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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034239/hepatoid-adenocarcinoma-of-the-stomach-a-challenging-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-disease-through-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Najla Fakhruddin, Hisham F Bahmad, Tarek Aridi, Yara Yammine, Rami Mahfouz, Fouad Boulos, Ahmad Awada, Fadi Farhat
Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach (HAS) is a rare aggressive tumor with hepatocellular differentiation. HAS often produces alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and metastasizes to the lymph nodes and the liver. Molecular studies revealed Her2 amplification and overexpression, association with p53 mutations, but no association with KRAS mutations. EGFR and BRAF mutations have not yet been evaluated in hepatoid carcinoma of the stomach so far. Hereby, we present a case of a 41-year-old female patient with HAS with high AFP level and liver metastases...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027701/cellular-and-molecular-characterization-of-idh1-mutated-diffuse-low-grade-gliomas-reveals-tumor-heterogeneity-and-absence-of-egfr-pdgfr%C3%AE-activation
#2
S Azar, N Leventoux, C Ripoll, V Rigau, C Gozé, F Lorcy, L Bauchet, H Duffau, P O Guichet, B Rothhut, J P Hugnot
Diffuse low grade gliomas (DLGG, grade II gliomas) are slowly-growing brain tumors that often progress into high grade gliomas. Most tumors have a missense mutation for IDH1 combined with 1p19q codeletion in oligodendrogliomas or ATRX/TP53 mutations in astrocytomas. The phenotype of tumoral cells, their environment and the pathways activated in these tumors are still ill-defined and are mainly based on genomics and transcriptomics analysis. Here we used freshly-resected tumors to accurately characterize the tumoral cell population and their environment...
October 13, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982980/inhibition-of-the-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-smad-cascade-mitigates-the-anti-neurogenic-effects-of-the-carbamate-pesticide-carbofuran
#3
Brashket Seth, Anuradha Yadav, Swati Agarwal, Shashi Kant Tiwari, Rajnish Kumar Chaturvedi
The widely used carbamate pesticide carbofuran causes neurophysiological and neurobehavioral deficits in rodents and humans and therefore poses serious health hazards around the world. Previously, we reported that gestational carbofuran exposure has detrimental effects on hippocampal neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons from neural stem cells (NSC), in offspring. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms for carbofuran-impaired neurogenesis remain unknown. Herein, we observed that chronic carbofuran exposure from gestational day 7 to postnatal day 21 altered expression of genes and transcription factors and levels of proteins involved in neurogenesis and the TGF-β pathway (i...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980356/remapping-the-microtubule-landscape-how-phosphorylation-dictates-the-activities-of-microtubule-associated-proteins
#4
REVIEW
Amrita Ramkumar, Brigette Y Jong, Kassandra M Ori-McKenney
Classical microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) were originally identified based on their co-purification with microtubules assembled from mammalian brain lysate. They have since been found to perform a range of functions involved in regulating the dynamics of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Most of these MAPs play integral roles in microtubule organization during neuronal development, microtubule remodeling during neuronal activity, and microtubule stabilization during neuronal maintenance. As a result, mutations in MAPs contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, psychiatric conditions, and neurodegenerative diseases...
October 4, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972396/intranasal-nerve-growth-factor-administration-improves-cerebral-functions-in-a-child-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#5
Antonio Chiaretti, Giorgio Conti, Benedetto Falsini, Danilo Buonsenso, Matteo Crasti, Luigi Manni, Marzia Soligo, Claudia Fantacci, Orazio Genovese, Maria Lucia Calcagni, Daniela Di Giuda, Maria Vittoria Mattoli, Fabrizio Cocciolillo, Pietro Ferrara, Antonio Ruggiero, Susanna Staccioli, Giovanna Stefania Colafati, Riccardo Riccardi
BACKGROUND: Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes neural recovery after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) supporting neuronal growth, differentiation and survival of brain cells and up-regulating the neurogenesis-associated protein Doublecortin (DCX). Only a few studies reported NGF administration in paediatric patients with severe TBI. METHODS: A four-year-old boy in a persistent unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) was treated with intranasal murine NGF administration 6 months after severe TBI...
October 3, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966643/extract-of-ginkgo-biloba-promotes-neuronal-regeneration-in-the-hippocampus-after-exposure-to-acrylamide
#6
Wei-Ling Huang, Yu-Xin Ma, Yu-Bao Fan, Sheng-Min Lai, Hong-Qing Liu, Jing Liu, Li Luo, Guo-Ying Li, Su-Min Tian
Previous studies have demonstrated a neuroprotective effect of extract of Ginkgo biloba against neuronal damage, but have mainly focused on antioxidation of extract of Ginkgo biloba. To date, limited studies have determined whether extrasct of Ginkgo biloba has a protective effect on neuronal damage. In the present study, acrylamide and 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg extract of Ginkgo biloba were administered for 4 weeks by gavage to establish mouse models. Our results showed that 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg extract of Ginkgo biloba effectively alleviated the abnormal gait of poisoned mice, and up-regulated protein expression levels of doublecortin (DCX), brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) in the hippocampus...
August 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966642/spreading-depression-and-focal-venous-cerebral-ischemia-enhance-cortical-neurogenesis
#7
Ryo Tamaki, Samuel Ige Orie, Beat Alessandri, Oliver Kempski, Axel Heimann
Endogenous neurogenesis can arise from a variety of physiological stimuli including exercise, learning, or "enriched environment" as well as pathological conditions such as ischemia, epilepsy or cortical spreading depression. Whether all these conditions use a common trigger to set off endogenous neurogenesis is yet unclear. We hypothesized that cortical spreading depression (CSD) induces neurogenesis in the cerebral cortex and dentate gyrus after cerebral venous ischemia. Forty-two Wistar rats alternatively underwent sham operation (Sham), induction of ten CSDs or venous ischemia provoked via occlusion of two adjacent superficial cortical vein followed by ten induced CSDs (CSD + 2-VO)...
August 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966570/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-doublecortin-and-bdnf-expression-along-the-dorso-ventral-axis-of-the-dentate-gyrus
#8
Fabio Gualtieri, Catherine Brégère, Grace C Laws, Elena A Armstrong, Nicholas J Wylie, Theo T Moxham, Raphael Guzman, Timothy Boswell, Tom V Smulders
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in the dentate gyrus is known to respond to environmental enrichment, chronic stress, and many other factors. The function of AHN may vary across the septo-temporal axis of the hippocampus, as different subdivisions are responsible for different functions. The dorsal pole regulates cognitive-related behaviors, while the ventral pole mediates mood-related responses through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In this study, we investigate different methods of quantifying the effect of environmental enrichment on AHN in the dorsal and ventral parts of the dentate gyrus (dDG and vDG)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966131/ras-grf2-regulates-nestin-positive-stem-cell-density-and-onset-of-differentiation-during-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-mouse-dentate-gyrus
#9
Carmela Gómez, David Jimeno, Alberto Fernández-Medarde, Rósula García-Navas, Nuria Calzada, Eugenio Santos
Various parameters of neurogenesis were analyzed in parallel in the two neurogenic areas (the Dentate Gyrus[DG] and the Subventricular Zone[SVZ]/Rostral Migratory Stream[RMS]/Main Olfactory Bulb[MOB] neurogenic system) of adult WT and KO mouse strains for the Ras-GRF1/2 genes (Ras-GRF1-KO, Ras-GRF2-KO, Ras-GRF1/2-DKO). Significantly reduced numbers of doublecortin[DCX]-positive cells were specifically observed in the DG, but not the SVZ/RMS/MOB neurogenic region, of Ras-GRF2-KO and Ras-GRF1/2-DKO mice indicating that this novel Ras-GRF2-dependent phenotype is spatially restricted to a specific neurogenic area...
September 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960838/increased-adult-neurogenesis-associated-with-reactive-astrocytosis-occurs-prior-to-neuron-loss-in-a-mouse-model-of-neurodegenerative-disease
#10
Ting-Ting Liu, Xiao-Lian Ye, Jin-Ping Zhang, Ting-Ting Yu, Shan-Shan Cheng, Xiao-Chuan Zou, Yun Xu, Gui-Quan Chen, Zhen-Yu Yin
AIMS: This study was to investigate whether cell proliferation and adult neurogenesis are affected at early neurodegenerative stage when neuron loss has not begun to display. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forebrain-specific nicastrin (NCT) conditional knockout (cKO) mice were generated by crossing NCT(f/f) with CaMKIIα-Cre Tg mice. BrdU was used as a lineage tracer to label proliferating neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) on BrdU indicated that the total number of BrdU positive (+) cells was increased in NCT cKO mice...
September 27, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953922/germline-and-somatic-mutations-in-cortical-malformations-molecular-defects-in-argentinean-patients-with-neuronal-migration-disorders
#11
Dolores González-Morón, Sebastián Vishnopolska, Damián Consalvo, Nancy Medina, Marcelo Marti, Marta Córdoba, Cecilia Vazquez-Dusefante, Santiago Claverie, Sergio Alejandro Rodríguez-Quiroga, Patricia Vega, Walter Silva, Silvia Kochen, Marcelo Andrés Kauffman
Neuronal migration disorders are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of malformations of cortical development, frequently responsible for severe disability. Despite the increasing knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying this group of diseases, their genetic diagnosis remains unattainable in a high proportion of cases. Here, we present the results of 38 patients with lissencephaly, periventricular heterotopia and subcortical band heterotopia from Argentina. We performed Sanger and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of DCX, FLNA and ARX and searched for copy number variations by MLPA in PAFAH1B1, DCX, POMT1, and POMGNT1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945526/whole-body-exposure-to-28-si-radiation-dose-dependently-disrupts-dentate-gyrus-neurogenesis-and-proliferation-in-the-short-term-and-new-neuron-survival-and-contextual-fear-conditioning-in-the-long-term
#12
Cody W Whoolery, Angela K Walker, Devon R Richardson, Melanie J Lucero, Ryan P Reynolds, David H Beddow, K Lyles Clark, Hung-Ying Shih, Junie A LeBlanc, Mara G Cole, Wellington Z Amaral, Shibani Mukherjee, Shichuan Zhang, Francisca Ahn, Sarah E Bulin, Nathan A DeCarolis, Phillip D Rivera, Benjamin P C Chen, Sanghee Yun, Amelia J Eisch
Astronauts traveling to Mars will be exposed to chronic low doses of galactic cosmic space radiation, which contains highly charged, high-energy (HZE) particles. (56)Fe-HZE-particle exposure decreases hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis and disrupts hippocampal function in young adult rodents, raising the possibility of impaired astronaut cognition and risk of mission failure. However, far less is known about how exposure to other HZE particles, such as (28)Si, influences hippocampal neurogenesis and function...
September 25, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940732/association-of-contextual-cues-with-morphine-reward-increases-neural-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-ventral-hippocampus-of-rats
#13
Mina Sadighi Alvandi, Maria Bourmpoula, Judith R Homberg, Yaghoub Fathollahi
Drug addiction is associated with aberrant memory and permanent functional changes in neural circuits. It is known that exposure to drugs like morphine is associated with positive emotional states and reward-related memory. However, the underlying mechanisms in terms of neural plasticity in the ventral hippocampus, a region involved in associative memory and emotional behaviors, are not fully understood. Therefore, we measured adult neurogenesis, dendritic spine density and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrkB mRNA expression as parameters for synaptic plasticity in the ventral hippocampus...
September 22, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939429/quercetin-ameliorates-chronic-unpredicted-stress-induced-behavioral-dysfunction-in-male-swiss-albino-mice-by-modulating-hippocampal-insulin-signaling-pathway
#14
Vineet Mehta, Tiratha Raj Singh, Malairaman Udayabanu
Chronic stress is associated with impaired neurogenesis, neurodegeneration and behavioral dysfunction, whereas the mechanism underlying stress-mediated neurological complications is still not clear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) mediated neurological alterations are associated with impaired hippocampal insulin signaling or not, and studied the effect of quercetin in this scenario. Male Swiss albino mice were subjected to 21day CUS, during which 30mg/kg quercetin treatment was given orally...
September 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937253/sirt1-mediates-improvement-in-cognitive-defects-induced-by-focal-cerebral-ischemia-following-hyperbaric-oxygen-preconditioning-in-rats
#15
P Ding, D Ren, S He, M He, G Zhang, Y Chen, H Sang, Z Peng, W Yan
Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO-PC) has been proposed as a safe and practical approach for neuroprotection in ischemic stroke. However, it is not known whether HPO-PC can improve cognitive deficits induced by cerebral ischemia, and the mechanistic basis for any beneficial effects remains unclear. We addressed this in the present study using rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) as an ischemic stroke model following HBO-PC. Cognitive function and expression of phosphorylated neurofilament heavy polypeptide (pNF-H) and doublecortin (DCX) in the hippocampus were evaluated 14 days after reperfusion and after short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of sirtuin1 (Sirt1)...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933222/altered-hippocampal-neurogenesis-during-the-first-7-days-after-a-fluid-percussion-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Lee A Shapiro
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating disorder causing negative outcomes in millions of people each year. Despite the alarming number of brain injuries and the long-term detrimental outcomes that can be associated with TBI, treatment options are lacking. Extensive investigation is underway, in hopes of identifying effective treatment strategies. Among the most state-of-the-art strategies is cell replacement therapy. TBI is a seemingly good candidate for cell replacement studies because there is often loss of neurons...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933048/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-%C3%A2-9-thc-induce-neurogenesis-and-improve-cognitive-performances-of-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#17
Noor Azuin Suliman, Che Norma Mat Taib, Mohamad Aris Mohd Moklas, Rusliza Basir
Neurogenesis is influenced by various external factors such as enriched environments. Some researchers had postulated that neurogenesis has contributed to the hippocampal learning and memory. This project was designed to observe the effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆(9)-THC) in cognitive performance that influenced by the neurogenesis. Different doses of ∆(9)-THC were used for observing the neurogenesis mechanism occurs in the hippocampus of rats. The brains were stained with antibodies, namely BrdU, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nestin, doublecortin (DCX) and class III β-tubulin (TuJ-1)...
September 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931353/blueberry-supplementation-attenuates-microglia-activation-and-increases-neuroplasticity-in-mice-consuming-a-high-fat-diet
#18
Amanda N Carey, Kelsea R Gildawie, Abigail Rovnak, Nopporn Thangthaeng, Derek R Fisher, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
OBJECTIVES: Consuming a high-fat diet (HFD) may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. Blueberries may prevent and even reverse age-related alterations in neurochemistry and behavior. It was previously demonstrated that middle-aged mice fed HFD had impaired memory; however, supplementation of HFD with blueberry reduced these memory deficits. As a follow-up to that study, the brain tissue from HFD-fed mice with and without blueberry supplementation was assessed to determine the neuroprotective mechanism(s) by which blueberry allayed cognitive dysfunction associated with HFD...
September 21, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925561/nestin-expressing-cell-types-in-the-temporal-lobe-and-hippocampus-morphology-differentiation-and-proliferative-capacity
#19
Joan Liu, Cheryl Reeves, Thomas Jacques, Andrew McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Pamela Thompson, Sanjay Sisodiya, Maria Thom
Nestin is expressed in immature neuroepithelial and progenitor cell types and transiently upregulated in proliferative neuroglial cells responding to acute brain injury, including following seizures. In 36 temporal lobe (TLobe) specimens from patients with TLobe epilepsy (age range 8-60 years) we studied the number, distribution and morphology of nestin-expressing cells (NEC) in the pes, hippocampus body, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, temporal cortex and pole compared with post mortem control tissues from 26 cases (age range 12 gestational weeks to 76 years)...
September 19, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924182/an-in-vitro-model-of-lissencephaly-expanding-the-role-of-dcx-during-neurogenesis
#20
M Shahsavani, R J Pronk, R Falk, M Lam, M Moslem, S B Linker, J Salma, K Day, J Schuster, B-M Anderlid, N Dahl, F H Gage, A Falk
Lissencephaly comprises a spectrum of brain malformations due to impaired neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex. Classical lissencephaly is characterized by smooth cerebral surface and cortical thickening that result in seizures, severe neurological impairment and developmental delay. Mutations in the X-chromosomal gene DCX, encoding doublecortin, is the main cause of classical lissencephaly. Much of our knowledge about DCX-associated lissencephaly comes from post-mortem analyses of patient's brains, mainly since animal models with DCX mutations do not mimic the disease...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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