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Medical school health policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076644/main-mental-disorders-in-crack-cocaine-users-treated-at-psychosocial-care-centers-for-alcohol-and-drugs-in-the-city-of-recife-brazil
#1
Antonio Gomes de Castro, Diego César Nunes da Silva, Magda da Silva Figueiroa
Introduction: Brazil's Northeast region has the highest crack-cocaine consumption in the country. Crack-cocaine has more intense effects than cocaine powder and can cause greater chemical dependence. Psychosocial Care Centers for Alcohol and Drugs (CAPSad) are public health services that provide treatment for drug dependence. It is common for drug users, and particularly crack-cocaine users, to develop mental disorders. Objective: To evaluate the most common mental disorders in crack-cocaine dependents in treatment at CAPSad in the city of Recife, Brazil...
October 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068362/conflict-of-interest-policies-at-french-medical-schools-starting-from-the-bottom
#2
Paul Scheffer, Christian Guy-Coichard, David Outh-Gauer, Zoéline Calet-Froissart, Mathilde Boursier, Barbara Mintzes, Jean-Sébastien Borde
BACKGROUND: Medical faculties have a role in ensuring that their students are protected from undue commercial influence during their training, and are educated about professional-industry interactions. In North America, many medical faculties have introduced more stringent conflict of interest (COI) policies during the last decade. We asked whether similar steps had been taken in France. We hypothesized that such policies may have been introduced following a 2009-2010 drug safety scandal (benfluorex, Mediator) in which COIs in medicine received prominent press attention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052168/a-review-of-tenure-for-black-latino-and-native-american-faculty-in-academic-medicine
#3
Zedeena E Fisher, José E Rodríguez, Kendall M Campbell
OBJECTIVES: Tenure policies in US medical schools have been under scrutiny for decades while black/African American, Latino, and Native American faculty continue to be underrepresented in medicine. As medical institutions seek to improve diversity, tenure continues to be a major retention tool. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to investigate the role that tenure plays in the recruitment, retention, and advancement of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM) faculty in academic medicine...
January 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050999/retaining-health-workforce-in-rural-and-underserved-areas-of-india-what-works-and-what-doesn-t-a-critical-interpretative-synthesis
#4
REVIEW
Sonu Goel, Federica Angeli, Nidhi Bhatnagar, Neetu Singla, Manoj Grover, Hans Maarse
BACKGROUND: Human resource for health is critical in quality healthcare delivery. India, with a large rural population (68.8%), needs to urgently bridge the gaps in health workforce deployment between urban and rural areas. METHODS: We did a critical interpretative synthesis of the existing literature by using a predefined selection criteria to assess relevant manuscripts to identify the reasons for retaining the health workforce in rural and underserved areas. We discuss different strategies for retention of health workforce in rural areas on the basis of four major retention interventions, viz...
July 2016: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995225/oral-health-status-and-oral-health-care-model-in-china
#5
Jian Liu, Shan Shan Zhang, Shu Guo Zheng, Tao Xu, Yan Si
OBJECTIVE: To review the current oral health status and oral health care models in China in an effort to provide recommendations for the future implementation of these models. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted. The Medline, EMBASE, CNKI and Wanfang databases were searched for English and Chinese articles reporting relevant data from 1949 to the present. Data from three national oral health epidemiology surveys, Chinese government reports and national statistics yearbooks from 2011 to 2015 were also included...
2016: Chinese Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968916/intention-to-have-a-second-child-among-chinese-women-one-year-after-the-implementation-of-selective-two-child-policy-a-cross-sectional-survey
#6
Xianglong Xu, Hanxiao Zuo, Yunshuang Rao, Lei Zhang, Lian Lian Wang, Yong Zhao
BACKGROUND: The so-called selective two-child policy was introduced on December, 27, 2015 in China to allow Chinese couples nationwide to have up to two children if either parent is an only child. This study aims to explore Chinese women's intention to have a second child. METHODS: We surveyed women from 16 hospitals in five Chinese provinces from June 1 to August 31, 2015. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the sociodemographic factors related to seven key reasons for entering second pregnancy...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968890/patient-physician-trust-in-china-a-workshop-summary
#7
Cheris S C Chan, Yu Cheng, Yali Cong, Zhizheng Du, Shanlian Hu, Amanda Kerrigan, Arthur Kleinman, Mengfeng Li, Benjamin Liebman, Yonghui Ma, Jing-Bao Nie, Daniel F C Tsai, Duujian Tsai, Joseph D Tucker, Lijie Wang, Bonnie Wong, William C W Wong, Zeping Xiao, Juncai Xu, Yunxiang Yan, Yang Yang, Daqing Zhang, Mingjie Zhao, Jianfeng Zhu, Wei Zhu
BACKGROUND: Patient-physician mistrust has become deeply embedded in medical clinics within a wide variety of settings, including many in China. The purpose of this research was to develop a series of actionable policy recommendations to rebuild patient-physician trust in China. METHODS: Our interdisciplinary group included experts in medicine, public health, philosophy, ethics, law, regulation, China studies, anthropology, sociology, and communications. Recommendations were identified by team members and presented at a two-day workshop at the Harvard Center, Shanghai, China...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968832/factors-associated-with-intention-to-have-caesarean-delivery-in-pregnant-women-in-china-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#8
Lianlian Wang, Xianglong Xu, Philip Baker, Chao Tong, Lei Zhang, Hongbo Qi, Yong Zhao
BACKGROUND: The proportion of caesarean deliveries significantly increased from 2·0% in 1978--1985 to 36·6% in 2006-2010 among Chinese pregnant women. The rate reached 55% in 2014. In this study we explored the basic demographic characteristics and preferred method of delivery of pregnant women and analysed the associated social and psychological factors. METHOD: We did a cross-sectional analysis among pregnant women during June to August, 2015, in 16 hospitals from five provinces of mainland China...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940689/school-entry-requirements-and-coverage-of-nontargeted-adolescent-vaccines
#9
Jennifer L Moss, Paul L Reiter, Young K Truong, Barbara K Rimer, Noel T Brewer
BACKGROUND: Low human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage is an urgent public health problem requiring action. To identify policy remedies to suboptimal HPV vaccination, we assessed the relationship between states' school entry requirements and adolescent vaccination. METHODS: We gathered data on states' school entry requirements for adolescent vaccination (tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis [Tdap] booster; meningococcal; and HPV) from 2007 to 2012 from Immunization Action Coalition...
December 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927112/reshaping-policy-to-deliver-holistic-care-for-adolescents-with-crohn-s-disease
#10
Claudia Smith, Sheryl Gettings
The number of adolescents with Crohn's disease (CD) is rising, with one third of cases diagnosed before turning 21 years old. Evidence shows that long-term medical intervention, school absence and the physical toll of CD on the growing adolescent also have a psychological effect on patients. In addition, poorly defined transition pathways are extending these problems into adulthood. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines are important in shaping service delivery and distribution...
December 8, 2016: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903563/leveraging-ongoing-research-to-evaluate-the-health-impacts-of-south-africa-s-salt-reduction-strategy-a-prospective-nested-cohort-within-the-who-sage-multicountry-longitudinal-study
#11
Karen Charlton, Lisa J Ware, Elias Menyanu, Richard Berko Biritwum, Nirmala Naidoo, Chiné Pieterse, Savathree Lorna Madurai, Jeannine Baumgartner, George A Asare, Elizabeth Thiele, Aletta E Schutte, Paul Kowal
INTRODUCTION: Attempting to curb the rising epidemic of hypertension, South Africa implemented legislation in June 2016 mandating maximum sodium levels in a range of manufactured foods that contribute significantly to population salt intake. This natural experiment, comparing two African countries with and without salt legislation, will provide timely information on the impact of legislative approaches addressing the food supply to improve blood pressure in African populations. This article outlines the design of this ongoing prospective nested cohort study...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899071/having-a-usual-source-of-care-and-its-associated-factors-in-korean-adults-a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-2012-korea-health-panel-survey
#12
Ah Reum An, Kyoungwoo Kim, Jae-Ho Lee, Nak-Jin Sung, Sang-Il Lee, Min Kyung Hyun
BACKGROUND: Usual source of care (USC) is one of the hallmarks of primary care. We aimed to examine the status of having a USC and its patient-related sociodemographic factors among Korean adults. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2012 Korea Health Panel survey. Panel participants were selected for the study who were aged 18 years or older and who replied to questionnaire items on having a USC (n = 11,935). RESULTS: Of the participants, 21...
November 29, 2016: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875994/do-primary-care-professionals-agree-about-progress-with-implementation-of-primary-care-teams-results-from-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
E Tierney, M O'Sullivan, L Hickey, A Hannigan, C May, W Cullen, N Kennedy, L Kineen, A MacFarlane
BACKGROUND: Primary care is the cornerstone of healthcare reform with policies across jurisdictions promoting interdisciplinary team working. The effective implementation of such health policies requires understanding the perspectives of all actors. However, there is a lack of research about health professionals' views of this process. This study compares Primary Healthcare Professionals' perceptions of the effectiveness of the Primary Care Strategy and Primary Care Team (PCT) implementation in Ireland...
November 22, 2016: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869943/use-of-generic-drugs-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-city-brazil-in-2003-a-population-based-study
#14
Camila Nascimento Monteiro, Reinaldo José Gianini, Neuber José Segri, Moisés Goldbaum, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo Barros, Chester Luiz Galvão Cesar
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the use and perception of generic drugs by people with diabetes and hypertension in São Paulo City, Brazil, considering the Brazilian Generic Drug Policy. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional study using data from a household health survey (ISA-Capital) in 2003; analysis was performed on knowledge regarding generic drugs and on the association between their use and sociodemographic and socio-economic characteristics. RESULTS: 603 people with hypertension and diabetes were included in the study, low use of generic drugs was found (33...
April 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818848/an-examination-of-cultural-competence-training-in-us-medical-education-guided-by-the-tool-for-assessing-cultural-competence-training
#15
Valarie Blue Bird Jernigan, Jordan B Hearod, Kim Tran, Keith C Norris, Dedra Buchwald
In the United States, medical students must demonstrate a standard level of "cultural competence," upon graduation. Cultural competence is most often defined as a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, organization, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. The Association of American Medical Colleges developed the Tool for Assessing Cultural Competence Training (TACCT) to assist schools in developing and evaluating cultural competence curricula to meet these requirements...
2016: Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807877/social-network-analysis-in-medical-education
#16
Rachel Isba, Katherine Woolf, Robert Hanneman
CONTENT: Humans are fundamentally social beings. The social systems within which we live our lives (families, schools, workplaces, professions, friendship groups) have a significant influence on our health, success and well-being. These groups can be characterised as networks and analysed using social network analysis. SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS: Social network analysis is a mainly quantitative method for analysing how relationships between individuals form and affect those individuals, but also how individual relationships build up into wider social structures that influence outcomes at a group level...
January 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802560/outcomes-oriented-medical-training-a-critical-curricular-design-consideration-in-developing-21st-century-health-care-professionals
#17
Darrin D'Agostino, Frank J Papa
The core competencies of medical schools and residencies have initiated a change in curricular design but have been limited in their execution of systems-based practice. The introduction of milestones and entrustable professional activities has emerged to enhance the current educational paradigm. Linking public health systemic approaches with evidence-based practices focused on population-level health care will affect patients more than current non-systems-based approaches. Curricular redesign, including population health-based strategies, public health competency, health care policy, and education linking the "determinants of health" to patient care, will better prepare future physicians to practice in the emerging paradigm of health care of the future...
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792032/self-reported-medical-leave-by-brazilian-labor-law-magistrates
#18
Ada Ávila Assunção, Adriane Mesquita de Medeiros, Tarcísio Márcio Magalhães Pinheiro
BACKGROUND: Sick leave can be envisaged as an important public health indicator. Health problems and trouble at work are predictors of absenteeism. OBJECTIVE: Within the context of reforming the judicial system, the aim of this study was to examine whether individual characteristics and working conditions influenced reports of sick leave amongst a population of Brazilian magistrates. METHODS: A web-based survey was conducted in 2011 in such a way as to reach the entire population of Brazilian Labor-law magistrates across the country...
November 22, 2016: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780023/medical-schools-willingness-to-accommodate-medical-students-with-sensory-and-physical-disabilities-ethical-foundations-of-a-functional-challenge-to-organic-technical-standards
#19
Michael McKee, Ben Case, Maureen Fausone, Philip Zazove, Alicia Ouellette, Michael D Fetters
Students with sensory and physical disabilities are underrepresented in medical schools despite the availability of assistive technologies and accommodations. Unfortunately, many medical schools have adopted restrictive "organic" technical standards based on deficits rather than on the ability to do the work. Compelling ethical considerations of justice and beneficence should prompt change in this arena. Medical schools should instead embrace "functional" technical standards that permit accommodations for disabilities and update their admissions policies to promote applications from qualified students with disabilities...
October 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771545/insurance-coverage-and-socioeconomic-differences-in-patient-choice-between-private-and-public-health-care-providers-in-china
#20
Qing Wang, Donglan Zhang, Zhiyuan Hou
The private health care sector has become an increasingly important complement to China's health care system. During the health care reform in 2009, China's central government established multiple initiatives to relax constraints on the growth of the private health care sector. However, private health services have not been growing as rapidly as private health care facilities. Using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study collected between 2011 and 2013, this study investigated patient choice between private and public providers for outpatient care and estimated its relationship with health insurance and socioeconomic status (SES)...
October 18, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
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