESR, ESI-mass and conductivity measurements, four-coordinated geometry was assigned for all complexes...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245223/phylogeny-and-chromosomal-diversification-in-the-dichroplus-elongatus-species-group-orthoptera-melanoplinae
#16
Elio R D Castillo, Alberto Taffarel, Maximiliano M Maronna, María Marta Cigliano, Octavio M Palacios-Gimenez, Diogo C Cabral-de-Mello, Dardo A Martí
In an attempt to track the chromosomal differentiation in the Dichroplus elongatus species group, we analyzed the karyotypes of four species with classical cytogenetic and mapping several multigene families through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). We improved the taxon sampling of the D. elongatus species group adding new molecular data to infer the phylogeny of the genus and reconstruct the karyotype evolution. Our molecular analyses recovered a fully resolved tree with no evidence for the monophyly of Dichroplus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243661/reversible-dna-micro-patterning-using-the-fluorous-effect
#17
Gabriella E Flynn, Jamie M Withers, Gerard Macias, Justin R Sperling, Sarah L Henry, Jonathan M Cooper, Glenn A Burley, Alasdair W Clark
We describe a new method for the immobilisation of DNA into defined patterns with sub-micron resolution, using the fluorous effect. The method is fully reversible via a simple solvent wash, allowing the patterning, regeneration and re-patterning of surfaces with no degradation in binding efficiency following multiple removal/attachment cycles of different DNA sequences.
February 28, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243322/targeting-metabolic-remodeling-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-in-a-murine-model
#18
Verónica García-Castillo, Eduardo López-Urrutia, Octavio Villanueva-Sánchez, Miguel Á Ávila-Rodríguez, Alejandro Zentella-Dehesa, Carlo Cortés-González, César López-Camarillo, Nadia J Jacobo-Herrera, Carlos Pérez-Plasencia
Background: Chemotherapy is the backbone of systemic treatment for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), which is one of the most relevant breast cancers molecular types due to the ability of tumor cells to develop drug resistance, highlighting the urgent need to design newer and safer drug combinations for treatment. In this context, to overcome tumor cell drug resistance, we employed a novel combinatorial treatment including Doxorubicin, Metformin, and Sodium Oxamate (DoxMetOx). Such pharmacological combination targets indispensable hallmarks of cancer-related to aerobic glycolysis and DNA synthesis...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240729/epigenetics-applied-to-epidemiology-investigating-environmental-factors-and-lifestyle-influence-on-human-health
#19
Valeria Motta, Matteo Bonzini, Lotte Grevendonk, Simona Iodice, Valentina Bollati
Epigenetics modifications, that include variations in DNA methylation, histone acetylation and micro RNA (miRNA) expression, co-operate together, influencing genome expression and function, in response to exogenous stimuli or exposures. Thus, epigenetic tools applied to epidemiology are useful in investigating, at the population level, the relationships between exposures to environmental, lifestyle, genetic, socioeconomic risk factors, and the epigenome, and/or specific health outcomes. But the choice of an appropriate study design and of valid epidemiological methods has a key role in determining the achievement of the study...
February 15, 2017: La Medicina del Lavoro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237837/a-novel-dna-vaccine-platform-enhances-neo-antigen-like-t-cell-responses-against-wt1-to-break-tolerance-and-induce-anti-tumor-immunity
#20
Jewell N Walters, Bernadette Ferraro, Elizabeth K Duperret, Kimberly A Kraynyak, Jaemi Chu, Ashley Saint-Fleur, Jian Yan, Hy Levitsky, Amir S Khan, Niranjan Y Sardesai, David B Weiner
Tumor-associated antigens have emerged as important immunotherapeutic targets in the fight against cancer. Germline tumor antigens, such as WT1, Wilms' tumor gene 1, are overexpressed in many human malignancies but have low expression in somatic tissues. Recent vaccination approaches to target WT1 have been hampered by poor in vivo immune potency, likely due to the conserved self-antigen nature of WT1. In this study, we use a novel synthetic micro-consensus SynCon DNA vaccine approach with the goal of breaking tolerance and increasing vaccine immune potency...
February 22, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
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