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oppositional defiant disorder

Brittany L Zastrow, Michelle M Martel, Thomas A Widiger
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is conceptualized as a disorder of negative affect and low effortful control. Yet empirical tests of trait associations with ODD remain limited. The current study examined the relationship between temperament and personality traits and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) ODD symptom domains and related impairment in a preschool-age sample. Participants were 109 children ages 3-6 (59% male), overrecruited for ODD from the community, and their primary caregivers (87% mothers)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Pietro Muratori, Simone Pisano, Annarita Milone, Gabriele Masi
BACKGROUND: The Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP), (high scores in Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior subscales), has been related to poor emotional and behavioral self-regulation in children and adolescents. Our aim is to evaluate if it may be associated with auto-aggression in youth with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Method In 72 consecutively referred youths with ODD, emotional dysregulation was assessed with the CBCL-DP, auto-aggression and physical aggression against other persons with the Modified Overt Aggression Scale...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Christine N El Ouardani
Based on 9 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. mental health clinic focused on the treatment of preschool-aged children who exhibited extremely disruptive behavior, this article examines the contradictions clinicians faced when trying to identify and attribute "intentionality" to very young children. Disruptive, aggressive behavior is one of the central symptoms involved in a wide-range of childhood psychopathology and the number one reason young children are referred to mental health clinics in the United States...
October 19, 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Rosanna P Breaux, Hallie R Brown, Elizabeth A Harvey
The present study examined mediators and moderators of the relation between parental ADHD symptomatology and the development of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms across the preschool years. Participants included 258 (138 boys) 3-year-old children (M = 44.13 months, SD = 3.39) with and without behavior problems and their parents who took part in a 3-year longitudinal study. Maternal ADHD symptoms predicted later ADHD symptoms in children, controlling for early child symptomatology...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Esra Cop Tasgin, Ozgur Oner, Pinar Yurtbasi, Kerim Munir
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), antisocial behavior and anxiety/depression ratings of mothers, and child and adolescents' age, gender, ADHD subtype, and comorbidity on one-month drug treatment response to OROS methylphenidate in ADHD in a naturalistic setting. METHODS: The analyses included 223 subjects (191 boys, 32 girls; age 6-15 years, mean: 9.4) treated with OROS methylphenidate (18-72 mg/day, mean: 31 mg/d; 0...
2016: Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology [Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bülteni]
Sarah E Martin, Richard T Liu, Lauren R Mernick, Mia DeMarco, Shayna M Cheek, Anthony Spirito, John R Boekamp
Despite increased awareness of the prevalence and seriousness of mental health problems in early childhood, there have been few empirical studies of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in this age group. This study examined suicidal thoughts and behaviors in 360 preschool-aged children (ages 3 to 7 years) presenting to a psychiatric day treatment program. A semi-structured diagnostic interview (conducted with primary caregivers) was used to assess for child suicidal thoughts and behaviors and psychiatric disorders...
September 25, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Jacob N S Jackson, James MacKillop
BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies have investigated delay discounting, a behavioral economic index of impulsivity, and its relevance to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but with mixed findings. The current meta-analysis synthesizes the literature on the relationship between monetary delay discounting and ADHD in studies using case-control designs. Specifically, the objectives were: 1) to characterize the aggregated differences in monetary delay discounting between individuals with ADHD (cases) and controls in studies using categorical case-control designs; 2) to examine potential differences based on sample age (<18 vs...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Shari L Hutchison, Jaswinder K Ghuman, Harinder S Ghuman, Irina Karpov, James M Schuster
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorders and is associated with higher incidence of comorbid oppositional or conduct, mood, anxiety, pervasive developmental, and substance-use disorders. Comorbid mental health conditions may alter the presence of symptoms and treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine (ATX), a nonstimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD, may be prescribed for individuals with ADHD and comorbid conditions despite some risk for certain undesirable side effects and lower effectiveness for the treatment of ADHD than stimulants...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Bernhard Weidle, Gudmundur Skarphedinsson
Motivation is a key ingredient in the successful treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). As a first-line treatment, cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) requires extensive client engagement, including participating in exposures and doing homework tasks. A lack of motivation to comply with these tasks may seriously affect treatment outcome. This case study identifies factors interfering with motivation and illustrates motivational strategies to enhance compliance of a child with OCD. The patient was an 11-year-old boy with severe OCD and symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Irene Tung, James J Li, Jocelyn I Meza, Kristen L Jezior, Jessica S V Kianmahd, Patrick G Hentschel, Paul M O'Neil, Steve S Lee
CONTEXT: Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at elevated risk for comorbid psychopathology, the clinical correlates of ADHD in girls are far less understood relative to boys, despite ADHD being one of the most common childhood disorders in girls. OBJECTIVE: To meta-analytically summarize rates of comorbid internalizing (anxiety, depression) and externalizing (oppositional defiant disorder [ODD], conduct disorder [CD]) psychopathology among girls with and without ADHD...
October 2016: Pediatrics
Michael T Baglivio, Kevin T Wolff, Alex R Piquero, Mark A Greenwald, Nathan Epps
Psychiatric disorder prevalence has been shown demonstrably higher among justice-involved adolescents than youth in the general population. Yet, among arrested juveniles, little is known regarding racial/ethnic differences in disorder prevalence, the role of trauma exposure in the diagnosis of behavioral disorders, or subsequent psychiatric treatment provided to adolescents with such diagnoses. The current study examines racial/ethnic disparity in psychiatric diagnoses and treatment of behavioral disorders associated with delinquency, controlling for traumatic experiences, behavioral indicators, and prior offending among serious juvenile offenders...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Ukamaka Marian Oruche, Sydney E Ross, Janet S Carpenter, Jamie Renbarger
PROBLEM: To add to diversity in our state biobank, we explored the feasibility of collecting genetic material from adolescents with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and/or conduct disorder (CD) and their family members. We also preliminarily explored genetic factors associated with ODD and/or CD by comparing participant data to 1000 Genome Project data on minor allele frequencies. METHODS: Adolescents with ODD and/or CD and family members provided saliva samples for genetic testing...
August 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing
Jeffrey S Danforth
Behavioral parent training is an evidence-based treatment for problem behavior described as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. However, adherence to treatment fidelity and parent performance of the management skills remains an obstacle to optimum outcome. One variable that may limit the effectiveness of the parent training is that demanding behavior management procedures can be deceptively complicated and difficult to perform. Based on outcome research for families of children with co-occurring ADHD and conduct problem behavior, an example of a visual behavior management flow chart is presented...
March 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Efstathios Papachristou, Kurt Schulz, Jeffrey Newcorn, Anne-Claude V Bédard, Jeffrey M Halperin, Sophia Frangou
BACKGROUND: We recently developed the Child Behavior Checklist-Mania Scale (CBCL-MS), a novel and short instrument for the assessment of mania-like symptoms in children and adolescents derived from the CBCL item pool and have demonstrated its construct validity and temporal stability in a longitudinal general population sample. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the construct validity of the 19-item CBCL-MS in a clinical sample and to compare its discriminatory ability to that of the 40-item CBCL-dysregulation profile (CBCL-DP) and the 34-item CBCL-Externalizing Scale...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Andrea S Young, L Eugene Arnold, Hannah L Wolfson, Mary A Fristad
This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated benefits of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and Individual-Family Psychoeducational Psychotherapy (PEP; a family-focused, cognitive-behavioral therapy) for behavior problems among youth with depression. Participants aged 7-14 with DSM-IV-TR depressive disorders (N = 72; 56.9 % male) were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment conditions: PEP + omega-3, PEP monotherapy (with pill placebo), omega-3 monotherapy, or placebo (without active intervention)...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Sevim Berrin Inci, Melis Ipci, Ulkü Akyol Ardıç, Eyüp Sabri Ercan
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the frequency of comorbid disorders in children and adolescents with ADHD in Turkey and to evaluate the distribution of comorbidities according to the subtypes of ADHD and sociodemographic features. METHOD: The sample consisted of 1,000 children, 6 to 18 years of age, including 242 females and 758 males, from Ege University who were diagnosed with ADHD. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rate of psychiatric comorbidity in the study was 56...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Petteri Joelsson, Roshan Chudal, Ardesheer Talati, Auli Suominen, Alan S Brown, Andre Sourander
BACKGROUND: Prenatal smoking exposure has been associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is commonly associated with a wide spectrum of psychiatric comorbidity. The association between smoking and neuropsychiatric comorbidity of ADHD has remained understudied. The aim of this study is to examine the association between prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and offspring ADHD, and test whether the smoking-ADHD associations are stronger when ADHD is accompanied by other lifetime neuropsychiatric comorbidities...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Jarla Pijper, Minet de Wied, Sophie van Rijn, Stephanie van Goozen, Hanna Swaab, Wim Meeus
This study examined additive and interactive effects of callous unemotional (CU) traits and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) symptoms in relation to trait empathy, in boys with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 49 boys with ODD/CD, aged between 7-12 years. Boys completed a questionnaire measure of empathic sadness and a broader questionnaire measure of affective and cognitive empathy. Parents and teachers reported on CU traits, and parents reported on ASD symptoms...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Virginia Martín, Roser Granero, Josep Maria Domènech, Lourdes Ezpeleta
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to identify factors related to comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and anxiety disorders (AD). DESIGN: A sample of 622 children was assessed longitudinally at 3 and 5 years of age. METHODS: At baseline, there were 310 boys (49.8%), most participants were of Caucasian-white-ethnicity (89.1%) and attended to public school (64.0%), and families' socioeconomic status was 64.3% medium-high, 14...
August 30, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Thiago G Pianca, Luis Augusto Rohde, Ronaldo L Rosa, Ana Paula A Begnis, Pedro B Ferronatto, Mariana C Jensen, Flavio Pechansky, Keila Maria Mendes Ceresér, Victoria P Fairchild, Claudia M Szobot
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of adolescents with crack cocaine dependence and possible predictors of transition from drug experimentation to crack cocaine dependence. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled a consecutive sample of 90 adolescents admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit in the city of Porto Alegre in southern Brazil for crack cocaine detoxification between May 2011 and November 2012. Comorbid psychological conditions were assessed using the Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version, and severity of drug use was assessed using the Teen Addiction Severity Index (T-ASI)...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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