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Medical school health policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930761/factors-associated-with-medical-school-graduates-intention-to-work-with-underserved-populations-policy-implications-for-advancing-workforce-diversity
#1
Andrea N Garcia, Tony Kuo, Lisa Arangua, Eliseo J Pérez-Stable
PURPOSE: Given projected U.S. physician shortages across all specialties that will likely impact underserved areas disproportionately, the authors sought to explore factors most correlated with medical school graduates' intention to work with underserved populations (IWUP). METHOD: Data from the 2010-2012 Association of American Medical Colleges Medical School Graduation Questionnaire (n = 40,846) were analyzed. Variables (demographics, career preference, debt burden, intention to enter loan forgiveness programs) were examined using chi-square tests and logistic regression models...
September 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884465/coordinating-medical-education-and-health-care-systems-the-power-of-the-social-accountability-approach
#2
Charles Boelen
CONTEXT: As the purpose of medical education is to produce graduates able to most effectively address people's health concerns, there is general agreement that coordination with the health care system is essential. For too long, coordination has been dealt with in a subjective manner with only few landmarks to ensure objective and measurable achievements. Over the last 30 years, since the Edinburgh Declaration on medical education, progress has been made, namely with the concept of social accountability...
September 7, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871022/perceived-effects-of-the-economic-recession-on-population-mental-health-well-being-and-provision-of-care-by-primary-care-users-and-professionals-a-qualitative-study-protocol-in-portugal
#3
Ana Antunes, Diana Frasquilho, Graça Cardoso, Nádia Pereira, Manuela Silva, José Miguel Caldas-de-Almeida, João Ferrão
INTRODUCTION: Economic recession periods can pose accentuated risks to population's mental health and well-being as well as additional threats to health systems. Users and health professionals are key stakeholders in care delivery; however, little attention has been given to their experiences of the crisis. This paper presents a qualitative study protocol to assess users' and health professionals' perceptions about the effects of the post-2008 economic recession on mental health and care delivery in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, Portugal...
September 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870254/understanding-the-factors-affecting-the-attraction-and-retention-of-health-professionals-in-rural-and-remote-areas-a-mixed-method-study-in-niger
#4
Loubna Belaid, Christian Dagenais, Mahaman Moha, Valéry Ridde
BACKGROUND: The critical shortage of human resources in health is a critical public health problem affecting most low- and middle-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition to the shortage of health professionals, attracting and retaining them in rural areas is a challenge. The objective of the study was to understand the factors that influence the attraction and retention of health professionals working in rural areas in Niger. METHODS: A mixed-method study was conducted in Tillabery region, Niger...
September 4, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869211/clinicians-views-on-therapeutic-outcomes-of-systemic-interventions-and-on-the-ability-of-the-eq-5d-to-capture-these-outcomes
#5
Saskia J Schawo, Werner B F Brouwer, Leona Hakkaart
BACKGROUND: Systemic interventions focus on improvements of interactions between clients and their environments, and are increasingly used to treat adolescents with problems of substance use and delinquency. Clients' progress may include broad and non-medical effects. When performing economic evaluations of these interventions, the common outcome of costs per quality adjusted life year (cost/QALY) may not capture all of these effects. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The current study is an explorative study...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841845/sociodemographic-factors-and-pregnancy-outcomes-associated-with-prepregnancy-obesity-effect-modification-of-parity-in-the-nationwide-epifane-birth-cohort
#6
Julie Boudet-Berquier, Benoit Salanave, Jean-Claude Desenclos, Katia Castetbon
BACKGROUND: In light of the adverse outcomes for mothers and offspring related to maternal obesity, identification of subgroups of women at risk of prepregnancy obesity and its related-adverse issues is crucial for optimizing antenatal care. We aimed to identify sociodemographic factors and maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with prepregnancy obesity, and we tested the effect modification of parity on these associations. METHODS: In 2012, 3368 mothers who had delivered in 136 randomly selected maternity wards were included just after birth in the French birth cohort, Epifane...
August 25, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817429/the-rising-challenge-of-training-physician-scientists-recommendations-from-a-canadian-national-consensus-conference
#7
Michael J Strong, Nick Busing, Danika L Goosney, Ken A Harris, Tanya Horsley, Alexandra Kuzyk, Lorelei Lingard, Wendy V Norman, Norman D Rosenblum, Tina Saryeddine, Xin Wang
Physician-scientists are individuals who actively participate in patient care, have undergone additional research training, and devote the majority of their time to research. Physician-scientists are traditionally the primary catalysts in bridging the translational gap-that is, the failure to link fundamental new knowledge in the pathobiology of disease with advances in health care and health policy in a timely manner. However, there has been a shift away from training physician-scientists, and financial support for the physician-scientist is diminishing globally, causing the translational gap to grow...
August 16, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814701/-byoin-in-modern-japan-focusing-on-the-terminological-introduction-of-hospital-and-the-complex-formation-of-its-concept
#8
Youngsoo Kim
This paper aims to clarify when the term of Byoin (hospital) was introduced and how its concept was developed in modern Japan. The word "Byoin" was introduced in Japan in 1787 for the first time, but it had not been in use until early 1860s. Instead, various medical institutions performing the functions of modern medical facilities, such as Yojosho (A place for preserving health), Shijuku (private school), called by traditional names as ever. Japanese intellectuals already adopted the word Byoin and the concept of western hospital in early 1860s when their national delegates were dispatched to Europe to revise the treaties forged with western powers...
April 2017: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801006/palliative-care-in-kazakhstan
#9
Gulnara Kunirova, Ainur Shakenova
In Kazakhstan, like most ex-Soviet Union countries palliative care began in the late 1990's with the opening of the Almaty Hospice in 1999. Since that time, several palliative care services have opened in urban centers but there is little coverage in rural areas. Palliative care has grown due to the collaborative work of Parliament leaders, Ministry of Health, local governments officials, Public Health Higher School, National Center for Health Development, academic medical institutions, oncology and palliative care experts, NGO's, Soros Foundation Kazakhstan, and international experts...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762088/effects-of-test-item-disclosure-on-medical-licensing-examination
#10
Eunbae B Yang, Myung Ae Lee, Yoon Soo Park
In 2012, the National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board of Korea decided to publicly disclose all test items and answers to satisfy the test takers' right to know and enhance the transparency of tests administered by the government. This study investigated the effects of item disclosure on the medical licensing examination (MLE), examining test taker performance, psychometric characteristics, and factors affecting pass rates. This paper analyzed examinee performance data (n = 20,455) from 41 medical schools who took the MLE before (2009-2011) and after (2012-2014) the item disclosure policy (5548 total items)...
July 31, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747138/perspectives-on-rehabilitation-of-children-with-cerebral-palsy-exploring-a-cross-cultural-view-of-parents-from-india-and-canada-using-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health
#11
Pranay Jindal, Joy C MacDermid, Peter Rosenbaum, Briano DiRezze, Amitesh Narayan
PURPOSE: To explore parents' perspectives on rehabilitation of their child with cerebral palsy and their information needs. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with parents of children with CP from India (n = 11) and Canada (n = 7). Data were analyzed through an interpretive description approach using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework. RESULTS: Body Structure and Function: Indian parents were more focused on fixing body structure and function challenges, and independent walking, than Canadian parents...
July 26, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746069/barriers-to-medical-students-electronic-health-record-access-can-impede-their-preparedness-for-practice
#12
Catherine M Welcher, William Hersh, Blaine Takesue, Victoria Stagg Elliott, Richard E Hawkins
Medical students need hands-on experience documenting clinical encounters as well as entering orders to prepare for residency and become competent physicians. In the era of paper medical records, students consistently acquired experience writing notes and entering orders as part of their clinical experience. Over the past decade, however, patient records have transitioned from paper to electronic form. This change has had the unintended consequence of limiting medical students' access to patient records. This restriction has meant that many students leave medical school without the appropriate medical record skills for transitioning to residency...
July 25, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735455/examining-the-role-of-income-inequality-and-neighborhood-walkability-on-obesity-and-physical-activity-among-low-income-hispanic-adults
#13
Samuel D Towne, Michael L Lopez, Yajuan Li, Matthew Lee Smith, Judith L Warren, Alexandra E Evans, Marcia G Ory
Obesity is a major public health issue affecting rising medical costs and contributing to morbidity and premature mortality. We aimed to identify factors that may play a role in obesity and physical activity at the individual and environmental/neighborhood levels. We analyzed data from an adult sample who were parents of students enrolled in a school-based health and wellness program. The sample was restricted to those who were Hispanic and whose children were on free/reduced lunch (n = 377). Dependent variables: body mass index (BMI); neighborhood walkability...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716015/illegal-gold-miners-in-french-guiana-a-neglected-population-with-poor-health
#14
Maylis Douine, Emilie Mosnier, Quentin Le Hingrat, Charlotte Charpentier, Florine Corlin, Louise Hureau, Antoine Adenis, Yassamine Lazrek, Florence Niemetsky, Anne-Laure Aucouturier, Magalie Demar, Lise Musset, Mathieu Nacher
BACKGROUND: In French Guiana, a French overseas territory in South America, 6 to 10 thousands undocumented persons work illegally in gold mining sites in the Amazonian forest. Precarious life conditions lead to poor health but few data exist on the health status of illegal gold miners in French Guiana. The objective of this article was to describe the sociodemographic and health status of this vulnerable population. METHOD: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 on gold mine supply sites at the border between French Guiana and Suriname...
July 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686956/evaluation-of-a-collaborative-project-to-develop-sustainable-healthcare-education-in-eight-uk-medical-schools
#15
S C Walpole, F Mortimer
INTRODUCTION: Environmental change poses pressing challenges to public health and calls for profound and far-reaching changes to policy and practice across communities and health systems. Medical schools can act as a seedbed where knowledge, skills and innovation to address environmental challenges can be developed through innovative and collaborative approaches. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to (1) explore drivers and challenges of collaboration for educational development between and within medical schools; (2) evaluate the effectiveness of a range of pedagogies for sustainable healthcare education; and (3) identify effective strategies to facilitate the renewal of medical curricula to address evolving health challenges...
September 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686628/the-rural-pipeline-to-longer-term-rural-practice-general-practitioners-and-specialists
#16
Marcella M S Kwan, Srinivas Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Geetha Ranmuthugala, Maree R Toombs, Geoffrey C Nicholson
BACKGROUND: Rural medical workforce shortage contributes to health disadvantage experienced by rural communities worldwide. This study aimed to determine the regional results of an Australian Government sponsored national program to enhance the Australian rural medical workforce by recruiting rural background students and establishing rural clinical schools (RCS). In particular, we wished to determine predictors of graduates' longer-term rural practice and whether the predictors differ between general practitioners (GPs) and specialists...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683824/level-of-health-literacy-and-factors-associated-with-it-among-school-teachers-in-an-education-zone-in-colombo-sri-lanka
#17
H M B H Denuwara, Nalika Sepali Gunawardena
BACKGROUND: Health literacy refers to people's competencies to access, understand, judge and apply health information in healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion. This study aimed to describe the level of health literacy and the factors associated with it among school teachers in an Education Zone in Colombo, Sri Lanka. METHODS: A cross-sectional study among 520 teachers measured health literacy using the selfadministered, culturally adapted Sinhalese translation of Health Literacy Survey-European Union (HLS-EU)...
July 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666444/development-of-village-doctors-in-china-financial-compensation-and-health-system-support
#18
REVIEW
Dan Hu, Weiming Zhu, Yaqun Fu, Minmin Zhang, Yang Zhao, Kara Hanson, Melisa Martinez-Alvarez, Xiaoyun Liu
BACKGROUND: Since 1968, China has trained about 1.5 million barefoot doctors in a few years' time to provide basic health services to 0.8 billion rural population. China's Ministry of Health stopped using the term of barefoot doctor in 1985, and changed policy to develop village doctors. Since then, village doctors have kept on playing an irreplaceable role in China's rural health, even though the number of village doctors has fluctuated over the years and they face serious challenges...
July 1, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658020/socially-accountable-medical-education-an-innovative-approach-at-florida-international-university-herbert-wertheim-college-of-medicine
#19
Pedro J Greer, David R Brown, Luther G Brewster, Onelia G Lage, Karin F Esposito, Ebony B Whisenant, Frederick W Anderson, Natalie K Castellanos, Troy A Stefano, John A Rock
PROBLEM: Despite medical advances, health disparities persist, resulting in medicine's renewed emphasis on the social determinants of health and calls for reform in medical education. APPROACH: The Green Family Foundation Neighborhood Health Education Learning Program (NeighborhoodHELP) at Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine provides a platform for the school's community-focused mission. NeighborhoodHELP emphasizes social accountability and interprofessional education while providing evidence-based, patient- and household-centered care...
June 27, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645977/vitamin-d-status-and-associated-factors-among-portuguese-older-adults-results-from-the-nutrition-up-65-cross-sectional-study
#20
Alejandro Santos, Teresa F Amaral, Rita S Guerra, Ana S Sousa, Luisa Álvares, Pedro Moreira, Patrícia Padrão, Cláudia Afonso, Nuno Borges
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vitamin D status and its associated factors in Portuguese older adults from the Nutrition UP 65 study. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Nationwide cluster sample of 1500 Portuguese subjects ≥65 years old. Participants were classified, according to US Institute of Medicine cut-offs, as presenting normal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels (≥50.0 nmol/L), at risk of inadequacy (30...
June 22, 2017: BMJ Open
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