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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142293/neural-pathways-for-colorectal-control-relevance-to-spinal-cord-injury-and-treatment-a-narrative-review
#1
REVIEW
Brid Callaghan, John B Furness, Ruslan V Pustovit
STUDY DESIGN: Narrative review. OBJECTIVES: The purpose is to review the organisation of the nerve pathways that control defecation and to relate this knowledge to the deficits in colorectal function after SCI. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to identify salient features of defecation control pathways and the functional consequences of damage to these pathways in SCI. RESULTS: The control pathways for defecation have separate pontine centres under cortical control that influence defecation...
November 16, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140459/rbm45-competes-with-hdac1-for-binding-to-fus-in-response-to-dna-damage
#2
Juanjuan Gong, Min Huang, Fengli Wang, Xiaolu Ma, Hongmei Liu, Yingfeng Tu, Lingyu Xing, Xuefei Zhu, Hui Zheng, Junjie Fang, Xiaoling Li, Qiaochu Wang, Jiuqiang Wang, Zhongshuai Sun, Xi Wang, Yun Wang, Caixia Guo, Tie-Shan Tang
DNA damage response (DDR) is essential for genome stability and human health. Recently, several RNA binding proteins (RBPs), including fused-in-sarcoma (FUS), have been found unexpectedly to modulate this process. The role of FUS in DDR is closely linked to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord. Given that RBM45 is also an ALS-associated RBP, we wondered whether RBM45 plays any function during this process...
November 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138827/gambogic-acid-inhibits-spinal-cord-injury-and-inflammation-through-suppressing-the-p38-and-akt-signaling-pathways
#3
Qiao Fu, Chaojian Li, Lehua Yu
Gamboge is the dry resin secreted by Garcinia hanburyi Hook.f, with the function of promoting blood circulation, detoxification, hemostasis and killing insects, used for the treatment of cancer, brain edema and other diseases. Gambogic acid is the main effective constituent of Gamboge. The present study investigated the protective effects of gambogic acid on spinal cord injury (SCI) and its anti‑inflammatory mechanism in an SCI model in vivo. Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) testing was used to detect the protective effects of gambogic acid on nerve function of SCI rats...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132542/impact-of-inflammation-on-the-blood-neural-barrier-and-blood-nerve-interface-from-review-to-therapeutic-preview
#4
Stephen D Skaper
A number of nervous system disorders are characterized by a state of inflammation (neuroinflammation) in which members of the innate immune system, most notably mast cells and microglia-acting as single entities and in unison-produce inflammatory molecules that play major roles. A neuroinflammatory environment can weaken not only blood-nerve and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity but also that of the blood-spinal cord barrier. Mast cells, with their distribution in peripheral nerves and the central nervous system, are positioned to influence blood-nerve barrier characteristics...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118920/combination-therapy-with-extracorporeal-shock-wave-and-melatonin-markedly-attenuated-neuropathic-pain-in-rat
#5
Kuan-Hung Chen, Chien-Hui Yang, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Chung-Ren Lin, Chia-Kai Liu, Tsung-Cheng Yin, Tien-Hung Huang, Yi-Ling Chen, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Hon-Kan Yip
This study tested the hypothesis that combination therapy using extracorporeal shock wave (ECSW)-melatonin (Mel) was superior to either alone at ameliorating neuropathic pain (NP). NP was induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the left sciatic nerve in rats. Animals were categorized into sham control (group 1), CCI only (group 2), CCI-ECSW (group 3), CCI-Mel (group 4) and CCI-ECSW-Mel (group 5). By days 2 and 8 after CCI, the mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (MPWT)/thermal paw withdrawal latency (TPWL) were highest in group 2, lowest in group 1, significantly lower in group 5 than in groups 3 and 4 (all p<0...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105512/changes-in-the-metabolome-and-microrna-levels-in-biological-fluids-might-represent-biomarkers-of-neurotoxicity-a-trimethyltin-study
#6
Syed Z Imam, Zhen He, Elvis Cuevas, Hector Rosas-Hernandez, Susan M Lantz, Sumit Sarkar, James Raymick, Bonnie Robinson, Joseph P Hanig, David Herr, Denise MacMillan, Aaron Smith, Serguei Liachenko, Sherry Ferguson, James O'Callaghan, Diane Miller, Christopher Somps, Ingrid D Pardo, William Slikker, Jennifer B Pierson, Ruth Roberts, Binsheng Gong, Weida Tong, Michael Aschner, Mary J Kallman, David Calligaro, Merle G Paule
Neurotoxicity has been linked with exposure to a number of common drugs and chemicals, yet efficient, accurate, and minimally invasive methods to detect it are lacking. Fluid-based biomarkers such as those found in serum, plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid have great potential due to the relative ease of sampling but at present, data on their expression and translation are lacking or inconsistent. In this pilot study using a trimethyl tin rat model of central nervous system toxicity, we have applied state-of-the-art assessment techniques to identify potential individual biomarkers and patterns of biomarkers in serum, plasma, urine or cerebral spinal fluid that may be indicative of nerve cell damage and degeneration...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080031/ikd-current-in-cold-transduction-and-damage-triggered-cold-hypersensitivity
#7
Alejandro González, Gaspar Herrera, Gonzalo Ugarte, Carlos Restrepo, Ricardo Piña, María Pertusa, Patricio Orio, Rodolfo Madrid
In primary sensory neurons of the spinal and trigeminal somatosensory system, cold-sensitivity is strongly dependent on the functional balance between TRPM8 channels, the main molecular entity responsible for the cold-activated excitatory current, and Shaker-like Kv1.1-1.2 potassium channels, the molecular counterpart underlying the excitability brake current IKD. This slow-inactivating outward K(+) current reduces the excitability of cold thermoreceptor neurons increasing their thermal threshold, and prevents unspecific activation by cold of neurons of other somatosensory modalities...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079733/analgesic-effects-and-pharmacologic-mechanisms-of-the-gelsemium-alkaloid-koumine-on-a-rat-model-of-postoperative-pain
#8
Bo-Jun Xiong, Ying Xu, Gui-Lin Jin, Ming Liu, Jian Yang, Chang-Xi Yu
Postoperative pain (POP) of various durations is a common complication of surgical procedures. POP is caused by nerve damage and inflammatory responses that are difficult to treat. The neuroinflammation-glia-steroid network is known to be important in POP. It has been reported that the Gelsemium alkaloid koumine possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and neurosteroid modulating activities. This study was undertaken to test the analgesic effects of koumine against POP and explore the underlying pharmacologic mechanisms...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071890/-effect-of-electroacupuncture-intervention-at-different-time-points-on-locomotor-function-and-apoptosis-in-rats-with-acute-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Xiao-Ning Li, Lei Wu, Lei Chi, Xue-Wei Qi, Ji-Lin Mei, Nuo Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) intervention at different treatment time-points on locomotor function and neuronal apoptosis in rats with acute spinal cord injury (ASCI), so as to explore its mechanism under-lying improvement of ASCI. METHODS: Seventy-two female Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham operation, ASCI model and EA groups which were further divided into 4 time-points:1, 3, 7 and 14 d (n=6 at each). The ASCI model was established by weight-drop striking the exposed spinal cord (T10) using a NYU impactor device...
December 25, 2016: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062079/the-potential-of-antheraea-pernyi-silk-for-spinal-cord-repair
#10
A Varone, D Knight, S Lesage, F Vollrath, A M Rajnicek, W Huang
One of the most challenging applications for tissue regeneration is spinal cord damage. There is no cure for this, partly because cavities and scar tissue formed after injury present formidable barriers that must be crossed by axons to restore function. Natural silks are considered increasingly for medical applications because they are biocompatible, biodegradable and in selected cases promote tissue growth. Filaments from wild Antheraea pernyi silkworms can support axon regeneration in peripheral nerve injury...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044770/effects-of-forced-passive-and-voluntary-exercise-on-spinal-motoneurons-changes-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#11
Ariadna Arbat-Plana, Xavier Navarro, Esther Udina
After peripheral nerve injury, there are important changes at the spinal level that can lead to disorganization of the central circuitry and thus, compromise functional recovery even if axons are able to successfully regenerate and reinnervate their target organs. Physical rehabilitation is a promising strategy to modulate these plastic changes and thus, to improve functional recovery after damage of the nervous system. Forced exercise in a treadmill is able to partially reverse the synaptic stripping and the loss of perineuronal nets that motoneurons suffer after peripheral nerve injury in animal models...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016507/cadaveric-nerve-and-artery-proximity-to-sacrospinous-ligament-fixation-sutures-placed-by-a-suture-capturing-device
#12
Aaron Z Katrikh, Rajuno Ettarh, Margie A Kahn
OBJECTIVE: To simulate sacrospinous ligament fixation on cadaveric specimens, describe the surrounding retroperitoneal anatomy, and estimate the risk to nerves and arteries for the purposes of optimizing safe suture placement. METHODS: Sacrospinous ligament fixation was performed on eight fresh-tissue female cadavers using a Capio ligature capture device. Distances from placed sutures to the following structures were measured: ischial spine; fourth sacral root; pudendal nerve; the nerve to coccygeus muscle; the nerve to levator ani muscle; inferior gluteal artery; and internal pudendal artery...
November 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991854/alkali-burn-induced-corneal-spontaneous-pain-and-activated-neuropathic-pain-matrix-in-the-central-nervous-system-in-mice
#13
Yan Xiang, Wenchang Zhou, Ping Wang, Hui Yang, Feng Gao, Hongbin Xiang, Anne Manyande, Yuke Tian, Xuebi Tian
PURPOSE: To explore whether alkali burn causes corneal neuropathic pain and activates the neuropathic pain matrix in the central nervous system in mice. METHODS: A corneal alkali burn mouse model (grade II) was used. The mechanical threshold in the cauterized area was tested using Von Frey hairs. Spontaneous pain behavior was investigated with conditioned place preference. Phosphor extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which is a marker for neuronal activation in chronic pain processing, was investigated in several representative areas of the neuropathic pain matrix: the 2 regions of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (subnucleus interpolaris/caudalis, Vi/Vc; subnucleus caudalis/upper cervical cord, Vc/C1), insular cortex, anterior cingulated cortex (ACC), and the rostroventral medulla (RVM)...
November 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982707/post-injury-induction-of-activated-erbb2-selectively-hyperactivates-denervated-schwann-cells-and-promotes-robust-dorsal-root-axon-regeneration
#14
Seung Baek Han, Hyukmin Kim, Hyunkyoung Lee, Matthew Grove, George M Smith, Young-Jin Son
Following nerve injury, denervated Schwann cells (SCs) convert to repair SCs, which enable regeneration of peripheral axons. However, the repair capacity of SCs and the regenerative capacity of peripheral axons are limited. In the present studies we examined a potential therapeutic strategy to enhance the repair capacity of SCs, and tested its efficacy in enhancing regeneration of dorsal root (DR) axons, whose regenerative capacity is particularly weak. We used male and female mice of a doxycycline-inducible transgenic line to induce expression of constitutively active ErbB2 (caErbB2) selectively in SCs after DR crush or transection...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968842/divergent-roles-of-immune-cells-and-their-mediators-in-pain
#15
Ramin Raoof, Hanneke L D M Willemen, Niels Eijkelkamp
Chronic pain is a major debilitating condition that is difficult to treat. Although chronic pain may appear to be a disorder of the nervous system, crucial roles for immune cells and their mediators have been identified as important contributors in various types of pain. This review focuses on how the immune system regulates pain and discusses the emerging roles of immune cells in the initiation or maintenance of chronic pain. We highlight which immune cells infiltrate damaged nerves, the dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord and tissues around free nerve endings and discuss through which mechanisms they control pain...
August 11, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966685/effects-of-different-anesthesia-methods-on-postoperative-transient-neurological-syndrome-in-patients-with-lumbar-disc-herniation
#16
Shunhong Mao, Chunhua Zhu, Yulin Chang
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of different anesthesia methods on postoperative transient neurologic syndrome (TNS) in patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Ninety-six patients with LDH were selected from November 2015 to October 2016 in Cangzhou Central hospital. All patients were treated with percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy. The patients were randomly divided into the control group and observation group, with 48 patients each. Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia was performed for patients in the control group, while epidural anesthesia was applied in the observation group...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954999/percutaneous-full-endoscopic-lumbar-foraminoplasty-for-adjacent-level-foraminal-stenosis-following-vertebral-intersegmental-fusion-in-an-awake-and-aware-patient-under-local-anesthesia-a-case-report
#17
Kazuta Yamashita, Kosaku Higashino, Toshinori Sakai, Yoichiro Takata, Fumio Hayashi, Fumitake Tezuka, Masatoshi Morimoto, Takashi Chikawa, Akihiro Nagamachi, Koichi Sairyo
Percutaneous endoscopic surgery for the lumbar spine has become established in the last decade. It requires only an 8 mm skin incision, causes minimal damage to the paravertebral muscles, and can be performed under local anesthesia. With the advent of improved equipment, in particular the high-speed surgical drill, the indications for percutaneous endoscopic surgery have expanded to include lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic discectomy has been used to treat intervertebral stenosis...
2017: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952182/effects-of-duloxetine-on-pain-and-walking-distance-in-neuropathic-pain-models-via-modulation-of-the-spinal-monoamine-system
#18
K Minami, R Tamano, E Kasai, H Oyama, M Hasegawa, S Shinohara, T Asaki
BACKGROUND: Approximately 40% of patients with chronic low back pain have a neuropathic component. In this study, we assessed the effects of analgesics on tactile hypersensitivity and walking distance in the rat cauda equina compression (CEC) model of neuropathic low back pain. METHODS: The effects of analgesics on tactile hypersensitivity were examined using the von Frey test in CEC and partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL) models. Effects on walking distance were assessed using a treadmill test...
September 26, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932945/necrostatin-1-mitigates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-after-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Shuang Wang, Jin Wu, Yu-Zhe Zeng, Song-Song Wu, Guo-Rong Deng, Zhi-Da Chen, Bin Lin
Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) has been shown to inhibit necroptosis and convey a significant protective effect after spinal cord injury (SCI). This small molecule inhibitor may reduce tissue damage and restore neurological function by lessening mitochondrial injury after SCI and preserving energy homeostasis. However, the effects of Nec-1 on endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-an important pathological consequence of SCI-are still not clear. The present study investigates the relationship between necroptosis and ERS in a rat model of SCI...
September 20, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931811/distal-axotomy-enhances-retrograde-presynaptic-excitability-onto-injured-pyramidal-neurons-via-trans-synaptic-signaling
#20
Tharkika Nagendran, Rylan S Larsen, Rebecca L Bigler, Shawn B Frost, Benjamin D Philpot, Randolph J Nudo, Anne Marion Taylor
Injury of CNS nerve tracts remodels circuitry through dendritic spine loss and hyper-excitability, thus influencing recovery. Due to the complexity of the CNS, a mechanistic understanding of injury-induced synaptic remodeling remains unclear. Using microfluidic chambers to separate and injure distal axons, we show that axotomy causes retrograde dendritic spine loss at directly injured pyramidal neurons followed by retrograde presynaptic hyper-excitability. These remodeling events require activity at the site of injury, axon-to-soma signaling, and transcription...
September 20, 2017: Nature Communications
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