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Spinal nerve damage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214515/igg-degrading-enzyme-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-ides-prevents-disease-progression-and-facilitates-improvement-in-a-rabbit-model-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#1
Yuzhong Wang, Qiguang Shi, Hui Lv, Ming Hu, Weifang Wang, Quanquan Wang, Baojun Qiao, Guorong Zhang, Zhanyun Lv, Christian Kjellman, Sofia Järnum, Lena Winstedt, Yong Zhang, Jiao Wen, Yanlei Hao, Nobuhiro Yuki
Autoantibodies binding to peripheral nerves followed by complement deposition and membrane attack complex formation results in nerve damage in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Strategies to remove the pathogenic autoantibodies or block the complement deposition benefit most patients with GBS. Immunoglobulin G-degrading enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes (IdeS) is a cysteine protease which cleaves IgG antibodies into F(ab')2 and Fc fragments. In this study, using a rabbit model of axonal GBS, acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), we demonstrated that IdeS treatment significantly reduced the disruption of Nav channels as well as activated C3 deposition at the anterior spinal root nodes of Ranvier in AMAN rabbits...
February 15, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203046/neuroinflammation-as-fuel-for-axonal-regeneration-in-the-injured-vertebrate-central-nervous-system
#2
REVIEW
Ilse Bollaerts, Jessie Van Houcke, Lien Andries, Lies De Groef, Lieve Moons
Damage to the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in elderly, as repair after lesions or neurodegenerative disease usually fails because of the limited capacity of CNS regeneration. The causes underlying this limited regenerative potential are multifactorial, but one critical aspect is neuroinflammation. Although classically considered as harmful, it is now becoming increasingly clear that inflammation can also promote regeneration, if the appropriate context is provided...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186109/astragali-radix-could-it-be-an-adjuvant-for-oxaliplatin-induced-neuropathy
#3
Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Alessandra Pacini, Laura Micheli, Angelo Pietro Femia, Mario Maresca, Matteo Zanardelli, Alfredo Vannacci, Eugenia Gallo, Anna Rita Bilia, Giovanna Caderni, Fabio Firenzuoli, Alessandro Mugelli, Carla Ghelardini
Neurotoxicity is a major side effect of platinum derivatives both during and after treatment. In the absence of effective pharmacological compounds, the opportunity to identify safe adjuvant treatments among medicinal plants seems appropriate. Astragali radix is an adaptogenic herbal product recently analyzed in platinum-treated cancer patients. With the aim of evaluating the anti-neuropathic profile of Astragali radix, a previously characterized aqueous (Aqu) and two hydroalcoholic (20%HA and 50%HA) extracts were tested in a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185615/clinical-study-of-neuroregen-scaffold-combined-with-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-the-repair-of-chronic-complete-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Yannan Zhao, Fengwu Tang, Guang Han, Nuo Wang, Na Yin, Bing Chen, Xianfeng Jiang, Chen Yun, Wanjun Han, Changyu Zhao, Shixiang Cheng, Zhifeng Xiao, Sai Zhang, Jianwu Dai
Regeneration of damaged neurons and recovery of sensation and motor function after complete spinal cord injury (SCI) are challenging. We previously developed a collagen scaffold, NeuroRegen scaffold, to promote axonal growth along collagen fibers and inhibit glial scar formation after SCI. When functionalized with multiple biomolecules, this scaffold promoted neurological regeneration and functional recovery in animals with SCI. In this study, eight patients with chronic complete SCI were enrolled to examine the safety and efficacy of implanting NeuroRegen scaffold with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
February 9, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166934/spinal-cord-and-peripheral-nerve-abnormalities-of-the-ruminant
#5
REVIEW
Amanda K Hartnack
In food animals, spinal cord damage is most commonly associated with infection or trauma. Antemortem diagnosis is based on clinical signs, history, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and imaging. As clinical signs are often severe, and prognosis is grave, necropsy may provide a postmortem diagnosis. Peripheral nerve abnormalities are most often the result of trauma. Calving paralysis or paresis is the most common condition affecting the sciatic or obturator nerve and often concurrently involves the peroneal branch of the sciatic...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159637/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-tms-responses-elicited-in-hindlimb-muscles-as-an-assessment-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-spino-muscular-circuitry-after-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Hayk A Petrosyan, Valentina Alessi, Sue A Sisto, Mark Kaufman, Victor L Arvanian
Electromagnetic stimulation applied at the cranial level, i.e. transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), is a technique for stimulation and neuromodulation used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in clinical and research settings. Although recordings of TMS elicited motor-evoked potentials (MEP) are an essential diagnostic tool for spinal cord injured (SCI) patients, they are reliably recorded from arm, and not leg muscles. Mid-thoracic contusion is a common SCI that results in locomotor impairments predominantly in legs...
January 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134956/long-thoracic-nerve-injury-caused-by-overhead-weight-lifting-leading-to-scapular-dyskinesis-and-medial-scapular-winging
#7
Justin B Berthold, Timothy M Burg, Ryan Paul Nussbaum
Scapular winging represents a rare phenomenon that most commonly results from nerve damage to either the long thoracic nerve, spinal accessory nerve, or, less commonly, the dorsal scapular nerve. This injury results in an abnormal scapulohumeral interaction during kinetic motion known as scapular dyskinesis. In this case report, the patient presented with scapular dyskinesis and medial scapular winging caused by overhead weight-lifting exercises, and a long thoracic nerve injury was diagnosed. Physicians are encouraged to consider long thoracic nerve damage in a patient with a history of repetitive overhead movements who presents with scapular dyskinesis and the corresponding restriction of overhead arm motions...
February 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120077/focus-on-functional-delayed-central-sleep-apnea-following-cervical-laminectomy-an-example-of-respiratory-dysfunction-in-restorative-neurosurgical-procedures
#8
Massimiliano Visocchi, Gerardo Iacopino, Antonino Germanò, Giuseppe Barbagallo
In sleep-related breathing disorders, sleep apnea is a clinical symptom that can be categorized as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or mixed apnea by analysis using polysomnography. The occurrence of delayed central sleep apnea (CSA) is an extremely rare complication of cervical laminectomy for spondylotic myelopathy. So far only three studies concerning such an event have been reported in the literature. Naim-ur-Rahman, in 1994, reported a case of postoperative CSA following C3-C6 laminectomy, and Visocchi and colleagues, in 2014, in two studies, stressed the lack of association with any other neurological sign of spinal cord damage...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117436/safety-and-efficacy-of-single-stage-surgical-treatment-for-congenital-scoliosis-associated-with-intraspinal-mass
#9
Bo-Bo Zhang, Hui-Ren Tao, Tai-Lin Wu, Lin Wang, Chun-Guang Duan, Tao Zhang, Tao Li, Wei-Zhou Yang, Ming Liu, Jun Ma
For congenital scoliosis associated with intraspinal anomaly, surgical treatment is often advocated. However, the safety and efficacy of single-stage intraspinal mass resection and scoliosis correction remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the feasibility and risk factors of single-stage surgical treatment for congenital scoliosis associated with intraspinal mass. Patients' clinical records were reviewed for demographic and radiographic data, operating time, intraoperative blood loss, perioperative complications, and postoperative pathologic results...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098360/morroniside-a-secoiridoid-glycoside-from-cornus-officinalis-attenuates-neuropathic-pain-by-activation-of-spinal-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptors
#10
Meng Xu, Hai-Yun Wu, Hao Liu, Nian Gong, Yi-Rui Wang, Yong-Xiang Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Iridoid glycosides with intact double bond scaffold of cyclopentapyran were reversible and orthosteric agonists of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors and possess antinociception and neuroprotection. Morroniside, derived from the medicinal herb Cornus officinalis, is an atypical secoiridoid replaced by a six-membered cyclic inner ether fragment. This study investigated whether morroniside was an orthosteric GLP-1 receptor agonist and had antihypersensitivity activities in neuropathy...
January 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097486/the-therapeutic-effectiveness-of-delayed-fetal-spinal-cord-tissue-transplantation-on-respiratory-function-following-mid-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Chia-Ching Lin, Sih-Rong Lai, Yu-Han Shao, Chun-Lin Chen, Kun-Ze Lee
Respiratory impairment due to damage of the spinal respiratory motoneurons and interruption of the descending drives from brainstem premotor neurons to spinal respiratory motoneurons is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality following cervical spinal cord injury. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of delayed transplantation of fetal spinal cord (FSC) tissue on respiratory function in rats with mid-cervical spinal cord injury. Embryonic day-14 rat FSC tissue was transplanted into a C4 spinal cord hemilesion cavity in adult male rats at 1 week postinjury...
January 17, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065869/predictors-of-radial-nerve-palsy-recovery-in-humeral-shaft-fractures-a-retrospective-review-of-17-patients
#12
N Nachef, V Bariatinsky, S Sulimovic, C Fontaine, C Chantelot
BACKGROUND: Radial nerve injury is common in humeral shaft fractures and fails to recover spontaneously in 30% of cases. Few studies have evaluated predictors of recovery. The objectives of this study were to identify predictors of radial nerve palsy recovery and to assess the usefulness of surgical radial nerve exploration in patients with preoperative radial nerve palsy. HYPOTHESIS: Factors predicting the outcome of radial nerve palsy can be identified. METHODS: Of 373 patients with humeral shaft fractures between 2005 and 2012, 43 had radial nerve palsy, including 23 who were lost to follow-up and 17 who were evaluated retrospectively at a mean of 26 months (range, 12-84 months) after internal fixation...
January 5, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059708/impact-of-mr-neurography-in-patients-with-chronic-cauda-equina-syndrome-presenting-as-chronic-pelvic-pain-and-dysfunction
#13
J R Petrasic, A Chhabra, K M Scott
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic cauda equina syndrome, defined as persistent damage of the cauda equina nerve roots within the spinal canal can be a challenging diagnosis with varied presentations. MR neurography imaging is more commonly being used to evaluate the lumbosacral spine of patients suspected of having subacute or chronic cauda equina syndrome. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of lumbosacral plexus MR neurography in the diagnostic thinking and therapeutic management of patients presenting with chronic pelvic pain and dysfunction and suspected chronic cauda equina syndrome...
November 10, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056284/-clinical-value-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-parameter-value-in-evaluating-the-prognosis-of-spinal-cord-injury-in-acute-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Z M Zou, J Li, Q Y Cao, H X Lian, C N He, B Wang
Objective: To evaluate the clinical application value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameter in evaluating the prognosis of spinal cord injury in acute cervical spinal cord injury. Method: From October 2012 to December 2015, a total of 23 patients with acute cervical spinal cord injury were examined by routine MRI-T2WI high signal DTI examination, according to the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) damage standard. One month later according to the functional outcome of the spinal cord, all patients were divided into non improvement group (group A) 4 cases (2 cases of ASIA-A, 2 cases of grade B) and improvement group (group B) 19 cases (13 cases of ASIA-C, 5 cases of grade D, 1 case of grade B), 15 cases of healthy volunteers as the normal group (group C )...
January 3, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040792/autophagy-in-tri-o-cresyl-phosphate-induced-delayed-neurotoxicity
#15
Hai-Yang Xu, Pan Wang, Ying-Jian Sun, Lu Jiang, Ming-Yuan Xu, Yi-Jun Wu
The widely used organophosphorus compound tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) elicits delayed neurotoxicity characterized by progressive axonal degeneration in the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. However, the precise mechanisms of TOCP-induced delayed neurotoxicity are not clear. Because autophagy has been linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, we aimed to characterize autophagy in the progression of TOCP-induced delayed neurotoxicity. In vivo experiments using the adult hen animal model showed that autophagy in spinal cord axons and in sciatic nerves was markedly induced at the early preclinical stage of TOCP-induced delayed neurotoxicity; it was decreased as the delayed neurotoxicity progressed to the overt neuropathy stage...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039964/degenerative-joint-diseases-and-neuroinflammation
#16
REVIEW
Mariella Fusco, Stephen D Skaper, Stefano Coaccioli, Antonella Paladini, Giustino Varrassi
Rheumatic and joint diseases, as exemplified by osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, are among the most widespread painful and disabling pathologies across the globe. Given the continuing rise in life expectancy, their prevalence is destined to grow. Osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, is, in particular, on its way to becoming the fourth leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020, with the rising incidence of obesity in addition to age being important factors. It is estimated that 25% of osteoarthritic individuals are unable to perform daily activities...
December 31, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032702/thoracic-endoscopic-assisted-mini-open-surgery-for-thoracic-and-thoracolumbar-spinal-cord-compression
#17
Bao-Shan Xu, Hai-Wei Xu, Qiu-Ming Yuan, Yue Liu, Qiang Yang, Hong-Feng Jiang, Dong-Bin Wang, Ning Ji, Xin-Long Ma, Yang Zhang
Intervertebral disc herniation is a common cause of spinal cord compression, especially for the thoracic and thoracolumbar spinal cord, which has limited buffer space in the spinal canal. Spinal cord compression usually causes decreased sensation and paralysis of limbs below the level of compression, urinary and fecal incontinence, and/or urinary retention, which brings great suffering to the patients and usually requires surgical intervention. Thoracotomy or abdominothoracic surgery is usually performed for the thoracolumbar cord compression caused by hard intervertebral disc herniation...
November 2016: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032120/inhibition-of-poly-adp-ribosylation-fails-to-increase-axonal-regeneration-or-improve-functional-recovery-after-adult-mammalian-cns-injury
#18
Xingxing Wang, Yuichi Sekine, Alexandra B Byrne, William B J Cafferty, Marc Hammarlund, Stephen M Strittmatter
After traumatic damage of the brain or spinal cord, many surviving neurons are disconnected, and recovery of function is limited by poor axon regeneration. Recent data have suggested that poly ADP-ribosylation plays a role in limiting axonal regrowth such that inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) may have therapeutic efficacy for neurological recovery after trauma. Here, we tested systemic administration of the PARP inhibitor, veliparib, and showed effective suppression of PARylation in the mouse CNS...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028649/application-of-a-modified-thoracoabdominal-approach-that-avoids-cutting-open-the-costal-portion-of-diaphragm-during-anterior-thoracolumbar-spine-surgery
#19
Jiandang Shi, Xuefeng Yue, Ningkui Niu, Chen Zhao, Hongyan Qiu, Zili Wang
PURPOSE: In the present prospective randomized controlled study, we compared the feasibility and effectiveness of our modified thoracoabdominal approach to anterior thoracolumbar spine surgery without cutting open the costal portion of diaphragm (extradiaphragmatic approach) with the traditional transdiaphragmatic thoracoabdominal approach. The traditional combined thoracoabdominal approach in anterior thoracolumbar surgery for spine tuberculosis is effective but seriously damages the diaphragm and causes various lung complications...
December 27, 2016: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011613/spinal-arachnoiditis-as-a-complication-of-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-in-non-hiv-previously-healthy-adults
#20
Anil A Panackal, Mika Komori, Peter Kosa, Omar Khan, Dima A Hammoud, Lindsey B Rosen, Sarah K Browne, Yen-Chih Lin, Elena Romm, Charu Ramaprasad, Bettina C Fries, John E Bennett, Bibiana Bielekova, Peter R Williamson
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus can cause meningoencephalitis (CM) among previously healthy non-HIV adults. Spinal arachnoiditis is under-recognized, since diagnosis is difficult with concomitant central nervous system (CNS) pathology. METHODS: We describe 6 cases of spinal arachnoiditis among 26 consecutively recruited CM patients with normal CD4 counts who achieved microbiologic control. We performed detailed neurological exams, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunophenotyping and biomarker analysis before and after adjunctive immunomodulatory intervention with high dose pulse corticosteroids, affording causal inference into pathophysiology...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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