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Spinal nerve damage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765790/direct-posterior-bipolar-cervical-facet-radiofrequency-rhizotomy-a-simpler-and-safer-approach-to-denervate-the-facet-capsule
#1
Ovidiu Palea, Haroon M Andar, Ramon Lugo, Michelle Granville, Robert E Jacobson
Radiofrequency cervical rhizotomy has been shown to be effective for the relief of chronic neck pain, whether it be due to soft tissue injury, cervical spondylosis, or post-cervical spine surgery. The target and technique have traditionally been taught using an oblique approach to the anterior lateral capsule of the cervical facet joint. The goal is to position the electrode at the proximal location of the recurrent branch after it leaves the exiting nerve root and loops back to the cervical facet joint. The standard oblique approach to the recurrent nerve requires the testing of both motor and sensory components to verify the correct position and ensure safety so as to not damage the slightly more anterior nerve root...
March 14, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759043/electrochemotherapy-of-spinal-metastases-using-transpedicular-approach-a-numerical-feasibility-study
#2
Helena Cindrič, Bor Kos, Giuseppe Tedesco, Matteo Cadossi, Alessandro Gasbarrini, Damijan Miklavčič
Vertebral column is the most frequent site for bone metastases. It has been demonstrated in previous studies that bone metastases can be efficiently treated by electrochemotherapy. We developed a novel approach to treat spinal metastases, that is, transpedicular approach that combines electrochemotherapy with already established technologies for insertion of fixation screws in spinal surgery. In the transpedicular approach, needle electrodes are inserted into the vertebral body through pedicles and placed around the tumor...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749662/high-resolution-nerve-ultrasound-and-electrophysiological-findings-in-restless-legs-syndrome
#3
K Pitarokoili, M Fels, A Kerasnoudis, L Toenges, R Gold, M-S Yoon
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a multifactorial network disorder of a sensorimotor system extending from dopaminergic and glutamatergic cerebral structures to the spinal neurons and peripheral nerves. The role of peripheral nerve damage in the causality and severity progression for RLS patients remains unclear. METHODS: We performed a clinical and epidemiological study on a cohort of 34 RLS patients focusing on RLS risk factors and disease severity...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748539/sirt1-activation-with-neuroheal-is-neuroprotective-but-sirt2-inhibition-with-ak7-is-detrimental-for-disconnected-motoneurons
#4
David Romeo-Guitart, Tatiana Leiva-Rodríguez, María Espinosa-Alcantud, Núria Sima, Alejandro Vaquero, Helena Domínguez-Martín, Diego Ruano, Caty Casas
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activity is neuroprotective, and we have recently demonstrated its role in the retrograde degenerative process in motoneurons (MNs) in the spinal cord of rats after peripheral nerve root avulsion (RA) injury. SIRT2 has been suggested to exert effects opposite those of SIRT1; however, its roles in neurodegeneration and neuron response after nerve injury remain unclear. Here we compared the neuroprotective potentials of SIRT1 activation and SIRT2 inhibition in a mouse model of hypoglossal nerve axotomy...
May 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737497/novel-model-of-somatosensory-nerve-transfer-in-the-rat
#5
Adriana M Paskal, Wiktor Paskal, Kacper Pelka, Martyna Podobinska, Jaroslaw Andrychowski, Pawel K Wlodarski
Nerve transfer (neurotization) is a reconstructive procedure in which the distal denervated nerve is joined with a proximal healthy nerve of a less significant function. Neurotization models described to date are limited to avulsed roots or pure motor nerve transfers, neglecting the clinically significant mixed nerve transfer. Our aim was to determine whether femoral-to-sciatic nerve transfer could be a feasible model of mixed nerve transfer. Three Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral femoral-to-sciatic nerve transfer...
May 9, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722912/region-specific-deletions-of-the-glutamate-transporter-glt1-differentially-affect-nerve-injury-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-mice
#6
Zhuoyang Zhao, Yuichi Hiraoka, Hiroshi Ogawa, Kohichi Tanaka
Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter and plays an important role in neuropathic pain, which is frequently caused by nerve damage. According to recent studies, nerve injury induces changes in glutamatergic transmission in the spinal cord and several supraspinal regions, including the periaqueductal gray (PAG). Among glutamate signaling components, accumulating evidence suggests that the glial glutamate transporter GLT1 plays a critical role in neuropathic pain. Indeed, GLT1 expression is reduced in the spinal cord but increased in the PAG after nerve injury, suggesting that the role of GLT1 in neuropathic pain may vary according to the brain region...
May 3, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703373/the-paper-that-restarted-modern-central-nervous-system-axon-regeneration-research
#7
James W Fawcett
Spinal cord repair research appeared to have run out of new ideas in the 1970s. In a 1981 paper, the Aguayo Laboratory revisited an experiment by Tello and Cajal that suggested that central nervous system (CNS) axons could regenerate into peripheral nerve grafts. Using modern axon tracing methods, David and Aguayo showed that axons from neurons in the spinal cord could regenerate for long distances within peripheral nervous system (PNS) grafts, but not back into the CNS. This proved that damaged CNS tissue is inhibitory to axon regeneration while PNS tissue is permissive...
May 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702136/brain-changes-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-quantitative-meta-analysis-and-review
#8
REVIEW
Linda Solstrand Dahlberg, Lino Becerra, David Borsook, Clas Linnman
Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI) lead to alterations in brain structure and brain function by direct effects of nerve damage, by secondary mechanisms, and also by longer term injury consequences such as paralysis and neuropathic pain. Here, we review neuroimaging studies of patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries, perform a quantitative meta-analysis of motor and motor imagery studies, summarize structural studies, evidence of cortical reorganization, and provide an overview of diffusion and spectroscopy studies...
April 24, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670463/combination-treatment-of-c16-peptide-and-angiopoietin-1-alleviates-neuromyelitis-optica-in-an-experimental-model
#9
Yuanyuan Zhang, Kewei Tian, Hong Jiang, Beibei Wang, Shu Han
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease that mainly affects the spinal cord and optic nerve, causing blindness and paralysis in some individuals. Moreover, NMO may cause secondary complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), leading to oligodendrocyte and neuronal damage. In this study, a rodent NMO model, showing typical NMO pathogenesis, was induced with NMO-IgG from patient serum and human complement. We then tested whether the combination of C16, an α v β 3 integrin-binding peptide, and angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), a member of the endothelial growth factor family, could alleviate NMO in the model...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623937/efficacy-of-chitosan-and-sodium-alginate-scaffolds-for-repair-of-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#10
Zi-Ang Yao, Feng-Jia Chen, Hong-Li Cui, Tong Lin, Na Guo, Hai-Ge Wu
Spinal cord injury results in the loss of motor and sensory pathways and spontaneous regeneration of adult mammalian spinal cord neurons is limited. Chitosan and sodium alginate have good biocompatibility, biodegradability, and are suitable to assist the recovery of damaged tissues, such as skin, bone and nerve. Chitosan scaffolds, sodium alginate scaffolds and chitosan-sodium alginate scaffolds were separately transplanted into rats with spinal cord hemisection. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale scores and electrophysiological results showed that chitosan scaffolds promoted recovery of locomotor capacity and nerve transduction of the experimental rats...
March 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611789/superficial-branch-of-the-radial-nerve-injury-a-case-for-conscious-perioperative-arterial-cannulation
#11
John Hickman, Ahmed Chekairi
We present a case of an injury to the superficial branch of the radial nerve following unconscious radial artery cannulation in a 57-year-old gentleman for revision of lumbar spinal fusion. Nerve damage is a rare complication of this commonly used technique; whilst usually self-limiting, it can lead to a significant under-reported burden of morbidity on our patients. We discuss current norms of practice, questioning the safety of unconscious arterial cannulation, and suggest that, where possible, it should be performed in the conscious patient to minimise the risk of this rare complication...
April 2018: Journal of Perioperative Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602490/epidermal-growth-factor-regulates-apoptosis-and-oxidative-stress-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Anil Murat Ozturk, Murat Celal Sozbilen, Elvin Sevgili, Taner Dagci, Halit Özyalcin, Guliz Armagan
Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to vascular damage and disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier which participates in secondary nerve injury. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an endogenous protein which regulates cell proliferation, growth and differention. Previous studies reported that EGF exerts neuroprotective effect in spinal cord after SCI. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying EGF-mediated protection in different regions of nervous system have not shown yet. In this study, we aimed to examine possible anti-apoptotic and protective roles of EGF not only in spinal cord but also in brain following SCI...
March 22, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562487/posterior-epidural-disc-fragment-masquerading-as-spinal-tumor-review-of-the-literature
#13
Tae June Park, Ho Jun Lee, Jae Seong Kim, Kiyeun Nam
BACKGROUND: Posterior epidural lumbar disc fragment is infrequent because of anatomical barriers, and it is difficult to diagnose posterior epidural lumbar disc fragment because of its rare incidence and the ambiguity of radiologic evaluations. And it is difficult to differentiate it from other diseases such as spinal tumors. OBJECTIVE: Differential diagnosis of posterior epidural lumbar disc fragment is clinically important because its diagnosis can affect treatment and prognosis...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561583/multifunctional-fibers-as-tools-for-neuroscience-and-neuroengineering
#14
Andres Canales, Seongjun Park, Antje Kilias, Polina Anikeeva
Multifunctional devices for modulation and probing of neuronal activity during free behavior facilitate studies of functions and pathologies of the nervous system. Probes composed of stiff materials, such as metals and semiconductors, exhibit elastic and chemical mismatch with the neural tissue, which is hypothesized to contribute to sustained tissue damage and gliosis. Dense glial scars have been found to encapsulate implanted devices, corrode their surfaces, and often yield poor recording quality in long-term experiments...
March 21, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540747/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-protect-against-n-hexane-induced-neuropathy-through-beclin-1-independent-inhibition-of-autophagy
#15
Jie Hao, Shuangyue Li, Xiaoxia Shi, Zhiqiang Qian, Yijie Sun, Dunjia Wang, Xueying Zhou, Hongxin Qu, Shuhai Hu, Enjun Zuo, Cong Zhang, Liyan Hou, Qingshan Wang, Fengyuan Piao
Chronic exposure to n-hexane, a widely used organic solvent in industry, induces central-peripheral neuropathy, which is mediated by its active metabolite, 2,5-hexanedione (HD). We recently reported that transplantation of bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) significantly ameliorated HD-induced neuronal damage and motor deficits in rats. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we reported that inhibition of HD-induced autophagy contributed to BMSC-afforded protection. BMSC transplantation significantly reduced the levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and the degradation of sequestosome-1 (p62) in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve of HD-intoxicated rats...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506535/nitrosative-damage-during-retrovirus-infection-induced-neuropathic-pain
#16
Priyanka Chauhan, Wen S Sheng, Shuxian Hu, Sujata Prasad, James R Lokensgard
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy is currently the most common neurological complication in HIV-infected individuals, occurring in 35-50% of patients undergoing combination anti-retroviral therapy. Data have shown that distal symmetric polyneuropathy develops in mice by 6 weeks following infection with the LP-BM5 retrovirus mixture. Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that glial cells modulate antiviral T-cell effector responses through the programmed death (PD)-1: PD-L1 pathway, thereby limiting the deleterious consequences of unrestrained neuroinflammation...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477696/calpain-2-regulates-tnf-%C3%AE-expression-associated-with-neuropathic-pain-following-motor-nerve-injury
#17
Shao-Xia Chen, Guang-Jie Liao, Pei-Wen Yao, Shao-Kun Wang, Yong-Yong Li, Wei-An Zeng, Xian-Guo Liu, Ying Zang
Both calpain-2 (CALP2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) contribute to persistent bilateral hypersensitivity in animals subjected to L5 ventral root transection (L5-VRT), a model of selective motor fiber injury without sensory nerve damage. However, specific upstream mechanisms regulating TNF-α overexpression and possible relationships linking CALP2 and TNF-α have not yet been investigated in this model. We examined changes in CALP2 and TNF-α protein levels and alterations in bilateral mechanical threshold within 24 h following L5-VRT model injury...
April 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476066/vertical-transmission-of-the-zika-virus-causes-neurological-disorders-in-mouse-offspring
#18
Yingchao Shi, Shihua Li, Qian Wu, Le Sun, Junjing Zhang, Na Pan, Qihui Wang, Yuhai Bi, Jing An, Xuancheng Lu, George Fu Gao, Xiaoqun Wang
The association between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and congenital malformations such as microcephaly in infants is a public health emergency. Although various in vivo and in vitro models are used for ZIKV research, few animal models are available for resolving the effects of maternal ZIKV infection on neonatal development. Here, we established an immunocompetent mouse model via intrauterine inoculation. Our results confirmed that ZIKV, but not dengue virus, infection caused spontaneous abortions, brain malformations, ocular abnormalities, spinal cord defects and paralysis in mouse offspring...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475003/neuropathic-pain-models-caused-by-damage-to-central-or-peripheral-nervous-system
#19
REVIEW
Anil Kumar, Harshpreet Kaur, Arti Singh
Neuropathic Pain (NP) is a painful condition which is a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system with symptoms like allodynia, hyperalgesia. It has complex pathogenesis as it involves several molecular signaling pathways, thus numerous reliable animal models are crucial to understand the underlying mechanism of NP and formulate effective management therapy. Some models like spinal cord injury, chronic constriction injury, spinal nerve ligation, chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy, diabetes-induced NP and many more are discussed...
April 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465432/mechanisms-for-lesion-localization-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#20
Monika Bradl, Markus Reindl, Hans Lassmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are severe inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), with the presence of aquaporin 4 (AQP4)-specific serum antibodies in the vast majority of patients, and with the presence of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-specific antibodies in approximately 40% of all AQP4-antibody negative NMOSD patients. Despite differences in antigen recognition, the preferred sites of lesions are similar in both groups of patients: They localize to the spinal cord and to the anterior visual pathway including retina, optic nerves, chiasm, and optic tracts, and - to lesser extent - also to certain predilection sites in the brain...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
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