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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676062/specific-spatial-localization-of-actin-and-dna-in-a-water-water-microdroplet-self-emergence-of-a-cell-like-structure
#1
Naoki Nakatani, Hiroki Sakuta, Masahito Hayashi, Shunsuke Tanaka, Kingo Takiguchi, Kanta Tsumoto, Kenichi Yoshikawa
We examined the effect of binary hydrophilic polymers on a pair of representative biomacromolecules in a living cell. The results showed that these biomacromolecules exhibited specific localization in cell-sized droplets that were spontaneously formed through water/water micro phase-segregation under crowding conditions with coexisting polymers. In our experiments, we used a simple binary polymer system with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dextran (DEX). Under conditions of micro phase-segregation, DNA was entrapped within cell-sized droplets rich in DEX...
April 19, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675319/technique-of-laser-chromosome-welding-for-chromosome-repair-and-artificial-chromosome-creation
#2
Yao-Xiong Huang, Lin Li, Liu Yang, Yi Zhang
Here we report a technique of laser chromosome welding that uses a violet pulse laser micro-beam for welding. The technique can integrate any size of a desired chromosome fragment into recipient chromosomes by combining with other techniques of laser chromosome manipulation such as chromosome cutting, moving, and stretching. We demonstrated that our method could perform chromosomal modifications with high precision, speed and ease of use in the absence of restriction enzymes, DNA ligases and DNA polymerases...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673061/decellularization-and-characterization-of-a-whole-intervertebral-disc-xenograft-scaffold
#3
Austin Hensley, Jess Rames, Victor Casler, Christopher Rood, Joshua Walters, Christopher Fernandez, Sanjitpal Gill, Jeremy Mercuri
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a multi-factor process that results in the physical destruction of the nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF). This compromises IVD function and causes significant disability and economic burden. Strategies to replace the entire composite structure of the IVD are limited and most approaches do not recapitulate the heterogenous biochemical composition, micro-architecture or mechanical properties of the native tissue. Our central hypothesis was that donor IVDs which resemble the size and biochemistry of human lumbar IVDs could be successfully decellularized while retaining the tissue's structure and function with the long-term goal of creating a composite scaffold for tissue engineering the human IVD...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671658/diversity-of-marine-planktonic-ostracods-in-south-china-sea-a-dna-taxonomy-approach
#4
Lei Xu, Lianggen Wang, Jiajia Ning, Hong Li, Yingying Ji, Feiyan Du
Ostracods (Crustacea, Ostracoda) are small bivalved crustaceans, contributing over 200 described species to the marine zooplankton community. They are widely distributed and are relatively abundant components of the mesozooplankton, playing an important role in the transport of organic matter to deep layers. However, identification of ostracods based on micro-morphological characters is extremely difficult and time-consuming. Previous fragmentary taxonomic studies of ostracods in the South China Sea (SCA), were based solely on morphology...
April 19, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671313/multicolor-3-dimensional-tracking-for-single-molecule-fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer-measurements
#5
Aaron M Keller, Matthew S DeVore, Dominik G Stich, Dung M Vu, Timothy Causgrove, James H Werner
Single molecule Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (smFRET) remains a widely utilized and powerful tool for quantifying heterogeneous interactions and conformational dynamics of biomolecules. However, traditional smFRET experiments are either limited to short observation times (typically less than 1 ms) in the case of "burst" confocal measurements, or require surface immo-bilization which usually has a temporal resolution limited by the camera framing rate. We developed a smFRET 3D tracking micro-scope that is capable of observing single particles for extended periods of time with high temporal resolution...
April 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668111/efficient-in-planta-gene-targeting-in-tomato-using-geminiviral-replicons-and-the-crispr-cas9-system
#6
Tal Dahan-Meir, Shdema Filler-Hayut, Cathy Melamed-Bessudo, Samuel Bocobza, Henryk Czosnek, Asaph Aharoni, Avraham A Levy
Current breeding relies mostly on random mutagenesis and recombination to generate novel genetic variation. However, targeted genome editing is becoming an increasingly important tool for precise plant breeding. Using the CRISPR-Cas system combined with the bean yellow dwarf virus rolling circle replicon we optimized a method for targeted mutagenesis and gene replacement in tomato. The carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO) and phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1) genes from the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway were chosen as targets due to their easily detectable change of phenotype...
April 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664222/recent-developments-and-clinical-potential-on-decellularized-adipose-tissue
#7
REVIEW
Jia Dong, Mei Yu, Yan Zhang, Yin Yin, Weidong Tian
Natural and synthetic materials have been developed to provide a three-dimensional (3-D) scaffold that mimics the extracellular matrix properties for tissue regeneration and reconstruction. On account of the excellent biological and mechanical properties, diverse decellularized tissue materials have been developed as natural scaffolds. Among them, decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) has generated great interest in recent years due to the extensiveness of the source and the eximious potential to enhance the regeneration and repair of damaged tissues...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661011/protein-extraction-from-human-anagen-head-hairs-1-millimeter-or-less-in-total-length
#8
Traci L Carlson, Mehdi Moini, Brian A Eckenrode, Brent M Allred, Joseph Donfack
A simple method for extracting protein from human anagen (i.e., actively growing hair stage) head hairs was developed in this study for cases of limited sample availability and/or studies of specific micro-features within a hair. The distinct feature segments of the hair from one donor were divided lengthwise (i.e., each of ∼200-400 μm) and then pooled for three individual hairs to form a total of eight composite hair samples (i.e., each of ∼1 mm or less in total length). The proteins were extracted, digested using trypsin, and characterized via nano-flow liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS)...
April 2018: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656238/terminal-deoxynucleotidyltransferase-the-story-of-an-untemplated-dna-polymerase-capable-of-dna-bridging-and-templated-synthesis-across-strands
#9
REVIEW
Jérôme Loc'h, Marc Delarue
Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT) is a member of the polX family which is involved in DNA repair. It has been known for years as an untemplated DNA polymerase used during V(D)J recombination to generate diversity at the CDR3 region of immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors. Recently, however, TdT was crystallized in the presence of a complete DNA synapsis made of two double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), each with a 3' protruding end, and overlapping with only one micro-homology base-pair, thus giving structural insight for the first time into DNA synthesis across strands...
April 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630045/investigation-of-protein-recruitment-to-dna-lesions-using-405-nm-laser-micro-irradiation
#10
Antoine Gaudreau-Lapierre, Daniel Garneau, Billel Djerir, Frédéric Coulombe, Théo Morin, Alexandre Marechal
The DNA Damage Response (DDR) uses a plethora of proteins to detect, signal, and repair DNA lesions. Delineating this response is critical to understand genome maintenance mechanisms. Since recruitment and exchange of proteins at lesions are highly dynamic, their study requires the ability to generate DNA damage in a rapid and spatially-delimited manner. Here, we describe procedures to locally induce DNA damage in human cells using a commonly available laser-scanning confocal microscope equipped with a 405 nm laser line...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625298/edna-based-bioassessment-of-coastal-sediments-impacted-by-an-oil-spill
#11
Yuwei Xie, Xiaowei Zhang, Jianghua Yang, Seonjin Kim, Seongjin Hong, John P Giesy, Un Hyuk Yim, Won Joon Shim, Hongxia Yu, Jong Seong Khim
Oil spills offshore can cause long-term ecological effects on coastal marine ecosystems. Despite their important ecological roles in the cycling of energy and nutrients in food webs, effects on bacteria, protists or arthropods are often neglected. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding was applied to characterize changes in the structure of micro- and macro-biota communities of surface sediments over a 7-year period since the occurrence of Hebei Spirit oil spill on December 7, 2007. Alterations in diversities and structures of micro- and macro-biota were observed in the contaminated area where concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were greater...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614790/microrna-regulation-of-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-tert-micro-machines-pull-strings-of-papier-m%C3%A3-ch%C3%A3-puppets
#12
REVIEW
Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Qaisar Mansoor, Nada Alaaeddine, Baojun Xu
Substantial fraction of high-quality information is continuously being added into the existing pool of knowledge related to the biology of telomeres. Based on the insights gleaned from decades of research, it is clear that chromosomal stability needs a highly controlled and dynamic balance of DNA gain and loss in each terminal tract of telomeric repeats. Telomeres are formed by tandem repeats of TTAGGG sequences, which are gradually lost with each round of division of the cells. Targeted inhibition of telomerase to effectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells has attracted tremendous attention and overwhelmingly increasingly list of telomerase inhibitors truthfully advocates pharmacological significance of telomerase...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614021/non-metastatic-cutaneous-melanoma-induces-chronodisruption-in-central-and-peripheral-circadian-clocks
#13
Leonardo Vinícius Monteiro de Assis, Maria Nathália Moraes, Keila Karoline Magalhães-Marques, Gabriela Sarti Kinker, Sanseray da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Ana Maria de Lauro Castrucci
The biological clock has received increasing interest due to its key role in regulating body homeostasis in a time-dependent manner. Cancer development and progression has been linked to a disrupted molecular clock; however, in melanoma, the role of the biological clock is largely unknown. We investigated the effects of the tumor on its micro- (TME) and macro-environments (TMaE) in a non-metastatic melanoma model. C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with murine B16-F10 melanoma cells and 2 weeks later the animals were euthanized every 6 h during 24 h...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609653/the-active-microbial-community-more-accurately-reflects-the-anaerobic-digestion-process-16s-rrna-gene-sequencing-as-a-predictive-tool
#14
Jo De Vrieze, Ameet J Pinto, William T Sloan, Umer Zeeshan Ijaz
BACKGROUND: Amplicon sequencing methods targeting the 16S rRNA gene have been used extensively to investigate microbial community composition and dynamics in anaerobic digestion. These methods successfully characterize amplicons but do not distinguish micro-organisms that are actually responsible for the process. In this research, the archaeal and bacterial community of 48 full-scale anaerobic digestion plants were evaluated on DNA (total community) and RNA (active community) level via 16S rRNA (gene) amplicon sequencing...
April 2, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607919/-rapidly-deteriorated-lobar-intracerebral-hemorrhages-possible-association-of-varicella-zoster-virus-vasculopathy
#15
Jun Takeshita, Eiichi Nomura, Makoto Takemaru, Takahiro Himeno, Yutaka Shimoe, Masaru Kuriyama
A 75-year-old man having dementia and lifestyle related diseases developed a lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (LICH) in the left parietal and a small cerebellar infarction in the left occipital lobe. Many micro bleeds (MB) due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in the subcortical areas and multiple vascular stenosis were also found by MRI and MRA. He developed herpes zoster in his buttocks on day 6 of hospitalization and complicated with varicella zoster virus (VZV) meningitis with positive for VZV-DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid...
March 31, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605448/neutrophils-and-redox-stress-in-the-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-disease
#16
REVIEW
Laurence Glennon-Alty, Angela P Hackett, Elinor A Chapman, Helen L Wright
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes, or neutrophils, are specialist phagocytic cells of the innate immune system. Their primary role is host defence against micro-organisms, which they kill via phagocytosis, followed by release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proteolytic enzymes within the phagosome. ROS are generated via the action of the NADPH oxidase (also known as NOX2), in a process termed the 'Respiratory Burst'. This process consumes large amounts of oxygen, which is converted into the highly-reactive superoxide radical O2 - and H2 O2 ...
March 29, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603526/multi-loci-identification-of-diaporthe-fungi-isolated-from-the-medicinal-plant-costus-spiralis-jacq-roscoe-costaceae
#17
Deyze Alencar Soares, Deyla Paula de Oliveira, Taides Tavares Dos Santos, Poliana Guerino Marson, Raphael Sanzio Pimenta
AIMS: The purpose of this study is to identify species from genus Diaporthe associated to a medicinal plant Costus spiralis by ITS, EF 1-α, TUB, and CAL gens. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 30 isolates from the genus Diaporthe associated with the medicinal plant Costus spiralis were characterized based on morphological characters and the micro-culture technique and grouped by DNA fingerprinting with the ISSP gene. Afterwards, a total of 12 isolates were selected for the identification of the species based on the comparative research on the BLAST through the sequences of the ITS gene...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596883/antagonistic-activities-of-mir-148a-and-dnmt1-ectopic-expression-of-mir-148a-impairs-dnmt1-mrna-and-dwindle-cell-proliferation-and-survival
#18
Dipta Sengupta, Moonmoon Deb, Samir Kumar Patra
Functional analyses of noncoding RNAs have associated many micro RNAs (miRNA, miR) with various physiological processes, including proliferation, differentiation, development, cell metabolism, and apoptosis. Aberrant expression of miRNA and imbalance in their functions may lead to cellular aberration and different disease development, including cancer. In silico analysis of miRNA target prediction suggested that miR-148a possess a binding site in the 3' UTR of DNMT1 mRNA which can cause silencing of DNMT1 gene...
March 26, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594214/sdf-1-cxcr4-expression-in-head-and-neck-cancer-and-outcome-after-postoperative-radiochemotherapy
#19
Chiara De-Colle, David Mönnich, Stefan Welz, Simon Boeke, Bence Sipos, Falko Fend, Paul-Stefan Mauz, Inge Tinhofer, Volker Budach, Jehad Abu Jawad, Martin Stuschke, Panagiotis Balermpas, Claus Rödel, Anca-Ligia Grosu, Amir Abdollahi, Jürgen Debus, Christine Bayer, Claus Belka, Steffi Pigorsch, Stephanie E Combs, Fabian Lohaus, Annett Linge, Mechthild Krause, Michael Baumann, Daniel Zips, Apostolos Menegakis
Introduction: Outcome after postoperative radiochemotherapy (RT-CT) for patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) remains unsatisfactory, especially among those with HPV negative tumours. Therefore, new biomarkers are needed to further define subgroups for individualised therapeutic approaches. Preclinical and first clinical observations showed that the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand SDF-1 (CXCL12) play an important role in tumour cell proliferation, survival, cancer progression, metastasis and treatment resistance...
August 2017: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575689/tunable-confinement-for-bridging-single-cell-manipulation-and-single-molecule-dna-linearization
#20
Miao Yu, Youmin Hou, Ruyuan Song, Xiaonan Xu, Shuhuai Yao
DNA linearization by nanoconfinement has offered a new avenue toward large-scale genome mapping. The ability to smoothly interface the widely different length scales from cell manipulation to DNA linearization is critical to the development of single-cell genomic mapping or sequencing technologies. Conventional nanochannel technologies for DNA analysis suffer from complex fabrication procedures, DNA stacking at the nanochannel entrance, and inefficient solution exchange. In this work, a dynamic and tunable confinement strategy is developed to manipulate and linearize genomic-length DNA molecules from a single cell...
March 25, 2018: Small
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