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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053694/use-of-a-recombinant-mosquito-densovirus-as-a-gene-delivery-vector-for-the-functional-analysis-of-genes-in-mosquito-larvae
#1
Pei-Wen Liu, Jia-Bao Xu, Yun-Qiao Dong, Xiao-Guang Chen, Jin-Bao Gu
In vivo microinjection is the most commonly used gene transfer technique for analyzing the gene functions in individual mosquitoes. However, this method requires a more technically demanding operation and involves complicated procedures, especially when used in larvae due to their small size, relatively thin and fragile cuticle, and high mortality, which limit its application. In contrast, viral vectors for gene delivery have been developed to surmount extracellular and intracellular barriers. These systems have the advantages of easy manipulation, high gene transduction efficiency, long-term maintenance of gene expression, and the ability to produce persistent effects in vivo...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051843/alterations-in-micro-rna-messenger-rna-mirna-mrna-coupled-signaling-networks-in-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-hippocampal-ca1
#2
V Jaber, Y Zhao, W J Lukiw
RNA sequencing, DNA microfluidic array, LED-Northern, Western immunoassay and bioinformatics analysis have uncovered a small family of up-regulated human brain enriched microRNAs (miRNAs) and down-regulated messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in short post-mortem interval (PMI) sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. At the mRNA level, a large majority of the expression of human brain genes found to be down-regulated in sporadic AD appears to be a consequence of an up-regulation of a specific group of NF-kB-inducible microRNAs (miRNAs)...
April 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049475/potential-of-aqueous-humor-as-a-surrogate-tumor-biopsy-for-retinoblastoma
#3
Jesse L Berry, Liya Xu, A Linn Murphree, Subramanian Krishnan, Kevin Stachelek, Emily Zolfaghari, Kathleen McGovern, Thomas C Lee, Anders Carlsson, Peter Kuhn, Jonathan W Kim, David Cobrinik, James Hicks
Importance: Retinoblastoma (Rb) is one of the first tumors to have a known genetic etiology. However, because biopsy of this tumor is contraindicated, it has not been possible to define the effects of secondary genetic changes on the disease course. Objective: To investigate whether the aqueous humor (AH) of Rb eyes has sufficient tumor-derived DNA to perform genetic analysis of the tumor, including DNA copy number alterations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This investigation was a case series study at a tertiary care hospital (Children's Hospital Los Angeles) with a large Rb treatment center...
October 12, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047346/mapping-eqtl-by-leveraging-multiple-tissues-and-dna-methylation
#4
Chaitanya R Acharya, Kouros Owzar, Andrew S Allen
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is an important tissue-specific epigenetic event that influences transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Differentially methylated CpG sites may act as mediators between genetic variation and gene expression, and this relationship can be exploited while mapping multi-tissue expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). Current multi-tissue eQTL mapping techniques are limited to only exploiting gene expression patterns across multiple tissues either in a joint tissue or tissue-by-tissue frameworks...
October 18, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045895/cgas-micro-manages-genotoxic-stress
#5
Mona Motwani, Katherine A Fitzgerald
Maintenance of genome integrity is essential to prevent cancer. Genotoxic stress drives damaged DNA out of the nucleus by forming micronuclei. Two studies in Nature reveal how the cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS gains access to the cargo within micronuclei to drive type I IFN responses.
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043999/study-of-global-dna-methylation-in-monozygotic-twins-with-cerebral-palsy
#6
Yuxiao Yuan
The objective of this paper is to study the global DNA Methylation in monozygotic (MZ) twins with cerebral palsy. Two pairs of twins (a cerebral palsy children, a normal child) admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were selected as subjects. The phenol-chloroform method was used to extract DNA from venous blood and micro satellite DNA genotyping technique was used to identify the eggs of the twins. DNA methylation fragments were enriched by MBD affinity column chromatography, followed by Solexa sequencing and bioinformatics analysis...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036472/measurement-of-nanoscale-dna-translocation-by-uracil-dna-glycosylase-in-human-cells
#7
Alexandre Esadze, Gaddiel Rodriguez, Brian P Weiser, Philip A Cole, James T Stivers
DNA 'sliding' by human repair enzymes is considered to be important for DNA damage detection. Here, we transfected uracil-containing DNA duplexes into human cells and measured the probability that nuclear human uracil DNA glycosylase (hUNG2) excised two uracil lesions spaced 10-80 bp apart in a single encounter without escaping the micro-volume containing the target sites. The two-site transfer probabilities were 100% and 54% at a 10 and 40 bp spacing, but dropped to only 10% at 80 bp. Enzyme trapping experiments suggested that site transfers over 40 bp followed a DNA 'hopping' pathway in human cells, indicating that authentic sliding does not occur even over this short distance...
September 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024035/the-role-of-human-papillomavirus-in-p16-positive-oral-cancers
#8
Simone Belobrov, Alyssa M Cornall, Richard J Young, Kendrick Koo, Christopher Angel, David Wiesenfeld, Danny Rischin, Suzanne M Garland, Michael McCullough
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to identify the presence and frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) nucleic acid in p16 positive oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), to assess if the virus were transcriptionally active, and to assess the utility of p16 overexpression as a surrogate marker for HPV in OSCC. METHODS: Forty-six OSCC patients treated between 2007 and 2011 with available formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) specimens were included. Twenty-three patients were positive for p16 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and these were matched with 23 patients with p16 negative tumours...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017848/suppression-of-cotton-leaf-curl-disease-symptoms-in-gossypium-hirsutum-through-over-expression-of-host-encoded-mirnas
#9
Mohd Akmal, Mirza S Baig, Jawaid A Khan
Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD), a major factor resulting in the enormous yield losses in cotton crop, is caused by a distinct monopartite begomovirus in association with Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). Micro(mi)RNAs are known to regulate gene expression in eukaryotes, including antiviral defense in plants. In a previous study, we had computationally identified a set of cotton miRNAs, which were shown to have potential targets in the genomes of Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) and CLCuMB at multiple loci...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993426/effect-of-diabetes-status-and-hyperglycemia-on-global-dna-methylation-and-hydroxymethylation
#10
Jairo Arturo Pinzón-Cortés, Angelina Perna-Chaux, Nicolás Steven Rojas-Villamizar, Angelica Diaz-Basabe, Diana Carolina Polania-Villanueva, María Fernanda Jacome, Carlos Olimpo Mendivil, Helena Groot, Valeriano López-Segura
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by oxidative stress that could lead to chronic micro- and macro-vascular complications. We hypothesized that some of the target organ damage is mediated by oxidative alterations in epigenetic mechanisms involving DNA methylation (5mC) and DNA hydroxymethylation (5hmC). We analyzed global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in peripheral blood cells in well-controlled and poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and compared them to healthy controls...
October 9, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984132/evaluating-single-cell-dna-damage-induced-by-enhanced-radiation-on-gold-nanofilm-patch
#11
Yong Qiao, Yuanshuai Zhou, Tongqian Xiao, Zhiwei Zhang, Liyuan Ma, Ming Su, Guangli Suo
Although radiotherapy is a general oncology treatment and often synergistically applied with surgery and chemotherapy, it can cause side effect during and after treatment. Gold nanoparticle was studied as a potential material to enhance radiation to induce damage in cancer cells. But few studies are conducted to examine the effects of gold nanofilm on cell impairment under X-ray treatment. This paper described a micro-fabrication based single cell array platform to evaluate DNA damage induced by enhanced X-ray radiation on gold nanofilm patches (GNFPes)...
October 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984078/controlling-non-equilibrium-structure-formation-on-the-nanoscale
#12
Benedikt Buchmann, Fabian Manfed Hecht, Carla Pernpeintner, Theobald Lohmüller, Andreas Bausch
Controlling the structure formation of gold nanoparticle aggregates is a promising approach towards novel applications in many fields, ranging from (bio-)sensing to (bio-)imaging to medical diagnostics and therapeutics. To steer structure formation, the DNA-DNA interactions of DNA strands that are coated to the surface of the particles have become a valuable tool to achieve precise control over the inter-particle potentials. In equilibrium approaches this technique is commonly used to study particle crystallization and ligand binding...
October 6, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983919/role-of-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-in-tumor-biology
#13
REVIEW
Aman Sharma
Exosomes are nano-scale messengers loaded with bio-molecular cargo of RNA, DNA, and Proteins. As a master regulator of cellular signalling, stem cell (both normal, and cancer stem cells) secreted exosome orchestrate various autocrine and paracrine functions which alter tumor micro-environment, growth and progression. Exosomes secreted by one of the two important stem cell phenotypes in cancers a) Mesenchymal stem cells, and b) Cancer stem cells not only promote cancerous growth but also impart therapy resistance in cancer cells...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981935/-application-of-array-comparative-genomic-hybridization-analysis-for-fetuses-with-growth-anomalies
#14
Lin Wang, Xiaobin Wang, Na Cai, Bin He, Qiuhua Wu, Wei Li, Liping Zhang, Xiaoping Ma, Rong Qiang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic etiology for fetuses featuring intrauterine growth anomalies using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). METHODS: Forty-nine fetuses were enrolled in this study. Genomic DNA of the abortive tissues was analyzed with aCGH. RESULTS: Fourteen (28.6%) samples were found with chromosomal aberrations, which included 8 chromosomal aneuploidies and 6 micro-aberrations (4 with known clinical pathogenecity and 2 with unknown clinical significance)...
October 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977757/isolation-of-mitochondrial-dna-from-single-short-hairs-without-roots-using-pressure-cycling-technology
#15
Kathryn A Harper, Kelly A Meiklejohn, Richard T Merritt, Jessica Walker, Constance L Fisher, James M Robertson
Hairs are commonly submitted as evidence to forensic laboratories, but standard nuclear DNA analysis is not always possible. Mitochondria (mt) provide another source of genetic material; however, manual isolation is laborious. In a proof-of-concept study, we assessed pressure cycling technology (PCT; an automated approach that subjects samples to varying cycles of high and low pressure) for extracting mtDNA from single, short hairs without roots. Using three microscopically similar donors, we determined the ideal PCT conditions and compared those yields to those obtained using the traditional manual micro-tissue grinder method...
October 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974981/docking-study-synthesis-and-antimicrobial-evaluation-of-some-novel-4-anilinoquinazoline-derivatives
#16
Rezvan Rezaee Nasab, Farshid Hassanzadeh, Ghadam Ali Khodarahmi, Mahboubeh Rostami, Mahmoud Mirzaei, Ali Jahanian-Najafabadi, Mahboubeh Mansourian
A series of novel 4-anilinoquinazoline derivatives were designed and synthesized from benzoic acid through ring closure, chlorination or nucleophilic substitution. The structures of compounds were characterized by IR, (1)H-NMR and mass spectroscopy. All synthesized derivatives were screened for their antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aurous, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocitogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella entritidis) bacteria and also for antifungal activities against Candida albicans using the conventional micro dilution method...
October 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972812/antimicrobial-effects-of-three-different-treatment-modalities-on-dental-implant-surfaces
#17
Olav Inge Larsen, Morten Enersen, Anne Karin Kristoffersen, Ann Wennerberg, Dagmar F Bunæs, Stein Atle Lie, Knut N Leknes
Resolution of peri-implant inflammation and re-osseointegration of peri-implantitis affected dental implants seem to be dependent on bacterial decontamination. The aims of the this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of three different instrumentations on a micro-textured dental implant surface contaminated with an avirulent or a virulent Porphyromonas gingivalis strain and to determine alterations to the implant surface following instrumentation. Forty-five dental implants (Straumann SLA) were allocated to three treatment groups: Er:YAG laser, chitosan brush, and titanium curette (10 implants each), a positive (10 implants) and a negative (five implants) control...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960362/microorganisms-growing-on-rapeseed-during-storage-affect-the-profile-of-volatile-compounds-of-virgin-rapeseed-oil
#18
Claudia Wagner, Anja Bonte, Ludger Brühl, Karsten Niehaus, Hanna Bednarz, Bertrand Matthäus
BACKGROUND: Micro-organisms populate on rapeseed after harvest during storage depending on the growing conditions. The composition of the bacterial colonization is unknown and its contribution to the profile of volatile aroma-active compounds that determines the sensory quality of virgin cold-pressed rapeseed oil. RESULTS: From four rapeseed samples 46 bacterial strains were isolated. By DNA-sequencing the identification of four bacteria species and of 17 bacteria genera was possible...
September 27, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959349/computational-identification-of-micrornas-and-their-transcript-target-s-in-field-mustard-brassica-rapa-l
#19
Behzad Hajieghrari, Naser Farrokhi, Bahram Goliaei, Kaveh Kavousi
BACKGROUND: Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are a pivotal part of non-protein-coding endogenous small RNA molecules that regulate the genes involved in plant growth and development, and respond to biotic and abiotic environmental stresses posttranscriptionally. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we report the results of a systemic search for identification of new miRNAs in B. rapa using homology-based ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags) analysis and considering a series of fi ltration criteria...
March 2017: Iranian journal of biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950676/association-between-microrna-146a-and-microrna-196a2-genes-polymorphism-and-breast-cancer-risk-in-north-indian-women
#20
Vijay Kumar Bodal, Shruti Sangwan, Manjit Singh Bal, Mohanvir Kaur, Sidarth Sharma, Bhavleen Kaur
Background: Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules. They can function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) present in the pre-miRNA region could affect the processing of miRNA and thus alter mature miRNA expression. The studies done so far had shown conflicting results regarding association of two common polymorphisms i.e.hsa-miR-146 rs2910164 and hsa-miR-196a2 rs11614913 with breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: In the study, we examined the hsa-miR-146 rs2910164 and hsa-miR-196a2 rs11614913 SNP association with breast cancer patients in north Indian women...
September 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
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