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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215580/deviant-peers-as-a-mediator-of-pubertal-timing-substance-use-associations-the-moderating-role-of-parental-knowledge
#1
Kristine Marceau, Kristina Jackson
PURPOSE: Early perceived pubertal timing and faster maturation have been linked to increased risk of adolescent substance use (SU), particularly for girls, but the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. We sought to replicate and extend findings from Westling et al. (2008) showing that peer deviance mediates the link between early puberty and SU with stronger pathways in the context of low parental knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts and activities. METHODS: Participants (n = 1,023; 52% female, 24% nonwhite, and 12% Hispanic) were recruited through middle schools...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215240/morningness-eveningness-correlates-with-sleep-time-quality-and-hygiene-in-secondary-school-students-a-multilevel-analysis
#2
Christian Vollmer, Konrad S Jankowski, Juan F Díaz-Morales, Heike Itzek-Greulich, Peter Wüst-Ackermann, Christoph Randler
At the onset of puberty, students shift their sleep to later hours, but school starts early. It is suggested that evening orientation and early school start times do not go well together. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate sleep problems in adolescence, and it was expected that the adolescents' eveningness orientation is associated with many sleep-related problems. Students of secondary education (n = 3201; mean = 13.8 ± 1.8 years) filled out a self-report questionnaire containing measures of morningness-eveningness, sleep time (midpoint of sleep, social "jetlag"), sleep length (on schooldays and on weekends), sleep quality, and sleep hygiene as well as questions on electronic screen media use...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211649/insufficient-sleep-in-adolescents-causes-and-consequences
#3
Judith A Owens, Miriam R Weiss
Insufficient sleep poses an important and complicated set of health risks in the adolescent population. Not only is deficient sleep (defined as both sleep duration inadequate to meet sleep needs and sleep timing misaligned with the body's circadian rhythms) at epidemic levels in this population, but the contributing factors are both complex and numerous and there are a myriad of negative physical and mental health, safety and performance consequences. Causes of inadequate sleep identified in this population include internal biological processes such as the normal shift (delay) in circadian rhythm that occurs in association with puberty and a developmentally-based slowing of the "sleep drive", and external factors including extracurricular activities, excessive homework load, evening use of electronic media, caffeine intake and early school start times...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174478/scoliosis-in-adulthood-a-case-with-untreated-early-onset-scoliosis-presenting-at-the-age-of-76-years
#4
Hans-Rudolf Weiss
[Purpose] Untreated early-onset scoliosis may eventually progress to more than 90° after growth, cause severe health problems, and increase chance of mortality. Therefore, surgical intervention is often indicated prior to the development of a life-threatening deformity. This case report aims to reveal how a 76-year-old male patient with curves exceeding 110° is functioning with minimal difficulty. [Subject and Methods] The patient, who has never had surgical intervention for scoliosis, can perform his everyday activities...
December 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170387/early-growth-faltering-in-post-institutionalized-youth-and-later-anthropometric-and-pubertal-development
#5
Brie M Reid, Bradley S Miller, Lorah D Dorn, Christopher Desjardins, Bonny Donzella, Megan Gunnar
BACKGROUND: Early life adversity that increases the risk of growth stunting is hypothesized to increase the risk of obesity and, in girls, early onset puberty. This hypothesis was tested in children adopted from orphanages. METHODS: Post-institutionalized (PI) youth were compared with youth reared in comparable families (non-adopted; NA) on height, weight, pubertal stage, and fat mass (127 PI, 80 female; 156 NA, 85 female, aged 7-14 years). Anthropometrics at adoption were obtained from first US clinic visits...
February 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164075/the-impact-of-obesity-on-hyperandrogenemia-in-korean-girls
#6
Min Jae Kang, Seung Yang, Il Tae Hwang
PURPOSE: As metabolic complication and polycystic ovarian syndrome due to childhood obesity is rising, the role of hyperandrogenemia (HA) and hyperinsulinism is receiving attention. The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of obvious HA according to pubertal status and to find potential etiologic determinants of HA in Korean obese (OB) girls. METHODS: We analyzed 91 girls aged 6-17 years (prepuberty, n=54; puberty, n=37). Each girl was classified as being either normal weight (NW) or OB...
December 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164070/transgender-youth-current-concepts
#7
REVIEW
Stephen M Rosenthal
In many countries throughout the world, increasing numbers of gender nonconforming/transgender youth are seeking medical services to enable the development of physical characteristics consistent with their experienced gender. Such medical services include use of agents to block endogenous puberty at Tanner stage II with subsequent use of cross-sex hormones, and are based on longitudinal studies demonstrating that those individuals who were first identified as gender dysphoric in early or middle childhood and continue to meet the mental health criteria for being transgender at early puberty are likely to be transgender as adults...
December 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161230/-slipped-capital-femoral-epiphysis
#8
C Klein, E Haraux, J Leroux, R Gouron
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SFCE) is a disorder of the hip, characterized by a displacement of the capital femoral epiphysis from the metaphysic through the femoral growth plate. The epiphysis slips posteriorly and inferiorly. SCFE occurs during puberty and metabolic and epidemiologic risk factors, such as obesity are frequently found. Most chronic slips are diagnosed late. Sagittal hip X-rays show epiphysis slip. In case of untreated SCFE, a slip progression arises with an acute slip risk. Treatment is indicated to prevent slip worsening...
February 1, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130407/a-putative-role-for-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-amh-in-optimising-ovarian-reserve-expenditure
#9
Michael W Pankhurst
The mammalian ovary has a finite supply of oocytes which are contained within primordial follicles where they are arrested in a dormant state. The number of primordial follicles in the ovary at puberty is highly variable between females of the same species. Females that enter puberty with a small ovarian reserve are at risk of a shorter reproductive lifespan, as their ovarian reserve is expected to be depleted faster. One of the roles of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is to inhibit primordial follicle activation which slows the rate at which the ovarian reserve is depleted...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126912/growth-hormone-with-aromatase-inhibitor-may-improve-height-in-cyp11b1-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#10
Katherine Hawton, Sandra Walton-Betancourth, Gill Rumsby, Joseph Raine, Mehul Dattani
With an estimated prevalence of 1 in 100 000 births, 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is the second most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and is caused by mutations in CYP11B1 Clinical features include virilization, early gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty, hypertension, and reduced stature. The current mainstay of management is with glucocorticoids to replace deficient steroids and to minimize adrenal sex hormone overproduction, thus preventing virilization and optimizing growth. We report a patient with CAH who had been suboptimally treated and presented to us at 6 years of age with precocious puberty, hypertension, tall stature, advanced bone age, and a predicted final height of 150 cm...
January 26, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120214/characterization-of-kiss2-and-kissr2-genes-and-the-regulation-of-kisspeptin-on-the-hpg-axis-in-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#11
Huayu Song, Mengxun Wang, Zhongkai Wang, Jinxiang Liu, Jie Qi, Quanqi Zhang
Reproduction allows organisms to produce offspring. Animals shift from immature juveniles into mature adults and become capable of sexual reproduction during puberty, which culminates in the first spermiation and sperm hydration or ovulation. Reproduction is closely related to the precise control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Kisspeptin peptides are considered as the important regulator of HPG axis in mammalian. However, the current understanding of kisspeptin in flatfish is not comprehensive...
December 24, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114141/lung-function-in-women-with-idiopathic-central-precocious-puberty-a-pilot-study%C3%A2
#12
Virginia Murri, Franco Antoniazzi, Michele Piazza, Paolo Cavarzere, Claudia Banzato, Attilio Boner, Rossella Gaudino
BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that women with early menarche (≤10 years) have lower lung function. AIM: To investigate lung function in women with a history of idio pathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) treated during childhood with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa). METHODS: ICPP women (n = 23) were compared with healthy age-matched controls (n = 23). Subjects were clinically evaluated by means of a questionnaire, baseline and post-β<Sub>2</Sub> agonist spirometry, impulse oscillometry (a measure of airway resistance), and measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO)...
January 23, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109838/developmental-changes-and-day-night-expression-of-the-gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-system-in-the-european-sea-bass-effects-of-rearing-temperature
#13
José A Paullada-Salmerón, Guillaume Henri Loentgen, Mairi Cowan, María Aliaga-Guerrero, María Del Carmen Rendón-Unceta, José A Muñoz-Cueto
The role of rearing temperature on fish development, sex differentiation and puberty has been largely addressed, but the impact of water temperature on the ontogeny of the main neuroendocrine systems controlling reproduction has received little attention. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) has been shown to act on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and on the pituitary to inhibit gonadotropin release and synthesis in vertebrates, including sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. In the present study we investigated the effects of rearing temperature during the thermosensitive period (5-60days post-fertilization, dpf) on the expression of the GnIH gene (gnih) and its receptor (gnihr)...
January 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109031/undifferentiated-embryonic-cell-transcription-factor-1-utf1-and-deleted-in-azoospermia-like-dazl-expression-in-the-testes-of-donkeys
#14
Y S Lee, H J Jung, M J Yoon
Putative markers for each specific germ cell stage can be a useful tool to study the fate and functions of these cells. Undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1 (UTF1) is a putative marker for undifferentiated spermatogonia in humans, rats and horses. The deleted in azoospermia-like (DAZL) protein is also expressed by differentiated spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes in several species. However, whether the expression patterns of these molecular markers are identical and applicable to donkeys remains to be elucidated...
January 20, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106721/exercise-induced-oxidative-stress-responses-in-the-pediatric-population
#15
REVIEW
Alexandra Avloniti, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Chariklia K Deli, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Luis Gracia-Marco, Diamanda Leontsini, Dimitrios Draganidis, Athanasios Z Jamurtas, George Mastorakos, Ioannis G Fatouros
Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development...
January 17, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097202/distinct-effects-of-obesity-and-puberty-on-risk-and-age-at-onset-of-pediatric-ms
#16
Tanuja Chitnis, Jennifer Graves, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Anita Belman, Cody Olsen, Madhusmita Misra, Gregory Aaen, Leslie Benson, Meghan Candee, Mark Gorman, Benjamin Greenberg, Lauren Krupp, Timothy Lotze, Soe Mar, Jayne Ness, John Rose, Jennifer Rubin, Teri Schreiner, Jan Tillema, Amy Waldman, Moses Rodriguez, Charlie Casper, Emmanuelle Waubant
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the relative contributions of body mass index (BMI) and pubertal measures for risk and age of onset of pediatric MS. METHODS: Case-control study of 254 (63% female) MS cases (onset<18 years of age) and 420 (49% female) controls conducted at 14 U.S. Pediatric MS Centers. Sex- and age-stratified BMI percentiles were calculated using CDC growth charts from height and weight measured at enrollment for controls, and within 1 year of onset for MS cases...
December 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089368/the-transition-from-pediatric-to-adult-care-for-youth-with-epilepsy-basic-biological-sociological-and-psychological-issues
#17
REVIEW
Peter Camfield, Carol Camfield, Kanetee Busiah, David Cohen, Alison Pack, Rima Nabbout
Transition from pediatric to adult health care for adolescents with epilepsy is challenging for the patient, family, and health care workers. This paper is the first of three that summarize the main findings from the 2nd Symposium on Transition in Epilepsies, held in Paris from June 14-25, 2016. In this paper we describe five basic themes that have an important effect on transition. First, there are important brain changes in adolescence that leave an imbalance between risk taking and pleasure seeking behaviors and frontal executive function compared with adults...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073971/sexual-dimorphisms-in-genetic-loci-linked-to-body-fat-distribution
#18
REVIEW
Sara L Pulit, Tugce Karaderi, Cecilia M Lindgren
Obesity is a chronic condition associated with increased morbidity and mortality and is a risk factor for a number of other diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obesity confers an enormous, costly burden on both individuals and public health more broadly. Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes. Body fat distribution is distinct from overall obesity in measurement, but studies of body fat distribution can yield insights into the risk factors for and causes of overall obesity...
February 28, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065179/maternal-fish-oil-supplementation-during-lactation-is-associated-with-reduced-height-at-13-years-of-age-and-higher-blood-pressure-in-boys-only
#19
L Lauritzen, S E Eriksen, M F Hjorth, M S Nielsen, S F Olsen, K D Stark, K F Michaelsen, C T Damsgaard
Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) in infancy may have long-term effects on lifestyle disease risk. The present follow-up study investigated whether maternal fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affected growth and blood pressure in adolescents and whether the effects differed between boys and girls. Mother-infant pairs (n 103) completed a randomised controlled trial with FO (1·5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA) or olive oil (OO) supplements during the first 4 months of lactation; forty-seven mother-infant pairs with high fish intake were followed-up for 4 months as the reference group...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063503/does-oral-glutamine-improve-insulin-sensitivity-in-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#20
Lournaris Torres-Santiago, Nelly Mauras, Jobayer Hossain, Arthur L Weltman, Dominique Darmaun
OBJECTIVE: The decline in insulin sensitivity (SI) associated with puberty increases the difficulty of achieving glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this study was to determine whether glutamine supplementation affects blood glucose by enhancing SI in adolescents with T1D. METHODS: Thirteen adolescents with T1D (HbA1C 8.2 ± 0.1%) were admitted to perform afternoon exercise (four 15-min treadmill/5-min rest cycles of exercise) on two occasions within a 4-wk period...
February 2017: Nutrition
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