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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932958/the-shark-alar-hypothalamus-molecular-characterization-of-prosomeric-subdivisions-and-evolutionary-trends
#1
Gabriel N Santos-Durán, Susana Ferreiro-Galve, Arnaud Menuet, Idoia Quintana-Urzainqui, Sylvie Mazan, Isabel Rodríguez-Moldes, Eva Candal
The hypothalamus is an important physiologic center of the vertebrate brain involved in the elaboration of individual and species survival responses. To better understand the ancestral organization of the alar hypothalamus we revisit previous data on ScOtp, ScDlx2/5, ScTbr1, ScNkx2.1 expression and Pax6 immunoreactivity jointly with new data on ScNeurog2, ScLhx9, ScLhx5, and ScNkx2.8 expression, in addition to immunoreactivity to serotonin (5-HT) and doublecortin (DCX) in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, a key species for this purpose since cartilaginous fishes are basal representatives of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932494/loss-of-a-doublecortin-dcx-domain-protein-causes-structural-defects-in-a-tubulin-based-organelle-of-toxoplasma-gondii-and-impairs-host-cell-invasion
#2
Eiji Nagayasu, Yu-Chen Hwang, Jun Liu, John M Murray, Ke Hu
The ∼6000 species in phylum Apicomplexa are single-celled obligate intracellular parasites. Their defining characteristic is the "apical complex", membranous and cytoskeletal elements at the apical end of the cell that participate in host-cell invasion. The apical complex of Toxoplasma gondii and some other apicomplexans includes a cone-shaped assembly, the "conoid", which (in T. gondii) comprises 14 spirally arranged fibers that are non-tubular polymers of tubulin. The tubulin dimers of the conoid fibers make canonical microtubules elsewhere in the same cell, suggesting that non-tubulin protein dictates their special arrangement in the conoid fibers...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931508/voluntary-wheel-running-reverses-the-decrease-in-subventricular-zone-neurogenesis-caused-by-corticosterone
#3
Jada Chia-Di Lee, Suk-Yu Yau, Tatia M C Lee, Benson Wui-Man Lau, Kwok-Fai So
Adult neurogenesis within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus can be increased by voluntary exercise but is suppressed under stress, such as with corticosterone (CORT). However, the effects of exercise and CORT on the cell proliferation of the other traditional neurogenic site, the subventricular zone (SVZ), have been reported with controversial results. In addition, the cotreatment effects of voluntary exercise and CORT have not been investigated. This study aims to determine whether CORT can suppress cell proliferation in the SVZ and whether this can be reversed by voluntary exercise...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916687/a-unique-combination-of-micronutrients-rejuvenates-cognitive-performance-in-aged-mice
#4
Sam D Perez, Kristy Du, Catarina Rendeiro, Lin Wang, Qian Wu, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Rema Vazhappilly, Jeffrey H Baxter, Jonathan V Sweedler, Justin S Rhodes
It is widely believed that diet can influence the onset and severity of cognitive aging, but the optimal combination of micronutrients and molecular and cellular mechanisms remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of eight distinct diets, consisting of various concentrations of selected micronutrients, on learning and memory as well as markers of neuronal plasticity, and metabolic and neuro-immune status of the aged hippocampus. Eighteen-month-old male and female C57BL/6J mice were fed the diets for 16 weeks, followed by learning and memory trials on the active avoidance task...
December 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905869/neurogenic-effects-of-low-dose-whole-body-hze-fe-ion-and-gamma-irradiation
#5
Tara B Sweet, Sean D Hurley, Michael D Wu, John A Olschowka, Jacqueline P Williams, M Kerry O'Banion
Understanding the dose-toxicity profile of radiation is critical when evaluating potential health risks associated with natural and man-made sources in our environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose whole-body high-energy charged (HZE) iron (Fe) ions and low-energy gamma exposure on proliferation and differentiation of adult-born neurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, cells deemed to play a critical role in memory regulation. To determine the dose-response characteristics of the brain to whole-body Fe-ion vs...
December 1, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886261/neil3-induced-neurogenesis-protects-against-prion-disease-during-the-clinical-phase
#6
Clara M O Jalland, Katja Scheffler, Sylvie L Benestad, Torfinn Moldal, Cecilie Ersdal, Gjermund Gunnes, Rajikala Suganthan, Magnar Bjørås, Michael A Tranulis
Base excision repair (BER) is the major pathway for repair of oxidative DNA damage. Mice with genetic knockout of the BER enzyme Neil3 display compromised neurogenesis in the sub-ventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and sub-granular layer of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. To elucidate the impact of oxidative DNA damage-induced neurogenesis on prion disease we applied the experimental prion disease model on Neil3-deficient mice. The incubation period for the disease was similar in both wild type and Neil3(-/-) mice and the overall neuropathology appeared unaffected by Neil3 function...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865801/long-term-cognitive-emotional-and-neurogenic-alterations-induced-by-alcohol-and-methamphetamine-exposure-in-adolescent-rats
#7
David Loxton, Juan J Canales
A high proportion of young methamphetamine (MA) users simultaneously consume alcohol. However, the potential neurological and behavioural alterations induced by such a drug combination have not been systematically examined. We studied in adolescent rats the long-term effects of alcohol, MA, and alcohol and MA combined on anxiety-like behaviour, memory, and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Rats received saline, ethanol (ETOH, 1.5g/kg), MA (MA, 2mg/kg), or ethanol and MA combined (ETHOH-MA, 1.5g/kg ethanol plus 2mg/kg MA) via oral gavage, once daily for 5 consecutive days...
November 16, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799509/on-the-effect-of-triplet-or-doublet-chemotherapy-in-advanced-gastric-cancer-results-from-a-national-cancer-registry
#8
Alberto Carmona-Bayonas, Paula Jiménez-Fonseca, Maria Luisa Sánchez Lorenzo, Avinash Ramchandani, Elena Asensio Martínez, Ana Custodio, Marcelo Garrido, Isabel Echavarría, Juana María Cano, Jose Enrique Lorenzo Barreto, Teresa García García, Felipe Álvarez Manceñido, Alejandra Lacalle, Marta Ferrer Cardona, Monserrat Mangas, Laura Visa, Elvira Buxó, Aitor Azkarate, Asunción Díaz-Serrano, Ana Fernández Montes, Fernando Rivera
BACKGROUND: There is currently no consensus regarding first-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) who are ineligible to receive trastuzumab. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of triplets versus doublets by analyzing a national gastric cancer registry. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Patients with AGC treated with polychemotherapy without associating trastuzumab were included from 2008 through 2016. The effect of triplets versus doublets was compared using 3 methods: Cox proportional hazards regression, propensity score matching (PSM), and coarsened exact matching (CEM)...
November 2016: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799303/different-doublecortin-dcx-patient-alleles-show-distinct-phenotypes-in-cultured-neurons-evidence-for-divergent-loss-of-function-and-off-pathway-cellular-mechanisms
#9
Chan Choo Yap, Laura Digilio, Lloyd McMahon, Matylda Roszkowska, Christopher J Bott, Kamil Kruczek, Bettina Winckler
DCX (doublecortin on the X-chromosome) is a neuronal microtubule-binding protein with a multitude of roles in neurodevelopment. In humans, DCX is a major genetic locus for X-linked lissencephaly. The best-studied defects are in neuronal migration during corticogenesis and in the hippocampus, as well as axon and dendrite growth defects. Much effort has been directed at understanding the molecular and cellular bases of DCX-linked lissencephaly. The focus has been in particular on defects in microtubule assembly and bundling, using knock-out mice and expression of WT and mutant DCX in non-neuronal cells...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792185/lycopersicon-esculentum-extract-enhances-cognitive-function-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-aged-mice
#10
Jung-Soo Bae, Mira Han, Hee Soon Shin, Dong-Hwa Shon, Soon-Tae Lee, Chang-Yup Shin, Yuri Lee, Dong Hun Lee, Jin Ho Chung
A decrease in adult neurogenesis is associated with the aging process, and this decrease is closely related to memory impairment. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a fruit with diverse bioactive nutrients that is consumed worldwide. In this study, we investigated the cognition-enhancing effect of tomato ethanolic extracts (TEE) in aged mice. Six weeks of oral TEE administration in 12-month-old aged mice significantly increased their exploration time of novel objects when compared to vehicle-treated mice. The TEE supplement increased doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95) expression in mice hippocampus...
October 26, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790096/intranasal-location-and-immunohistochemical-characterization-of-the-equine-olfactory-epithelium
#11
Alexandra Kupke, Sabine Wenisch, Klaus Failing, Christiane Herden
The olfactory epithelium (OE) is the only body site where neurons contact directly the environment and are therefore exposed to a broad variation of substances and insults. It can serve as portal of entry for neurotropic viruses which spread via the olfactory pathway to the central nervous system. For horses, it has been proposed and concluded mainly from rodent studies that different viruses, e.g., Borna disease virus, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), hendra virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus can use this route...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790091/mptp-impairs-dopamine-d1-receptor-mediated-survival-of-newborn-neurons-in-ventral-hippocampus-to-cause-depressive-like-behaviors-in-adult-mice
#12
Tingting Zhang, Juan Hong, Tingting Di, Ling Chen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor symptoms with depression. We evaluated the influence of dopaminergic depletion on hippocampal neurogenesis process to explore mechanisms of depression production. Five consecutive days of 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) injection in mice (MPTP-mice) reduced dopaminergic fibers in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). MPTP-mice exhibited depressive-like behaviors later for 2-3 weeks. BrdU was injected 4 h after last-injection of MPTP. BrdU-positive (BrdU(+)) cells in dorsal (d-DG) and ventral (v-DG) DG were examined on day 1 (D1), 7 (D7), 14 (D14) and 21 (D21) after BrdU injection...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781032/genetic-basis-of-brain-malformations
#13
REVIEW
Elena Parrini, Valerio Conti, William B Dobyns, Renzo Guerrini
Malformations of cortical development (MCD) represent a major cause of developmental disabilities, severe epilepsy, and reproductive disadvantage. Genes that have been associated to MCD are mainly involved in cell proliferation and specification, neuronal migration, and late cortical organization. Lissencephaly-pachygyria-severe band heterotopia are diffuse neuronal migration disorders causing severe global neurological impairment. Abnormalities of the LIS1, DCX, ARX, RELN, VLDLR, ACTB, ACTG1, TUBG1, KIF5C, KIF2A, and CDK5 genes have been associated with these malformations...
September 2016: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773743/zinc-plus-cyclo-his-pro-promotes-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-rats
#14
Bo Young Choi, In Yeol Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Bo Eun Lee, Song Hee Lee, A Ra Kho, Min Sohn, Sang Won Suh
Zinc is a central actor in regulating stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult brain. High levels of vesicular zinc are found in the presynaptic terminals. It has been demonstrated that high levels of vesicular zinc are localized in the presynaptic terminals of the granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) and that neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ). Furthermore, zinc chelation reduces hippocampal neurogenesis in pathological conditions such as hypoglycemia, epilepsy and traumatic brain injury...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772540/altered-hippocampal-neurogenesis-during-the-first-7-days-after-a-fluid-percussion-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Lee A Shapiro
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating disorder, causing negative outcomes in millions of people each year. Despite the alarming numbers of brain injuries, and the long-term detrimental outcomes that can be associate with TBI, treatment options are lacking. Extensive investigation is underway, in hopes of identifying effective treatment strategies. Among the most state-of-the-art strategies is cell replacement therapy. TBI is a seemingly good candidate for cell replacement studies, because there is often neuron loss...
October 21, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749547/bioactive-components-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-enhance-endogenous-neurogenesis-in-animal-models-of-ischemic-stroke-a-systematic-analysis
#16
Ji-Huang Li, Zi-Xian Chen, Xiao-Guang Zhang, Yan Li, Wen-Ting Yang, Xia-Wei Zheng, Shuang Chen, Lin Lu, Yong Gu, Guo-Qing Zheng
BACKGROUND: Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used to treat stroke for thousands of years. The objective of the study is to assess the current evidence for bioactive components of CHM as neurogenesis agent in animal models of ischemic stroke. METHODS: We searched PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang Database, and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals published from the inception up to November 2015. The primary measured outcome was one of neurogenesis biomarker, including Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), Nestin, doublecortin (DCX), polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747480/treadmill-exercise-promotes-neurogenesis-in-ischemic-rat-brains-via-caveolin-1-vegf-signaling-pathways
#17
Yun Zhao, Qiongyi Pang, Meixia Liu, Jingzi Pan, Bingwu Xiang, Tingting Huang, Fengxia Tu, Chan Liu, Xiang Chen
Using a model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), we have previously demonstrated that treadmill exercise promotes angiogenesis in the ischemic penumbra through caveolin-1/VEGF signaling pathways. However, the function of caveolin-1/VEGF signaling in neurogenesis after MCAO has not been determined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of treadmill exercise to promote neurogenesis after MCAO and whether caveolin-1/VEGF signaling pathways are involved. After MCAO, rats were subjected to a program of treadmill exercise...
October 17, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746334/antidepressant-like-effects-of-xiaochaihutang-in-a-neuroendocrine-mouse-model-of-anxiety-depression
#18
Kuo Zhang, Jingyu Yang, Fang Wang, Xing Pan, Jian Liu, Lijuan Wang, Guanyue Su, Jie Ma, Yinxu Dong, Zhili Xiong, Chufu Wu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is often observed in the pathophysiology of depression. Antidepressant therapy can restore hippocampal neurogenesis to rescue the HPA axis regulation defects. Xiaochaihutang (XCHT), a famous Chinese herbal formula, has been used clinically in depressive disorders in China. Our previous studies have demonstrated XCHT improved depressive-like behaviors in chronic unpredictable mild stress rat, but the underlying mechanisms of XCHT on hippocampal neurogenesis and the HPA axis were still unclear...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734578/highly-sensitive-assessment-of-neuroblastoma-minimal-residual-disease-in-ovarian-tissue-using-rt-qpcr-a-strategy-for-improving-the-safety-of-fertility-restoration
#19
Victoria Grèze, Florence Brugnon, Fanny Chambon, Pascale Halle, Michel Canis, Clotilde Amiot, Anne-Sophie Grémeau, Bruno Pereira, Yania Yáñez Peralta, Andrei Tchirkov, Justyna Kanold
BACKGROUND: Ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) is the only option available to preserve fertility in prepubertal females with neuroblastoma (NB), a childhood solid tumor that can spread to the ovaries, with a risk of reintroducing malignant cells after an ovarian graft. PROCEDURE: We set out to determine whether the analysis of TH (tyrosine hydroxylase), PHOX2B (paired-like homeobox 2b), and DCX (doublecortin) transcripts using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) could be used to detect NB contamination in ovarian tissue...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734300/early-effects-of-a-high-caloric-diet-and-physical-exercise-on-brain-volumetry-and-behavior-a-combined-mri-and-histology-study-in-mice
#20
Markus Sack, Jenny N Lenz, Mira Jakovcevski, Sarah V Biedermann, Claudia Falfán-Melgoza, Jan Deussing, Maximilian Bielohuby, Martin Bidlingmaier, Frederik Pfister, Günter K Stalla, Alexander Sartorius, Peter Gass, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr, Johannes Fuss, Matthias K Auer
Excessive intake of high-caloric diets as well as subsequent development of obesity and diabetes mellitus may exert a wide range of unfavorable effects on the central nervous system (CNS) in the long-term. The potentially harmful effects of such diets were suggested to be mitigated by physical exercise. Here, we conducted a study investigating early effects of a cafeteria-diet on gray and white brain matter volume by means of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. Half of the mice performed voluntary wheel running to study if regular physical exercise prevents unfavorable effects of a cafeteria-diet...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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