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Medical school health policy

Stephen B Soumerai, Rachel Ceccarelli, Ross Koppel
Some medical scientists argue that only data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are trustworthy. They claim data from natural experiments and administrative data sets are always spurious and cannot be used to evaluate health policies and other population-wide phenomena in the real world. While many acknowledge biases caused by poor study designs, in this article we argue that several valid designs using administrative data can produce strong findings, particularly the interrupted time series (ITS) design...
October 18, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Juan Yang, Katherine E Atkins, Luzhao Feng, Mingfan Pang, Yaming Zheng, Xinxin Liu, Benjamin J Cowling, Hongjie Yu
BACKGROUND: To explore the current landscape of seasonal influenza vaccination across China, and estimate the budget of implementing a national "free-at-the-point-of-care" vaccination program for priority populations recommended by the World Health Organization. METHODS: In 2014 and 2016, we conducted a survey across provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to collect information on regional reimbursement policies for influenza vaccination, estimated the national uptake using distributed doses of influenza vaccines, and evaluated the budget using population size and vaccine cost obtained from official websites and literatures...
October 13, 2016: Vaccine
Edmund Ndudi Ossai, Kenechi Anderson Uwakwe, Uchenna Chidi Anyanwagu, Ntat Charles Ibiok, Benedict Ndubueze Azuogu, Ngozi Ekeke
BACKGROUND: In resource-poor settings with low doctor-population ratio, there is need for equitable distribution of healthcare workforce. The specialty preferences of medical students determine the future composition of physician workforce hence its relevance in career guidance, healthcare planning and policy formulation. This study was aimed at determining the specialty preferences of final year medical students in medical schools of southeast Nigeria, the gender differences in choice of specialty and the availability of career guidance to the students during the period of training...
October 4, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Desmond Schatz
This address was delivered by Desmond Schatz, MD, President, Medicine & Science, of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), at the Association's 76th Scientific Sessions in New Orleans, LA, on 12 June 2016. Dr. Schatz is Professor and Associate Chairman of Pediatrics, Medical Director of the University of Florida Diabetes Institute, and Director of the Clinical Research Center at the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. A physician-scientist, he has been involved in type 1 diabetes research since the mid-1980s and has published over 300 articles and book chapters...
October 2016: Diabetes Care
John Quinn, Vít Lidinský, Venu Rajaratnam, Marta Kruszcynski, Tomas Zeleny, Vladimir Bencko
BACKGROUND: Some university curricula struggle to present evidence-based promotion of global health principles and global health diplomacy within an undergraduate setting. The de facto global health paradigm has experienced significant stress and pressure from epidemics, war and violence, climate change and resource challenges. These stressors may lead to increased morbidity and mortality, in turn requiring medical professionals to play a larger role in global health action across borders...
2016: Globalization and Health
Ali Emadzadeh, Hossein Karimi Moonaghi, Mojtaba Mousavi Bazzaz, Sharareh Karimi
INTRODUCTION: Experts consider social accountability as a new paradigm in medical education and a cultural change that is necessary to be studied and understood more deeply. One of the problems of medical education is the inadequacy of medicine graduates to meet the social accountability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the general medicine curriculum for social accountability. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on three groups of experts, faculty members, and general physicians working in health centers in Mashhad in 2014...
July 2016: Electronic Physician
Sarah S Conrad, Amy N Addams, Geoffrey H Young
Medical schools and residency programs have always sought excellence in the areas of education, research, and clinical care. However, these pursuits are not accomplished within a vacuum-rather, they are continually and necessarily influenced by social, cultural, political, legal, and economic forces. Persistent demographic inequalities coupled with rapidly evolving biomedical research and a complex legal landscape heighten our collective awareness and emphasize the continued need to consider medicine's social contract when selecting, educating, and developing physicians and physician-scientists...
September 13, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Jed D Gonzalo, Catherine Lucey, Terry Wolpaw, Anna Chang
To ensure physician readiness for practice and leadership in changing health systems, an emerging three-pillar framework for undergraduate medical education integrates the biomedical and clinical sciences with health systems science, which includes population health, health care policy, and interprofessional teamwork. However, the partnerships between medical schools and health systems that are commonplace today use health systems as a substrate for learning. Educators need to transform the relationship between medical schools and health systems...
August 30, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Paul L Delamater, Timothy F Leslie, Y Tony Yang
Childhood vaccination programs are considered one of the most beneficial public health programs in modern history. In the United States, the increasing use of non-medical exemptions (NMEs) from school entry vaccination requirements has garnered attention and scrutiny in the popular press, academic literature, and policy forums. In 2016, California law SB277 goes into effect, eliminating the NME option for students attending the state's public and private schools. Whereas SB277 is a strong move to increase vaccination coverage within California's schools, the new law contains an important caveat - students already having a valid NME (obtained prior to the 2016 school year) are "grandfathered" in until their next grade checkpoint (seventh grade)...
November 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Robyn Preston, Sarah Larkins, Judy Taylor, Jenni Judd
BACKGROUND: This paper presents a conceptual framework developed from empirical evidence, to guide medical schools aspiring towards greater social accountability. METHODS: Using a multiple case study approach, seventy-five staff, students, health sector representatives and community members, associated with four medical schools, participated in semi-structured interviews. Two schools were in Australia and two were in the Philippines. These schools were selected because they were aspiring to be socially accountable...
2016: BMC Medical Education
Charles Mock
IATSIC is the foremost professional society addressing trauma care globally. How is it doing in meeting the needs of most injured patients? The vast majority (65 %) of trauma deaths occur in the poorer half of the world (low-income and lower-middle-income countries), where injury rates are the highest. IATSIC has accomplished a tremendous amount and has much to be proud of. However, most of its work thus far has been concentrated in the wealthier half of the world (upper-middle-income and high-income countries)...
August 23, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Halah Ibrahim, Satish Chandrasekhar Nair, Sami Shaban, Margaret El-Zubeir
BACKGROUND: In today's interdependent world, issues of physician shortages, skill imbalances and maldistribution affect all countries. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a nation that has historically imported its physician manpower, there is sustained investment in educational infrastructure to meet the population's healthcare needs. However, policy development and workforce planning are often hampered by limited data regarding the career choice of physicians-in-training. The purpose of this study was to determine the specialty career choice of applicants to postgraduate training programs in the UAE and factors that influence their decisions, in an effort to inform educational and health policy reform...
May 2016: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
Gracelyn Cruden, Kelly Kelleher, Sheppard Kellam, C Hendricks Brown
The delivery of prevention services to children and adolescents through traditional healthcare settings is challenging for a variety of reasons. Parent- and community-focused services are typically not reimbursable in traditional medical settings, and personal healthcare services are often designed for acute and chronic medical treatment rather than prevention. To provide preventive services in a setting that reaches the widest population, those interested in public health and prevention often turn to school settings...
October 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Kirsty Bowman, João Delgado, William E Henley, Jane A Masoli, Katarina Kos, Carol Brayne, Praveen Thokala, Louise Lafortune, George A Kuchel, Alessandro Ble, David Melzer
BACKGROUND: Moderate obesity in later life may improve survival, prompting calls to revise obesity control policies. However, this obesity paradox may be due to confounding from smoking, diseases causing weight-loss, plus varying follow-up periods. We aimed to estimate body mass index (BMI) associations with mortality, incident type 2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease in older people with and without the above confounders. METHODS: Cohort analysis in Clinical Practice Research Datalink primary care, hospital and death certificate electronic medical records in England for ages 60 to more than 85 years...
August 4, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
B Ramasubbu, M Heron, R Ramasubbu, P Murphy
BACKGROUND: The Health Service Executive estimates it spent just under €2 billion on medicines in 2013 following a fivefold increase in the cost of medicines over the preceding decade. With this increasing cost, it is important to understand what factors affect doctors prescribing. AIMS: To investigate the influencing factors on prescribing of non-consultant hospital doctors (NCHDs) in Irish hospitals and to provide data regarding the sources of information NCHD's use for commonly prescribed drugs...
July 30, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
David V Evans, Toby Keys, Laurel Desnick, C Holly A Andrilla, Danielle Bienz, Roger Rosenblatt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pharmaceutical marketing techniques are effective in changing the behavior of health care providers in ways that deviate from evidence-based practices. To mitigate the influence of pharmaceutical marketing on learners, academic medical centers (AMCs) have adopted policies to limit student/industry interaction. Many clinical experiences occur outside of the AMC. The purpose of this study was to compare medical students' exposure to pharmaceutical marketing in off-campus rural and urban underserved clinical sites...
July 2016: Family Medicine
Rosemarie Kobau, Wanjun Cui, Matthew M Zack
From the combined 2010 and 2013 National Health Interview Surveys, we estimated US national age-standardized prevalence of adults with active epilepsy who reported that a nervous system/sensory organ condition caused a limitation (e.g., walking; memory; or physical, mental, or emotional problems) and, separately, that epilepsy interfered with their activities (e.g., working, schooling, or socializing) during the 30days preceding the survey. Sixty-one percent of adults who took antiseizure medication and had recent seizures and 51% of those who took medication and had no seizures reported having limitations caused by a nervous system/sensory organ condition...
September 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Ingrid Zechmeister-Koss, Roman Winkler, Corinna Fritz, Leonhard Thun-Hohenstein, Heinz Tuechler
BACKGROUND: Although 20% of children and adolescents in Europe suffer from overt mental health problems, their illness-related service utilisation is often unknown. If at all, existing research has only addressed the health care sector while services requirements in mental health care go far beyond the health care system, including the social, the educational and the criminal justice system. AIMS OF STUDY: This paper aims at describing the service contact patterns of children and adolescents within and outside the health care sector before they are admitted to a child and adolescent mental health hospital...
June 2016: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
Gabriel Anabwani, Grace Karugaba, Lesego Gabaitiri
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral treatment means many HIV infected children are surviving with a highly stigmatised condition. There is a paucity of data to inform policies for this growing cohort. Hence we carried out a study on the health, schooling, needs, aspirations, perspectives and knowledge of HIV infected and affected children in Botswana. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using interviews and focus group discussions among HIV infected children aged 6-8 years versus HIV aged matched HIV uninfected counterparts living in the same households between August 2010 and March 2011...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
Fernanda Bertanha, Erica Judite Pimentel Nelumba, Alyne Korukian Freiberg, Luciana Paula Samorano, Cyro Festa
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of epidemiological data on skin diseases is important in planning preventive strategies in healthcare services. OBJECTIVE: To assess data from patients admitted to a triage dermatology clinic. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed of patients admitted over a one-year period to the Triage Dermatology Clinic at the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School. Data were obtained from record books...
May 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
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