Read by QxMD icon Read

Spinal nerve damage

Jie Hao, Shuangyue Li, Xiaoxia Shi, Zhiqiang Qian, Yijie Sun, Dunjia Wang, Xueying Zhou, Hongxin Qu, Shuhai Hu, Enjun Zuo, Cong Zhang, Liyan Hou, Qingshan Wang, Fengyuan Piao
Chronic exposure to n-hexane, a widely used organic solvent in industry, induces central-peripheral neuropathy, which is mediated by its active metabolite, 2,5-hexanedione (HD). We recently reported that transplantation of bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) significantly ameliorated HD-induced neuronal damage and motor deficits in rats. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we reported that inhibition of HD-induced autophagy contributed to BMSC-afforded protection. BMSC transplantation significantly reduced the levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and the degradation of sequestosome-1 (p62) in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve of HD-intoxicated rats...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Priyanka Chauhan, Wen S Sheng, Shuxian Hu, Sujata Prasad, James R Lokensgard
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy is currently the most common neurological complication in HIV-infected individuals, occurring in 35-50% of patients undergoing combination anti-retroviral therapy. Data have shown that distal symmetric polyneuropathy develops in mice by 6 weeks following infection with the LP-BM5 retrovirus mixture. Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that glial cells modulate antiviral T-cell effector responses through the programmed death (PD)-1: PD-L1 pathway, thereby limiting the deleterious consequences of unrestrained neuroinflammation...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Shao-Xia Chen, Guang-Jie Liao, Pei-Wen Yao, Shao-Kun Wang, Yong-Yong Li, Wei-An Zeng, Xian-Guo Liu, Ying Zang
Both calpain-2 (CALP2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) contribute to persistent bilateral hypersensitivity in animals subjected to L5 ventral root transection (L5-VRT), a model of selective motor fiber injury without sensory nerve damage. However, specific upstream mechanisms regulating TNF-α overexpression and possible relationships linking CALP2 and TNF-α have not yet been investigated in this model. We examined changes in CALP2 and TNF-α protein levels and alterations in bilateral mechanical threshold within 24 h following L5-VRT model injury...
February 22, 2018: Neuroscience
Yingchao Shi, Shihua Li, Qian Wu, Le Sun, Junjing Zhang, Na Pan, Qihui Wang, Yuhai Bi, Jing An, Xuancheng Lu, George Fu Gao, Xiaoqun Wang
The association between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and congenital malformations such as microcephaly in infants is a public health emergency. Although various in vivo and in vitro models are used for ZIKV research, few animal models are available for resolving the effects of maternal ZIKV infection on neonatal development. Here, we established an immunocompetent mouse model via intrauterine inoculation. Our results confirmed that ZIKV, but not dengue virus, infection caused spontaneous abortions, brain malformations, ocular abnormalities, spinal cord defects and paralysis in mouse offspring...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anil Kumar, Harshpreet Kaur, Arti Singh
Neuropathic Pain (NP) is a painful condition which is a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system with symptoms like allodynia, hyperalgesia. It has complex pathogenesis as it involves several molecular signaling pathways, thus numerous reliable animal models are crucial to understand the underlying mechanism of NP and formulate effective management therapy. Some models like spinal cord injury, chronic constriction injury, spinal nerve ligation, chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy, diabetes-induced NP and many more are discussed...
October 2, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Monika Bradl, Markus Reindl, Hans Lassmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are severe inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), with the presence of aquaporin 4 (AQP4)-specific serum antibodies in the vast majority of patients, and with the presence of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-specific antibodies in approximately 40% of all AQP4-antibody negative NMOSD patients. Despite differences in antigen recognition, the preferred sites of lesions are similar in both groups of patients: They localize to the spinal cord and to the anterior visual pathway including retina, optic nerves, chiasm, and optic tracts, and - to lesser extent - also to certain predilection sites in the brain...
February 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Abolfazl Abbaszadeh, Saeideh Darabi, Amin Hasanvand, Hossein Amini-Khoei, Amir Abbasnezhad, Razieh Choghakhori, Asghar Aaliehpour
Objectives: Several lines of evidence showed that minocycline possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to demonstrate the effects of minocycline in rats subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI). Materials and Methods: In this study four groups (n = 6-8) of rats were used as follows: Sham, CCI, CCI + minocycline (MIN) 10 mg/Kg (IP) and CCI + MIN 30 mg/Kg (IP). On days 3, 7, 14, and 21 post-surgery hot-plate, acetone, and von Frey tests were carried out...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Stephen J Johans, Kevin N Swong, Daniel J Burkett, Michael P Wemhoff, Sean M Lew, Chirag R Patel, Anand V Germanwala
Superficial siderosis (SS) of the CNS is a rare and often unrecognized condition. Caused by hemosiderin deposition from chronic, repetitive hemorrhage in the subarachnoid space, it results in parenchymal damage in the subpial layers of the brain and spinal cord. T2-weighted MRI shows the characteristic hypointensity of hemosiderin deposition, classically occurring around the cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord. Patients present with progressive gait ataxia and sensorineural hearing impairment. Although there have been several studies, case reports, and review articles over the years, the clear pathophysiology of subarachnoid space hemorrhage remains to be elucidated...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Claudia Sommer, Mathias Leinders, Nurcan Üçeyler
Peripheral nerve injuries and diseases often lead to pain persisting beyond the resolution of damage, indicating an active disease-promoting process, which may result in chronic pain. This is regarded as a maladaptive mechanism resulting from neuroinflammation that originally serves to promote regeneration and healing. Knowledge on these physiological and pathophysiological processes has accumulated over the last few decades and has started to yield potential therapeutic targets. Key players are macrophages, T-lymphocytes, cytokines, and chemokines...
March 2018: Pain
Arnau Hervera, Francesco De Virgiliis, Ilaria Palmisano, Luming Zhou, Elena Tantardini, Guiping Kong, Thomas Hutson, Matt C Danzi, Rotem Ben-Tov Perry, Celio X C Santos, Alexander N Kapustin, Roland A Fleck, José Antonio Del Río, Thomas Carroll, Vance Lemmon, John L Bixby, Ajay M Shah, Mike Fainzilber, Simone Di Giovanni
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to tissue damage and remodelling mediated by the inflammatory response after injury. Here we show that ROS, which promote axonal dieback and degeneration after injury, are also required for axonal regeneration and functional recovery after spinal injury. We find that ROS production in the injured sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia requires CX3CR1-dependent recruitment of inflammatory cells. Next, exosomes containing functional NADPH oxidase 2 complexes are released from macrophages and incorporated into injured axons via endocytosis...
February 12, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Takahiro Himeno, Shinichi Takeshima, Satoshi Kubo, Naoyuki Hara, Akio Tanaka, Masaru Kuriyama
A 50-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with dysesthesia on the right upper portion of her face and a headache. Diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed high-intensity signals in the dorsolateral portion of the medulla oblongata. She was diagnosed with lateral medullary infarction and was intravenously treated with sodium ozagrel. On the second day of hospitalization, she had nausea and vomiting and showed nystagmus to all directions, suggesting damage to the vestibular nucleus...
February 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Carolin Ruven, Smaranda-Ruxandra Badea, Wai-Man Wong, Wutian Wu
When spinal roots are torn off from the spinal cord, both the peripheral and central nervous system get damaged. As the motoneurons lose their axons, they start to die rapidly, whereas target muscles atrophy due to the denervation. In this kind of complicated injury, different processes need to be targeted in the search for the best treatment strategy. In this study, we tested glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) treatment and fetal lumbar cell transplantation for their effectiveness to prevent motoneuron death and muscle atrophy after the spinal root avulsion and delayed reimplantation...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Veronika Wegener, Axel Stäbler, Volkmar Jansson, Christof Birkenmaier, Bernd Wegener
Burner or stinger syndrome is a rare sports injury caused by direct or indirect trauma during high-speed or contact sports mainly in young athletes. It affects peripheral nerves, plexus trunks or spinal nerve roots, causing paralysis, paresthesia and pain. We report the case of a 57-year-old male athlete suffering from burner syndrome related to a lumbar nerve root. He presented with prolonged pain and partial paralysis of the right leg after a skewed landing during the long jump. He was initially misdiagnosed since the first magnet resonance imaging was normal whereas electromyography showed denervation...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Pain
Kiminori Sakurai, Shunji Asamoto, Satoshi Nakamura, Shinichi Ishihara, Masayuki Ishikawa, Makoto Nishiyama, Kazuhiro Samura, Fumitaka Yoshioka, Masatou Kawashima, Yasuyuki Fukui
INTRODUCTION: Spinal neurinomas are frequently observed in the cauda equina, particularly within the dura mater. However, extraforaminal schwannomas(EFS), which are neither intradural nor dumbbell type, are relatively rare; hence, different surgical procedures have been employed. Here, we report 12 cases of lumbar EFS with total resection that were safely performed. METHODS AND SUBJECTS: This study was comprised of 12 patients with lumbar EFS(excluding those with neurofibromas)who were previously treated at our hospital...
January 2018: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Nesrine Salem, Mohamed Y Salem, Mohammed M Elmaghrabi, Moataz A Elawady, Mona A Elawady, Dina Sabry, Ashraf Shamaa, Abdel-Haleem H Elkasapy, Noha Ibrhim, Azza Elamir
Methylprednisolone (MP) is currently the only drug confirmed to exhibit a neuroprotective effect on acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Vitamin C (VC) is a natural water-soluble antioxidant that exerts neuroprotective effects through eliminating free radical damage to nerve cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), as multipotent stem cells, are promising candidates in SCI repair. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of MP, VC and BMMSCs on traumatic SCI, 80 adult male rats were randomly divided into seven groups: control, SCI (SCI induction by weight-drop method), MP (SCI induction, followed by administration of 30 mg/kg MP via the tail vein, once every other 6 hours, for five times), VC (SCI induction, followed by intraperitoneal administration of 100 mg/kg VC once a day, for 28 days), MP + VC (SCI induction, followed by administration of MP and VC as the former), BMMSCs (SCI induction, followed by injection of 3 × 106 BMMSCs at the injury site), and BMMSCs + VC (SCI induction, followed by BMMSCs injection and VC administration as the former)...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
D W Hewson, N M Bedforth, J G Hardman
Spinal cord injury arising during anaesthetic practice is a rare event, but one that carries a significant burden in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury. We will then discuss injuries relating to patient position, spinal cord hypoperfusion and neuraxial techniques. The most serious causes of spinal cord injury - vertebral canal haematoma, spinal epidural abscess, meningitis and adhesive arachnoiditis - will be discussed in turn. For each condition, we draw attention to practical, evidence-based measures clinicians can undertake to reduce their incidence, or mitigate their severity...
January 2018: Anaesthesia
Guan-Cheng Zhu, Kun-Ling Tsai, Yu-Wen Chen, Ching-Hsia Hung
Background: Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a common complication in patients with diabetes. It is related to ischemic nerve damage and the increase in the levels of proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β). Neural mobilization may have the potential to alleviate PDN, but it has not yet been tested. Also, the physiological mechanism of neural mobilization is unclear. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate treatment effect and physiological mechanism of neural mobilization...
December 22, 2017: Physical Therapy
Omar Fabela-Sánchez, Hermelinda Salgado-Ceballos, Luis Medina-Torres, Laura Álvarez-Mejía, Stephany Sánchez-Torres, Rodrigo Mondragón-Lozano, Axayácatl Morales-Guadarrama, Araceli Díaz-Ruiz, María-Guadalupe Olayo, Guillermo J Cruz, Juan Morales, Camilo Ríos, Roberto Olayo
Traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) is a health problem for which there is currently no treatment or definitive therapy. Medicine has explored therapeutic options for patients with TSCI with the aim to improve their quality of life. One alternative has been the development of biomaterials that offer neuroprotection or neuroregeneration of damaged nerve tissue. The microinjection of iodine-doped polypyrrole particles synthesised by plasma (PPPy/I) has shown neuroprotective effects that favour motor function recovery in experimental animals with TSCI...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Koichi Sairyo, Takashi Chikawa, Akihiro Nagamachi
Transforaminal (TF) percutaneous endoscopic surgery for the lumbar spine under the local anesthesia was initiated in 2003 in Japan. Since it requires only an 8-mm skin incision and damage of the paravertebral muscles would be minimum, it would be the least invasive spinal surgery at present. At the beginning, the technique was used for discectomy; thus, the procedure was called PELD (percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy). TF approach can be done under the local anesthesia, there are great benefits. During the surgery patients would be in awake and aware condition; thus, severe nerve root damage can be avoided...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Kei Ando, Hideki Yagi, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Masayoshi Morozumi, Satoshi Tanaka, Masaaki Machino, Kyotaro Ota, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Naoki Ishiguro, Shiro Imagama
A retrospective study was performed to examine the efficacy of intraoperative monitoring of the external anal sphincter (EAS) muscle-evoked potential after a transcranial muscle-action potential (Tc-MsEP) in spinal cord surgery, and to evaluate alarm points for EAS waveform deterioration related to postoperative bowel bladder disorder (BBD). BBD is caused by damage to the hypogastric, pelvic, and pudendal nerves and leads to a significant reduction in quality of life. Intraoperative Tc-MsEP monitoring using the EAS is common to prevent neurological deficit, but the relationship of BBD with intraoperative monitoring of the EAS has not been examined...
November 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"