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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430279/microcontact-printing-with-aminosilanes-creating-biomolecule-micro-and-nanoarrays-for-multiplexed-microfluidic-bioassays
#1
Shivani Sathish, Sébastien G Ricoult, Kazumi Toda-Peters, Amy Q Shen
Microfluidic systems integrated with protein and DNA micro- and nanoarrays have been the most sought-after technologies to satisfy the growing demand for high-throughput disease diagnostics. As the sensitivity of these systems relies on the bio-functionalities of the patterned recognition biomolecules, the primary concern has been to develop simple technologies that enable biomolecule immobilization within microfluidic devices whilst preserving bio-functionalities. To address this concern, we introduce a two-step patterning approach to create micro- and nanoarrays of biomolecules within microfluidic devices...
April 21, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428114/epigenetics-the-third-pillar-of-nitric-oxide-signaling
#2
REVIEW
Samantha Socco, Rhea C Bovee, Marianne B Palczewski, Jason R Hickok, Douglas D Thomas
Nitric oxide (NO), the endogenously produced free radical signaling molecule, is generally thought to function via its interactions with heme-containing proteins, such as soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), or by the formation of protein adducts containing nitrogen oxide functional groups (such as S-nitrosothiols, 3-nitrotyrosine, and dinitrosyliron complexes). These two types of interactions result in a multitude of down-stream effects that regulate numerous functions in physiology and disease. Of the numerous purported NO signaling mechanisms, epigenetic regulation has gained considerable interest in recent years...
April 17, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423546/tetraspanin-8-tspan-8-as-a-potential-target-for-radio-immunotherapy-of-colorectal-cancer
#3
Aurelie Maisonial-Besset, Tiffany Witkowski, Isabelle Navarro-Teulon, Odile Berthier-Vergnes, Giovanna Fois, Yingying Zhu, Sophie Besse, Olivia Bawa, Arnaud Briat, Mercedes Quintana, Alexandre Pichard, Mathilde Bonnet, Eric Rubinstein, Jean-Pierre Pouget, Paule Opolon, Lydia Maigne, Elisabeth Miot-Noirault, Jean-Michel Chezal, Claude Boucheix, Françoise Degoul
Tetraspanin 8 (TSPAN8) overexpression is correlated with poor prognosis in human colorectal cancer (CRC). A murine mAb Ts29.2 specific for human TSPAN8 provided significant efficiency for immunotherapy in CRC pre-clinical models. We therefore evaluate the feasability of targeting TSPAN8 in CRC with radiolabeled Ts29.2. Staining of tissue micro-arrays with Ts29.2 revealed that TSPAN8 espression was restricted to a few human healthy tissues. DOTA-Ts29.2 was radiolabeled with 111In or 177Lu with radiochemical purities >95%, specific activity ranging from 300 to 600 MBq/mg, and radioimmunoreactive fractions >80%...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422993/th17-micro-milieu-regulates-nlrp1-dependent-caspase-5-activity-in-skin-autoinflammation
#4
Stephanie Zwicker, Eva Hattinger, Daniela Bureik, Aleksandra Batycka-Baran, Andreas Schmidt, Peter-Arne Gerber, Simon Rothenfusser, Michel Gilliet, Thomas Ruzicka, Ronald Wolf
IL-1β is a potent player in cutaneous inflammation and central for the development of a Th17 micro-milieu in autoinflammatory diseases including psoriasis. Its production is controlled at the transcriptional level and by subsequent posttranslational processing via inflammatory caspases. In this study, we detected inflammatory caspase-5 active in epidermal keratinocytes and in psoriatic skin lesions. Further, interferon-γ and interleukin-17A synergistically induced caspase-5 expression in cultured keratinocytes, which was dependent on the antimicrobial peptide psoriasin (S100A7)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418813/radiation-induced-deletions-in-mouse-spermatogonia-are-usually-large-over-200-kb-and-contain-little-sequence-similarity-at-the-junctions
#5
Mieko Kodaira, Jun-Ichi Asakawa, Nori Nakamura
Ionizing radiation can induce mutations, and the majority of radiation-induced mutations in mammalian cells are deletions. The most critical types of radiation-induced DNA damage are DNA double-strand breaks, and these breaks are repaired by either the homologous recombination (HR) pathway or the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. The HR pathway is not as mutagenic as the NHEJ pathway, and it is expected that radiation-induced deletions would usually have little sequence similarity around the deletion junction points...
April 18, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414941/endo-symbiont-mediated-synthesis-of-gold-nanobactericides-and-their-activity-against-human-pathogenic-bacteria
#6
Baker Syed, Nagendra Prasad M N, Mohan Kumar K, Dhananjaya B L, Sreedharamurthy Satish
Synthesis of gold nanobactericides (AuNBs) were achieved by treating 1mM chloroaurate with cell free supernatant of Aneurinibacillus migulanus. Formation of AuNBs was initially was monitored with change in colour to ruby red. Further confirmation was assessed with UV-visible spectra with maximum absorption occurring at 510nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed the polydispersity of AuNBs with size distribution ranging from 10 to 60nm with an average size of 30nm. Crystalline nature was studied using X-ray diffraction which exhibited characteristic peaks indexed to Bragg's reflection at 2θ angle which confers (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes suggesting AuNBs were face-centred cubic...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414692/neuronal-fibers-and-neurotransmitter-receptor-expression-in-the-human-endolymphatic-sac
#7
Martin Nue Møller, Svend Kirkeby, Jonas Vikeså, Finn Cilius Nielsen, Per Cayé-Thomasen
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggest that the human endolymphatic sac (ES) may have multiple functions, including an ion-transport capacity comparable to the kidney, an immunological capacity and a possible natriuretic capacity. Further, there have been speculations of a yet undefined role in intracranial pressure homeostasis. The anatomical location towards the sigmoid sinus would suggest a possible endo- and/or paracrine signaling. However, neuronal connections may also apply, but it remains very scarcely explored in the human ES...
April 14, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411076/interaction-of-a-common-painkiller-piroxicam-and-copper-piroxicam-with-chromatin-causes-structural-alterations-accompanied-by-modulation-at-the-epigenomic-genomic-level
#8
Sathi Goswami, Sulagna Sanyal, Payal Chakraborty, Chandrima Das, Munna Sarkar
BACKGROUND: NSAIDs are the most common class of painkillers and anti-inflammatory agents. They also show other functions like chemoprevention and chemosuppression for which they act at the protein but not at the genome level since they are mostly anions at physiological pH, which prohibit their approach to the poly-anionic DNA. Complexing the drugs with bioactive metal obliterate their negative charge and allow them to bind to the DNA, thereby, opening the possibility of genome level interaction...
April 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408603/single-cell-whole-genome-analyses-by-linear-amplification-via-transposon-insertion-lianti
#9
Chongyi Chen, Dong Xing, Longzhi Tan, Heng Li, Guangyu Zhou, Lei Huang, X Sunney Xie
Single-cell genomics is important for biology and medicine. However, current whole-genome amplification (WGA) methods are limited by low accuracy of copy-number variation (CNV) detection and low amplification fidelity. Here we report an improved single-cell WGA method, Linear Amplification via Transposon Insertion (LIANTI), which outperforms existing methods, enabling micro-CNV detection with kilobase resolution. This allowed direct observation of stochastic firing of DNA replication origins, which differs from cell to cell...
April 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405177/mapping-mitochondrial-heteroplasmy-in-a-leydig-tumor-by-laser-capture-micro-dissection-and-cycling-temperature-capillary-electrophoresis
#10
Paulo Refinetti, Christian Arstad, William G Thilly, Stephan Morgenthaler, Per Olaf Ekstrøm
BACKGROUND: The growth of tumor cells is accompanied by mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial genomes creating marked genetic heterogeneity. Tumors also contain non-tumor cells of various origins. An observed somatic mitochondrial mutation would have occurred in a founding cell and spread through cell division. Micro-anatomical dissection of a tumor coupled with assays for mitochondrial point mutations permits new insights into this growth process. More generally, the ability to detect and trace, at a histological level, somatic mitochondrial mutations in human tissues and tumors, makes these mutations into markers for lineage tracing...
2017: BMC Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404508/model-based-analyses-reveal-insular-population-diversification-and-cryptic-frog-species-in-the-ischnocnema-parva-complex-in-the-atlantic-forest-of-brazil
#11
Marcelo Gehara, Adriane Barth, Eliana Faria de Oliveira, Marco Antonio Costa, Célio Fernando Baptista Haddad, Miguel Vences
The Atlantic Forest (AF) of Brazil has long been recognized as a biodiversity conservation hotspot. Despite decades of studies the species inventory of this biome continues to increase with the discovery of cryptic diversity and the description of new species. Different diversification mechanisms have been proposed to explain the diversity in the region, including models of forest dynamics, barriers to gene flow and dispersal. Also, sea level change is thought to have influenced coastal diversification and isolated populations on continental islands...
April 9, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397060/monte-carlo-simulation-of-the-rbe-of-i-131-radiation-using-dna-damage-as-biomarker
#12
Ahad Ollah Ezzati, Ali Mahmoud-Pashazadeh, Matthew T Studenski
In general, a weighting factor of one is applied for low linear energy transfer radiations. However, several studies indicate that relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of low energy photons and electrons is greater than one. The aim of this current study was calculating the RBE of I-131 radiation relative to Co-60 gamma photons in 100 μm spheroid cells using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. These calculations were compared to experimentally measured results. MCNPX2.6 was used to simulate the I-131 and Co-60 irradiation setups and calculate the secondary electron spectra at energies higher than 1 keV with varying oxygen concentrations...
April 10, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394904/discordant-population-histories-of-host-and-its-parasite-a-role-for-ecological-permeability-of-extreme-environment
#13
Dagmar Jirsová, Jan Štefka, Miloslav Jirků
Biogeographical and ecological barriers strongly affect the course of micro-evolutionary processes in free living organisms. Here we assess the impact of a recently emerged barrier on populations of limnic fauna. Genetic diversity and population structure in a host-parasite system (Wenyonia virilis tapeworm, Synodontis schall catfish) are analyzed in the recently divided Turkana and Nile basins. The two basins, were repeatedly connected during the Holocene wet/dry climatic oscillations, following late Pleistocene dessication of the Turkana basin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394451/ancient-dna-analysis-identifies-marine-mollusc-shells-as-new-metagenomic-archives-of-the-past
#14
Clio Der Sarkissian, Vianney Pichereau, Catherine Dupont, Peter C Ilsøe, Mickael Perrigault, Paul Butler, Laurent Chauvaud, Jón Eiríksson, James Scourse, Christine Paillard, Ludovic Orlando
Marine mollusc shells enclose a wealth of information on coastal organisms and their environment. Their life history traits as well as (palaeo-) environmental conditions, including temperature, food availability, salinity, and pollution, can be traced through the analysis of their shell (micro-) structure and biogeochemical composition. Adding to this list the DNA entrapped in shell carbonate biominerals potentially offers a novel and complementary proxy both for reconstructing palaeoenvironments and tracking mollusc evolutionary trajectories...
April 10, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389511/epigenetic-regulation-of-kpc1-ubiquitin-ligase-effects-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-melanoma
#15
Yuuki Iida, Aaron Ciechanover, Diego M Marzese, Keisuke Hata, Matias Bustos, Shigeshi Ono, Jinhua Wang, Matthew P Salomon, Kevin Tran, Stella Lam, Sandy C Hsu, Nellie Nelson, Yelena Kravtsova-Ivantsiv, Gordon B Mills, Michael A Davies, Dave Sb Hoon
PURPOSE: Abnormal activation of the NF-κB pathway induces a more aggressive phenotype of cutaneous melanoma. Understanding the mechanisms involved in melanoma NF-κB activation may identify novel targets for this pathway. KPC1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is a regulator of NF-κB pathway. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms regulating KPC1 expression and its clinical impact in melanoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The clinical impact of KPC1 expression and its epigenetic regulation were assessed in large cohorts of clinically well-annotated melanoma tissues (tissue micro-arrays; n=137, JWCI cohort; n=40) and The Cancer Genome Atlas database (TCGA cohort, n=370)...
April 7, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374902/impact-of-microrna-375-and-its-target-gene-smad-7-polymorphism-on-susceptibility-of-colorectal-cancer
#16
Olfat Gamil Shaker, Shereen Rashad Mohammed, Asmaa Mohammed Mohammed, Zeinab Mahmoud
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a high morbidity and mortality. Many studies reported that mir-375 is frequently down-regulated in many cancers including esophageal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, breast cancer and leukemias. AIM: Our aim was to study the expression of microRNA-375 and its target gene SMAD-7 polymorphisms (rs4939827) in CRC patients in comparison to control subjects and to correlate these results with clinical data of patients to elucidate their role in pathogenesis and early diagnosis of CRC...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373576/dual-bioluminescence-and-near-infrared-fluorescence-monitoring-to-evaluate-spherical-nucleic-acid-nanoconjugate-activity-in-vivo
#17
Timothy L Sita, Fotini M Kouri, Lisa A Hurley, Timothy J Merkel, Alexandra Chalastanis, Jasmine L May, Serena T Ghelfi, Lisa E Cole, Thomas C Cayton, Stacey N Barnaby, Anthony J Sprangers, Nikunjkumar Savalia, Charles David James, Andrew Lee, Chad A Mirkin, Alexander H Stegh
RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene regulation platforms have shown promise as a novel class of therapeutics for the precision treatment of cancer. Techniques in preclinical evaluation of RNAi-based nanoconjugates have yet to allow for optimization of their gene regulatory activity. We have developed spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) as a blood-brain barrier-/blood-tumor barrier-penetrating nanoconjugate to deliver small interfering (si) and micro (mi)RNAs to intracranial glioblastoma (GBM) tumor sites. To identify high-activity SNA conjugates and to determine optimal SNA treatment regimens, we developed a reporter xenograft model to evaluate SNA efficacy in vivo...
April 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369405/cost-effectiveness-of-an-hpv-self-collection-campaign-in-uganda-comparing-models-for-delivery-of-cervical-cancer-screening-in-a-low-income-setting
#18
Nicole G Campos, Vivien Tsu, Jose Jeronimo, Denise Njama-Meya, Mercy Mvundura, Jane J Kim
With the availability of a low-cost HPV DNA test that can be administered by either a healthcare provider or a woman herself, programme planners require information on the costs and cost-effectiveness of implementing cervical cancer screening programmes in low-resource settings under different models of healthcare delivery. Using data from the START-UP demonstration project and a micro-costing approach, we estimated the health and economic impact of once-in-a-lifetime HPV self-collection campaign relative to clinic-based provider-collection of HPV specimens in Uganda...
February 20, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364179/applications-and-theory-of-electrokinetic-enrichment-in-micro-nanofluidic-chips
#19
Xueye Chen, Shuai Zhang, Lei Zhang, Zhen Yao, Xiaodong Chen, Yue Zheng, Yanlin Liu
This review reports the progress on the recent development of electrokinetic enrichment in micro-nanofluidic chips. The governing equations of electrokinetic enrichment in micro-nanofluidic chips are given. Various enrichment applications including protein analysis, DNA analysis, bacteria analysis, viruses analysis and cell analysis are illustrated and discussed. The advantages and difficulties of each enrichment method are expatiated. This paper will provide a particularly convenient and valuable reference to those who intend to research the electrokinetic enrichment based on micro-nanofluidic chips...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364014/radium-223-inhibits-osseous-prostate-cancer-growth-by-dual-targeting-of-cancer-cells-and-bone-microenvironment-in-mouse-models
#20
Mari I Suominen, Katja M Fagerlund, Jukka P Rissanen, Yvonne M Konkol, Jukka P Morko, ZhiQi Peng, Esa J Alhoniemi, Salla K Laine, Eva Corey, Dominik Mumberg, Karl Ziegelbauer, Sanna-Maria Käkönen, Jussi Halleen, Robert L Vessella, Arne Scholz
Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223, Xofigo®), a targeted alpha therapy, is currently used for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with bone metastases. This study examines the mode-of-action and antitumor efficacy of radium-223 in two prostate cancer xenograft models. <br /><br />Experimental Design: Mice bearing intratibial LNCaP or LuCaP 58 tumors were randomized to groups (n = 12-17) based on lesion grade and/or serum PSA level and administered with radium-223 (300 kBq/kg) or vehicle, twice at 4-week intervals...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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