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Chris Stubbs, Lisa Mattingly, Steven A Crawford, Elizabeth A Wickersham, Jessica L Brockhaus, Laine H McCarthy
CLINICAL QUESTION: In menopausal women who experience regular hot flashes, does treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) reduce the frequency and/or severity of hot flashes? ANSWER: Yes. Review of the literature suggests that treatment with SSRIs or SNRIs reduces the frequency and severity of hot flashes in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Studies demonstrated that paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa) and escitolapram (Lexapro) were the most effective SSRIs, and venlafaxine (Effexor) was the most effective first line SNRI, with desvenlafaxine as a second option...
May 2017: Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association
Robert M Nevels, Samuel T Gontkovsky, Bryman E Williams
Paroxetine, also known by the trade names Aropax, Paxil, Pexeva, Seroxat, Sereupin and Brisdelle, was first marketed in the U.S. in 1992. Effective for major depression and various anxiety disorders, it quickly gained a sizable share of the antidepressant prescription market. By the late 1990s, paroxetine frequently was being associated with serious drug interactions and medication side effects. Most significantly, in a major Canadian epidemiological study examining the relationship between antidepressants and diseases, paroxetine was associated with a 620 percent increase in the rate of breast cancer in women who had taken it over a four-year period...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Shannon Marie Gaukler, James Steven Ruff, Wayne K Potts
While conducting a toxicity assessment of the antidepressant paroxetine (Paxil®), in wild-derived mice (Mus musculus), we observed that exposed dams (P0) produced female biased litters (32:68 M:F). Though numerous experimental manipulations have induced sex ratio bias in mice, none have assessed the fitness of the offspring from these litters relative to controls. Here, we retrospectively analyze experimentally derived fitness data gathered for the purpose of toxicological assessment in light of 2 leading hypothesis (Trivers-Willard hypothesis [TWH] and cost of reproduction hypothesis [CRH]), seeking to test if this facultative sex ratio adjustment fits into an adaptive framework...
July 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
Peter J Embi, Jessica D Tenenbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Carl T Bergstrom
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Stuart Buck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Dan L Longo, Jeffrey M Drazen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Akira Dobashi, Kaori Kurata, Mitsuhiro Okazaki, Mari Nishizawa
PURPOSE: Spontaneous inquiries about the development of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to medicines can be extracted based on the questions posted by the general public on the electronic Japanese bulletin board "Yahoo! Japan Chiebukuro". Our aim was to clarify the characteristics related to people's descriptions of suspected ADRs and determine the reasons for submitting a spontaneous inquiry. METHODS: Fifty brand names of medicines used for inquiry extraction were chosen by selecting 35 pharmaceutical products, based on the generic names that had the highest sales in Japan...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Bruce A Davis, Anu Nagarajan, Lucy R Forrest, Satinder K Singh
The serotonin transporter (SERT) is an integral membrane protein that exploits preexisting sodium-, chloride-, and potassium ion gradients to catalyze the thermodynamically unfavorable movement of synaptic serotonin into the presynaptic neuron. SERT has garnered significant clinical attention partly because it is the target of multiple psychoactive agents, including the antidepressant paroxetine (Paxil), the most potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor known. However, the binding site and orientation of paroxetine in SERT remain controversial...
April 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nicholas A White, Kerem E Ozboya, Darrin M Flanigan, Tomislav Rovis
A concise enantioselective synthesis of (-)-paroxetine (Paxil) and (-)-femoxetine has been achieved. Key to these syntheses is a N-heterocyclic carbene catalyzed homoenolate addition to a nitroalkene followed by in situ reduction of the nitro-group to rapidly access δ-lactams.
April 2014: Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry
Constance Guille, Roger Newman, Leah D Fryml, Clay K Lifton, C Neill Epperson
The mainstays of treatment for peripartum depression are psychotherapy and antidepressant medications. More research is needed to understand which treatments are safe, preferable, and effective. Postpartum depression, now termed peripartum depression by the DSM-V, is one of the most common complications in the postpartum period and has potentially significant negative consequences for mothers and their families. This article highlights common clinical challenges in the treatment of peripartum depression and reviews the evidence for currently available treatment options...
November 2013: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
Umesh Nandkumar Khatavkar, Shamkant Laxman Shimpi, K Jayaram Kumar, Kishor Dattatraya Deo
The objective of this study is to develop, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of novel approaches for controlled release of paroxetine hydrochloride hemihydrate (PHH) in comparison to patented formulation PAXIL CR(®) tablets of GlaxoSmithKline (Geomatrix™ technology). In one of the approaches, hydrophilic core matrix tablets containing 85% of the dose were prepared and further coated with methacrylic acid copolymer to delay the release. An immediate release coating of 15% was given as top coat. The tablets were further optionally coated using ethyl cellulose...
August 2013: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Jerry C Chang, Ian D Tomlinson, Michael R Warnement, Hideki Iwamoto, Louis J DeFelice, Randy D Blakely, Sandra J Rosenthal
The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (SERT) protein plays a central role in terminating 5-HT neurotransmission and is the most important therapeutic target for the treatment of major depression and anxiety disorders. We report an innovative, versatile, and target-selective quantum dot (QD) labeling approach for SERT in single Xenopus oocytes that can be adopted as a drug-screening platform. Our labeling approach employs a custom-made, QD-tagged indoleamine derivative ligand, IDT318, that is structurally similar to 5-HT and accesses the primary binding site with enhanced human SERT selectivity...
November 9, 2011: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Kouichirou Nishi, Youichi Yanagawa, Tomonori Imamura, Naoto Matsumoto, Toshihisa Sakamoto
BACKGROUND: A high density area (HDA) that may represent ingested drugs was detected in the stomach of a patient with a drug overdose (OD) by computed tomography (CT). However, there is no prior evidence that drugs can be visualized as an HDA by abdominal CT. We investigated whether drugs can be imaged as an HDA by CT. METHODS: Ten tablets, 5 tablets, 1 tablet and 0.1 tablet of either Solanax (0.4 mg) or Depas (0.5 mg) or Tryptanol (10 mg) or Paxil (10 mg) or Wintermin (25 mg) or Phenobal (30 mg) or Hiberna (25 mg) were each added to 10 ml of artificial gastric juice...
September 2011: Chūdoku Kenkyū: Chūdoku Kenkyūkai Jun Kikanshi, the Japanese Journal of Toxicology
Robert H Howland
Publication bias and outcome reporting bias contribute to distorted perceptions of drug efficacy and the underreporting of adverse events. To demonstrate these biases, this article describes how the clinical profile of the antidepressant agent agomelatine (Valdoxan(®)) has been presented in the literature. Agomelatine has been systematically assessed in 10 short-term placebo-controlled studies and three long-term placebo-controlled relapse prevention studies. Five published trials demonstrated clinically modest but statistically significant benefits over placebo...
September 2011: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Meredith Wadman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2011: Nature
Yann Ferrand, Christina M L Kelton, Jeff J Guo, Martin S Levy, Yan Yu
BACKGROUND: Medicaid programs' spending on antidepressants increased from $159 million in 1991 to $2 billion in 2005. The National Institute for Health Care Management attributed this expenditure growth to increases in drug utilization, entry of newer higher-priced antidepressants, and greater prescription drug insurance coverage. Rising enrollment in Medicaid has also contributed to this expenditure growth. OBJECTIVES: This research examines the impact of specific events, including branded-drug and generic entry, a black box warning, direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA), and new indication approval, on Medicaid spending on antidepressants...
March 2011: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
M Nirmala, B R Sreekanth, Peddy Vishweshwar, J Moses Babu, Y Anjaneyulu
The title compound, C(12)H(17)FNO(+)·Cl(-), is a degradation impurity of paroxetine hydro-chloride hemihydrate (PAXIL), an anti-depressant belonging to the group of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Similar to the paroxetine hydro-chloride salt with protonation having taken place on the basic piperidine ring, the degradation impurity also exists as the hydro-chloride salt. The cyclic six-membered piperidinium ring adopts a chair conformation with the hydroxy-methyl and 4-fluoro-phenyl groups in the equatorial positions...
2008: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Structure Reports Online
Yogesh S Singh, Lauren E Sawarynski, Heather M Michael, Robert E Ferrell, Michael A Murphey-Corb, Greg M Swain, Bhavik A Patel, Anne M Andrews
Uptake resolved by high-speed chronoamperometry on a second-by-second basis has revealed important differences in brain serotonin transporter function associated with genetic variability. Here, we use chronoamperometry to investigate variations in serotonin transport in primary lymphocytes associated with the rhesus serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphism (rh5-HTTLPR), a promoter polymorphism whose orthologs occur only in higher order primates including humans. Serotonin clearance by lymphocytes is Na(+)-dependent and inhibited by the serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor paroxetine (Paxil®), indicative of active uptake by serotonin transporters...
January 20, 2010: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Linsey McGoey
As a result of the growth of evidence-based practices across the world, health-care providers and policymakers in the United States, United Kingdom, and Europe have established institutes such as the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) to produce clinical guidelines that physicians are asked to use in their daily practice. This article discusses how the withholding of clinical trial information by pharmaceutical companies and academic researchers affects the reliability of clinical guidelines...
2009: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
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