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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775873/psychosocial-stress-and-inflammation-driving-tryptophan-breakdown-in-children-and-adolescents-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-two-cohorts
#1
Nathalie Michels, Gerard Clarke, Loreto Olavarria-Ramirez, Sonia Gómez-Martínez, Ligia Esperanza Díaz, Ascensión Marcos, Kurt Widhalm, Livia A Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Tryptophan breakdown is an important mechanism in several diseases e.g. inflammation and stress-induced inflammation have been associated with the development of depression via enhanced tryptophan breakdown. Depression is a major public health problem which commonly starts during adolescence, thus identifying underlying mechanisms during early life is crucial in prevention. The aim of this work was to verify whether independent and interacting associations of psychosocial stress and inflammation on tryptophan breakdown already exist in children and adolescents as a vulnerable age group...
May 15, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774495/associations-among-early-life-stress-rumination-symptoms-of-psychopathology-and-sex-in-youth-in-the-early-stages-of-puberty-a-moderated-mediation-analysis
#2
Joelle LeMoult, Kathryn L Humphreys, Lucy S King, Natalie L Colich, Alexandria N Price, Sarah J Ordaz, Ian H Gotlib
Despite the high prevalence and substantial costs of early life stress (ELS), the mechanisms through which ELS confers risk for psychopathology are poorly understood, particularly among youth who are in an earlier stage of the transition through puberty. We sought to advance our understanding of the link between ELS and psychopathology by testing whether rumination mediates the relation between ELS and symptoms of psychopathology in youth in the early stages of puberty, and whether sex moderates this mediation...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769822/maturity-status-strongly-influences-the-relative-age-effect-in-international-elite-under-9-soccer
#3
Lisa Müller, Josef Gehmaier, Christoph Gonaus, Christian Raschner, Erich Müller
The aim of the study was to assess the role of the relative age effect (RAE) and to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in international under-9 soccer. The birth dates of 222 male participants of the U9 Eurochampionship Soccer Tournament in Vienna in 2016 were analyzed and divided into four relative age quarters (Q1-Q4) and the biological maturity status was assessed with the age at peak height velocity (APHV) method. Based on the mean±standard deviation of the APHV, the athletes were divided into three groups of maturity: early, normal and late maturing...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768449/children-with-type-1-diabetes-who-experienced-a-honeymoon-phase-had-significantly-lower-ldl-cholesterol-5-years-after-diagnosis
#4
Benjamin Udoka Nwosu, Bo Zhang, Sanaa S Ayyoub, Stephanie Choi, Tony R Villalobos-Ortiz, Laura C Alonso, Bruce A Barton
IMPORTANCE: Landmark studies showed that partial clinical remission in new-onset type 1 diabetes is associated with reduced prevalence of long-term complications, but early clinical indicators of this favorable outcome are poorly characterized. AIM: To determine if there were any differences in lipid parameters, especially LDL-cholesterol, between remitters and non-remitters 4 to 5 years after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes after controlling for hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, and pubertal status...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764806/temporal-efficacy-of-a-sulforaphane-based-broccoli-sprout-diet-in-prevention-of-breast-cancer-through-modulation-of-epigenetic-mechanisms
#5
Yuanyuan Li, Phillip Buckhaults, Shizhao Li, Trygve O Tollefsbol
Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among women. An important risk factor for breast cancer is individual genetic background which is initially generated early in human life; for example, during the processes of embryogenesis and fetal development in utero. Bioactive dietary components such as sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetables including broccoli sprouts (BSp), cabbage and kale, has been shown to reduce the risk of developing many common cancers through regulation of epigenetic mechanisms...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755708/growth-and-endocrine-function-in-tunisian-thalassemia-major-patients
#6
Naouel Guirat Dhouib, Monia Ben Khaled, Monia Ouederni, Habib Besbes, Ridha Kouki, Fethi Mellouli, Mohamed Bejaoui
β-thalassemia major (β-TM) is among the most common hereditary disorders imposing high expenses on health-care system worldwide. The patient's survival is dependent on lifetime blood transfusion which leads to iron overload and its toxicity in various organs including endocrine glands. This article provides an overview of endocrine disorders in beta-TM patients. This single center investigation enrolled 28 β-TM patients (16 males, 12 females) regularly transfused with packed red cell since early years of life...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730657/adolescent-undernutrition-global-burden-physiology-and-nutritional-risks
#7
Parul Christian, Emily R Smith
Adolescents, comprised of 10-19 year olds, form the largest generation of young people in our history. There are an estimated 1.8 billion adolescents in the world, with 90% residing in low- and middle-income countries. The burden of disease among adolescents has its origins in infectious and injury-related causes, but nutritional deficiencies, suboptimal linear growth, and undernutrition are major public health problems, even as overweight may be on the rise in many contexts. Summary and Key Messages: Girls are most vulnerable to the influences of cultural and gender norms, which often discriminate against them...
May 4, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730183/genes-underlying-delayed-puberty
#8
REVIEW
S R Howard
The genetic control of pubertal timing has been a field of active investigation for the last decade, but remains a fascinating and mysterious conundrum. Self-limited delayed puberty (DP), also known as constitutional delay of growth and puberty, represents the extreme end of normal pubertal timing, and is the commonest cause of DP in both boys and girls. Familial self-limited DP has a clear genetic basis. It is a highly heritable condition, which often segregates in an autosomal dominant pattern (with or without complete penetrance) in the majority of families...
May 3, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718954/behavioural-risks-in-male-dogs-with-minimal-lifetime-exposure-to-gonadal-hormones-may-complicate-population-control-benefits-of-desexing
#9
Paul D McGreevy, Bethany Wilson, Melissa J Starling, James A Serpell
Castration of dogs is a widespread practise with clear justification in population control and knock-on benefits for animal welfare. Deleterious behavioural consequences of castration are believed to be negligible. Gonadectomy is widely recommended as part of a multi-factorial approach to prevent problems including aggression in dogs. However, the consequences of early castration on health are still being debated. The current study focused on the reported behaviour of 6,235 male dogs castrated before 520 weeks of life for reasons other than behavioural management, and calculated their percentage lifetime exposure to gonadal hormones (PLGH) as a proportion of their age at the time of being reported to the online Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718535/vigilant-attention-to-threat-sleep-patterns-and-anxiety-in-peripubertal-youth
#10
Emily J Ricketts, Rebecca B Price, Greg J Siegle, Jennifer S Silk, Erika E Forbes, Cecile D Ladouceur, Allison G Harvey, Neal D Ryan, Ronald E Dahl, Dana L McMakin
BACKGROUND: Vigilant attention to threat is commonly observed in anxiety, undergoes developmental changes in early adolescence, and has been proposed to interfere with sleep initiation and maintenance. We present one of the first studies to use objective measures to examine associations between vigilant attention to threat and difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep in an early adolescent anxious sample. We also explore the moderating role of development (age, puberty) and sex. METHODS: Participants were 66 peripubertal youth (ages 9-14) with a primary anxiety disorder and 24 healthy control subjects...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709326/ten-years-of-observations-and-demographics-of-hemimandibular-hyperplasia-and-elongation
#11
Kamil H Nelke, Wojciech Pawlak, Monika Morawska-Kochman, Klaudiusz Łuczak
INTRODUCTION: The full epidemiology and etiology of hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH) has not yet been clarified. In most cases it starts before puberty and results in various forms of dento-alveolar and skeletal discrepancies. This study is the first attempt at evaluating and describing some of the authors' key experiences, clinical philosophical approach, and gathered demographic data on hemimandibular hyperplasia and hemimandibular elongation (HE) among the Polish population. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A total of 45 patients (M = 8; F = 37; p < 0...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708396/evaluation-of-characteristics-of-the-craniofacial-complex-and-dental-maturity-in-girls-with-central-precocious-puberty
#12
Hee-Kyung Lee, Sung-Hwan Choi, Dong Fan, Kyung-Mi Jang, Min-Seon Kim, Chung-Ju Hwang
OBJECTIVES: To identify unique characteristics of the craniofacial complex and dental maturity in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 34 Korean girls with idiopathic CPP (mean age, 8.6 ± .5 years) and 28 normal healthy girls of the same chronological age. An initial evaluation of the growth pattern of the craniofacial complex and dental maturity was conducted by analyzing lateral cephalometric and panoramic radiographs...
April 30, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705181/-natural-progression-of-premature-pubarche-and-underlying-diseases
#13
María Luisa Sancho Rodríguez, Gloria Bueno Lozano, José Ignacio Labarta Aizpún, Antonio de Arriba Muñoz
INTRODUCTION: Premature pubarche (PP) is generally thought to be a benign condition, but it can also be the first sign of underlying disease. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the aetiology and the evolution of the anthropometric, analytical and metabolic risk parameters of a group of patients with PP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive and analytical retrospective study of 92 patients affected by PP. Anthropometry, analyses, bone age and indicators of lipid metabolism were all evaluated...
April 25, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690861/effect-of-early-calf-hood-nutrition-on-the-transcriptomic-profile-of-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-in-holstein-friesian-bulls
#14
Anne-Marie English, Sineád M Waters, Paul Cormican, Colin J Byrne, Seán Fair, David A Kenny
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue is a major endocrine organ and is thought to play a central role in the metabolic control of reproductive function in cattle. Plane of nutrition during early life has been shown to influence the timing of puberty in both male and female cattle, though the exact biological mechanisms involved are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of early calf-hood nutrition on the transcriptomic profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue in Holstein-Friesian bulls to identify possible downstream effects on reproductive physiology...
April 24, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689132/alcohol-delays-the-onset-of-puberty-in-the-female-rat-by-altering-key-hypothalamic-events
#15
Vinod K Srivastava, Jill K Hiney, William L Dees
BACKGROUND: Because alcohol (ALC) delays signs of pubertal development, we assessed the time course of events associated with the synthesis of critical hypothalamic peptides that regulate secretion of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), the peptide that drives the pubertal process. METHODS: Immature female rats were administered either lab chow or Bio-Serve isocaloric control or ALC liquid diets from 27 through 33 days of age. On days 28, 29, 31 and 33 animals were killed by decapitation and tissue blocks containing the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) and the rostral hypothalamic area (RHA) were isolated and stored frozen until assessed by Western blot analysis...
April 24, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687293/psychosocial-stress-exposure-disrupts-mammary-gland-development
#16
Marianna B Johnson, Joscelyn N Hoffmann, Hannah M You, Ricardo R Lastra, Sully Fernandez, Jordan W Strober, Ahmad B Allaw, Matthew J Brady, Suzanne D Conzen, Martha K McClintock
Exposure to psychosocial stressors and ensuing stress physiology have been associated with spontaneous invasive mammary tumors in the Sprague-Dawley rat model of human breast cancer. Mammary gland (MG) development is a time when physiologic and environmental exposures influence breast cancer risk. However, the effect of psychosocial stress exposure on MG development remains unknown. Here, in the first comprehensive longitudinal study of MG development in nulliparous female rats (from puberty through young adulthood; 8-25 wks of age), we quantify the spatial gradient of differentiation within the MG of socially stressed (isolated) and control (grouped) rats...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684167/reproduction-in-domestic-ruminants-during-the-past-50-years-discovery-to-application
#17
Michael F Smith, Rodney D Geisert, John J Parrish
The study of reproductive physiology in domestic ruminants has progressed from the whole animal to the molecular level in an amazingly short period of time. The volume of information on this subject is enormous; therefore, we have focused on domestic ruminants, with an emphasis on cattle. To date, artificial insemination (AI) is perhaps the most powerful technique that reproductive physiologists and geneticists have provided the livestock industry for genetic improvement. Early efforts to establish AI as a tool were initiated in Russia around 1899 and since that time major advances in methods of semen collection, evaluation of male fertility, cryopreservation of sperm, sex-sorted semen, and estrous cycle control have occurred...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684126/when-does-germ-cell-loss-and-fibrosis-occur-in-patients-with-klinefelter-syndrome
#18
D Van Saen, V Vloeberghs, I Gies, I Mateizel, K Sermon, Jean De Schepper, H Tournaye, E Goossens
STUDY QUESTION: When does germ cell loss and fibrosis occur in patients with Klinefelter syndrome (KS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: In KS, germ cell loss is not observed in testicular tissue from fetuses in the second semester of pregnancy but present at a prepubertal age when the testicular architecture is still normal, while fibrosis is highly present at an adolescent age. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Most KS patients are azoospermic at adult age because of a massive germ cell loss...
April 19, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680294/klinefelter-syndrome-the-effects-of-early-androgen-therapy-on-competence-and-behavioral-phenotype
#19
REVIEW
Ryan Flannigan, Premal Patel, Darius A Paduch
INTRODUCTION: Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the result of sex chromosome aneuploidy most often characterized as 47,XXY. The typical features of KS include tall stature, gynecomastia, small firm testicles, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and infertility. However, abnormalities in neurodevelopment, cognition, and social and behavioral functioning also can be present. The abnormalities in neurodevelopment are believed to be due in part to androgen deficiency during early development and puberty...
April 18, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676942/pharmacotherapy-for-schizophrenia-in-postmenopausal-women
#20
Alexandre González-Rodríguez, Mary V Seeman
Reduced estrogen levels at menopause mean a loss of the neuroprotection that is conferred, from puberty until menopause, on women with schizophrenia. The postmenopausal stage of schizophrenia requires therapeutic attention because women with this diagnosis almost invariably experience increased symptoms and increased side effects at this time. So far, few targeted therapies have been successfully developed. Areas covered: This non-systematic, narrative review is based on the relevant published literature indexed in PubMed...
April 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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