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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470831/expression-and-function-of-immune-ligand-receptor-pairs-in-nk-cells-and-cancer-stem-cells-therapeutic-implications
#1
REVIEW
Ioannis A Voutsadakis
BACKGROUND: The interplay between the immune system and cancer cells has come to the forefront of cancer therapeutics, with novel immune blockade inhibitors being approved for the treatment of an increasing list of cancers. However, the majority of cancer patients still display or develop resistance to these promising drugs. It is possible that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are contributing to this therapeutic resistance. Although CSCs usually represent a small percentage of the total number of cancer cells, they are endowed with the ability of self-renewal and to produce differentiated progeny...
February 22, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470299/choroidal-thickness-changes-in-a-patient-diagnosed-with-central-serous-chorioretinopathy-during-follow-up-for-pachychoroid-pigment-epitheliopathy
#2
Wataru Saito, Yuki Hashimoto, Kiriko Hirooka, Susumu Ishida
PURPOSE: To evaluate chronological changes in choroidal thickness in a patient with pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy (PPE) who was later diagnosed with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) during follow-up. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 43-year-old man complained of metamorphopsia in the left eye. Funduscopy showed several punctate white subretinal lesions at the macula, but no macular serous retinal detachment in the left eye. Retinal pigment epithelium abnormality without serous retinal detachment at the macula on optical coherence tomography and choroidal vascular hyperpermeability on indocyanine green angiography suggested PPE in the left eye...
February 21, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468726/immunohistochemical-expression-of-cd44-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-relation-to-histomorphologic-parameters-and-clinicopathological-factors
#3
Melanie Boxberg, Carolin Götz, Selgai Haidari, Christiane Dorfner, Moritz Jesinghaus, Enken Drecoll, Marko Boskov, Klaus Dietrich Wolff, Wilko Weichert, Bernhard Haller, Andreas Kolk
OBJECTIVES: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is characterized by its variable clinical course. In addition to the routinely used TNM/UICC systems, patient-specific prognostic/predictive biomarkers are needed. Promising biomarkers include the determination of the cancer stem cell (CSC) compartment, which can be identified by CD44 expression (amongst others). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A well-characterized cohort of 108 therapy-naïve OSCC with complete long-term follow-up and matched lymph node metastases were evaluated for CD44 expression by immunohistochemistry...
February 22, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467936/dynamic-changes-in-cd44v-positive-cells-after-preoperative-anti-her2-therapy-and-its-correlation-with-pathologic-complete-response-in-her2-positive-breast-cancer
#4
Teruo Yamauchi, Jose Rodrigo Espinosa Fernandez, Chiyo K Imamura, Hideko Yamauchi, Hiromitsu Jinno, Maiko Takahashi, Yuko Kitagawa, Seigo Nakamura, Bora Lim, Savitri Krishnamurthy, James M Reuben, Diane Liu, Debasish Tripathy, Helen Chen, Naoko Takebe, Hideyuki Saya, Naoto T Ueno
Chemotherapy has been reported to increase the proportion of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype changes. Anti-HER2 therapy may provide a strategy for eliminating CSC and EMT, which contribute to therapeutic resistance. No study has determined the changes in the quantity or characteristics of CSCs or circulating tumor cells (CTCs) with EMT phenotype during preoperative anti-HER2 therapy, and whether these changes correlate to response to dual anti-HER2 therapy...
January 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467020/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-mediated-regulation-of-mir-193a-expression-promotes-the-migration-and-proliferation-of-c-kit-positive-mouse-cardiac-stem-cells
#5
Yuning Sun, Rongfeng Xu, Jia Huang, Yuyu Yao, Xiaodong Pan, Zhongpu Chen, Genshan Ma
BACKGROUND: C-kit-positive cardiac stem cells (CSCs) have been shown to be a promising candidate treatment for myocardial infarction and heart failure. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is an anabolic growth hormone that regulates cellular proliferation, differentiation, senescence, and death in various tissues. Although IGF-1 promotes the migration and proliferation of c-kit-positive mouse CSCs, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. METHODS: Cells were isolated from adult mouse hearts, and c-kit-positive CSCs were separated using magnetic beads...
February 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466368/untargeted-metabolomics-reveals-distinct-metabolic-reprogramming-in-endothelial-cells-co-cultured-with-csc-and-non-csc-prostate-cancer-cell-subpopulations
#6
Anusha Jayaraman, Praveen Kumar, Silvia Marin, Pedro de Atauri, Francesca Mateo, Timothy M Thomson, Josep J Centelles, Stewart F Graham, Marta Cascante
Tumour angiogenesis is an important hallmark of cancer and the study of its metabolic adaptations, downstream to any cellular change, can reveal attractive targets for inhibiting cancer growth. In the tumour microenvironment, endothelial cells (ECs) interact with heterogeneous tumour cell types that drive angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study we aim to characterize the metabolic alterations in ECs influenced by the presence of tumour cells with extreme metastatic abilities. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were subjected to different microenvironmental conditions, such as the presence of highly metastatic PC-3M and highly invasive PC-3S prostate cancer cell lines, in addition to the angiogenic activator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), under normoxia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466249/exploiting-mitochondrial-targeting-signal-s-tpp-and-bis-tpp-for-eradicating-cancer-stem-cells-cscs
#7
Bela Ozsvari, Federica Sotgia, Michael P Lisanti
Tri-phenyl-phosphonium (TPP) is a non-toxic chemical moiety that functionally behaves as a mitochondrial targeting signal (MTS) in living cells. Here, we explored the hypothesis that TPP-related compounds could be utilized to inhibit mitochondria in cancer stem cells (CSCs). We randomly selected 9 TPP-related compounds for screening, using an ATP depletion assay. Based on this approach, five compounds were identified as "positive hits"; two had no detectable effect on ATP production. Remarkably, this represents a >50% hit rate...
February 19, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464053/combination-of-a-thioxodihydroquinazolinone-with-cisplatin-eliminates-ovarian-cancer-stem-cell-like-cells-csc-lcs-and-shows-preclinical-potential
#8
Jing Ma, Joseph Salamoun, Peter Wipf, Robert Edwards, Bennett Van Houten, Wei Qian
Cancer stem cell-like cells (CSC-LCs) contribute to drug resistance and recurrence of ovarian cancer. Strategies that can eradicate CSC-LCs are expected to substantially improve the outcome of ovarian cancer treatment. We have previously identified a class of thioxodihydroquinazolinone small molecules, which have strong synergistic antitumor activity with platinum drugs, the standard chemotherapeutic agents for ovarian cancer treatment. In the current study, using the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) as a marker of CSC-LCs, we demonstrated that the combination of thioxodihydroquinazolinone compound 19 with cisplatin is able to diminish ALDH-high CSC-LC populations in both platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian cancer cells from metastatic ascites of a cisplatin-resistant patient...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459391/los-angeles-motor-scale-to-identify-large-vessel-occlusion-prehospital-validation-and-comparison-with-other-screens
#9
Ali Reza Noorian, Nerses Sanossian, Kristina Shkirkova, David S Liebeskind, Marc Eckstein, Samuel J Stratton, Franklin D Pratt, Robin Conwit, Fiona Chatfield, Latisha K Sharma, Lucas Restrepo, Miguel Valdes-Sueiras, May Kim-Tenser, Sidney Starkman, Jeffrey L Saver
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prehospital scales have been developed to identify patients with acute cerebral ischemia (ACI) because of large vessel occlusion (LVO) for direct routing to Comprehensive Stroke Centers (CSCs), but few have been validated in the prehospital setting, and their impact on routing of patients with intracranial hemorrhage has not been delineated. The purpose of this study was to validate the Los Angeles Motor Scale (LAMS) for LVO and CSC-appropriate (LVO ACI and intracranial hemorrhage patients) recognition and compare the LAMS to other scales...
February 19, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459325/discontinuous-schedule-of-bevacizumab-in-colorectal-cancer-induces-accelerated-tumor-growth-and-phenotypic-changes
#10
Selma Becherirat, Fatemeh Valamanesh, Mojgan Karimi, Anne-Marie Faussat, Jean-Marie Launay, Cynthia Pimpie, Amu Therwath, Marc Pocard
Antiangiogenics administration in colorectal cancer patients seemed promising therapeutic approach. Inspite of early encouraging results, it however gave only modest clinical benefits. When AAG was administered with discontinuous schedule, the disease showed acceleration in certain cases. Though resistance to AAG has been extensively studied, it is not documented for discontinuous schedules. To simulate clinical situations, we subjected a patient-derived CRC subcutaneous xenograft in mice to three different protocols: 1) AAG (bevacizumab) treatment for 30 days (group A) (group B was the control), 2) bevacizumab treatment for 50 days (group C) and bevacizumab for 30 days and 20 without treatment (group D), and 3) bevacizumab treatment for 70 days (group E) and 70 days treatment with a drug-break period between day 30 and 50 (group F)...
February 16, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453319/leptin-signaling-mediates-obesity-associated-csc-enrichment-and-emt-in-preclinical-tnbc-models
#11
Laura W Bowers, Emily L Rossi, Shannon B McDonell, Steven S Doerstling, Subreen A Khatib, Claire G Lineberger, Jody E Albright, Xiaohu Tang, Linda A deGraffenried, Stephen D Hursting
Obesity is associated with poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Preclinical models of TNBC were used to test the hypothesis that increased leptin signaling drives obesity-associated TNBC development by promoting cancer stem cell (CSC) enrichment and/or epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic mice, which develop spontaneous basal-like, triple-negative mammary tumors, received either a control diet (10% kcal from fat) or a diet-induced obesity regimen (DIO, 60% kcal from fat) for up to 42 weeks (n=15/group)...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452350/extra-virgin-olive-oil-contains-a-metabolo-epigenetic-inhibitor-of-cancer-stem-cells
#12
Bruna Corominas-Faja, Elisabet Cuyàs, Jesús Lozano-Sánchez, Sílvia Cufí, Sara Verdura, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Isabel Borrás-Linares, Begoña Martin-Castillo, Ángel G Martin, Ruth Lupu, Alfons Nonell-Canals, Melchor Sanchez-Martinez, Vicente Micol, Jorge Joven, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Javier A Menendez
Targeting tumor-initiating, drug-resistant populations of cancer stem cells (CSC) with phytochemicals is a novel paradigm for cancer prevention and treatment. We herein employed a phenotypic drug discovery approach coupled to mechanism-of-action profiling and target deconvolution to identify phenolic components of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) capable of suppressing the functional traits of CSC in breast cancer (BC). In vitro screening revealed that the secoiridoid decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone (DOA) could selectively target sub-populations of epithelial-like, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive and mesenchymal-like, CD44+CD24-/low CSC...
February 14, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452146/the-hippo-yap1-pathway-interacts-with-fgfr1-signaling-to-maintain-stemness-in-lung-cancer
#13
Tingting Lu, Ziming Li, Ying Yang, Wenxiang Ji, Yongfeng Yu, Xiaomin Niu, Qingyu Zeng, Weiliang Xia, Shun Lu
The Hippo pathway plays a critical role in organ size control, tissue homeostasis and tumor genesis through its key transcription regulator Yes-associated protein1 (YAP1), but the mechanism underlying its role in lung cancer is unclear. We hypothesized that YAP1 influences FGFR1 signaling to maintain cancer stem-like cell (CSC) properties in FGFR1-amplified lung cancer. In support of this, our data confirms that expression levels of YAP1 are positively associated with those of FGFR1 in clinical lung carcinoma samples as measured by real-time PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining...
February 13, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449707/modulation-of-cardiac-stem-cell-characteristics-by-metoprolol-in-hypertensive-heart-disease
#14
Sherin Saheera, Ajay Godwin Potnuri, Renuka R Nair
Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) play a vital role in cardiac remodeling. Uncontrolled hypertension leads to cardiac hypertrophy, followed by cardiac failure. Pathological remodeling is associated with enhanced oxidative stress. Decreased cardiac stem cell efficiency is speculated in heart diseases. Maintaining a healthy stem cell population is essential for preventing progressive cardiac remodeling. Some anti-hypertensive drugs are cardioprotective. However, the effect of these drugs on CSCs has not been investigated...
February 15, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448000/bone-marrow-derived-fibrocytes-promote-stem-cell-like-properties-of-lung-cancer-cells
#15
Atsuro Saijo, Hisatsugu Goto, Mayuri Nakano, Atsushi Mitsuhashi, Yoshinori Aono, Masaki Hanibuchi, Hirohisa Ogawa, Hisanori Uehara, Kazuya Kondo, Yasuhiko Nishioka
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a minor population that have clonal tumor initiation and self-renewal capacity and are responsible for tumor initiation, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. CSCs reside in niches, which are composed of diverse types of stromal cells and extracellular matrix components. These stromal cells regulate CSC-like properties by providing secreted factors or by physical contact. Fibrocytes are differentiated from bone marrow-derived CD14 + monocytes and have features of both macrophages and fibroblasts...
February 12, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445170/brm270-inhibits-cancer-stem-cell-maintenance-via-microrna-regulation-in-chemoresistant-a549-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells
#16
Taeho Kwon, Nisansala Chandimali, Do Luong Huynh, Jiao Jiao Zhang, Nameun Kim, Yesol Bak, Do-Young Yoon, Dae-Yeul Yu, Jae Cheol Lee, Meeta Gera, Mrinmoy Ghosh, Yang Ho Park, Dong Kee Jeong
Chemotherapy is a standard treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the dose-limiting toxicity of drugs and the development of chemoresistance are major clinical challenges to successful management of NSCLC. Asian traditional medicine is gaining global attention as a non-toxic alternative to chemotherapy. BRM270 is an extract formulated from seven Asian medicinal plants that has been shown to inhibit tumor cell proliferation in diverse cancer types. We previously demonstrated that BRM270 suppresses tumorigenesis by negatively regulating nuclear factor-κB signaling in multidrug-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs)...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445137/metabolic-features-of-cancer-stem-cells-the-emerging-role-of-lipid-metabolism
#17
REVIEW
Rita Mancini, Alessia Noto, Maria Elena Pisanu, Claudia De Vitis, Marcello Maugeri-Saccà, Gennaro Ciliberto
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are an uncommon subset of tumor cells capable of self-renewal, differentiating, and recreating the parental tumor when transplanted into the murine background. Over the past two decades, efforts toward understanding CSC biology culminated into identifying a set of signaling pathways sustaining "stemness". Nevertheless, while metabolic rewiring is nowadays considered a hallmark of cancer, no consensus has been reached on the metabolic features underlying the plastic nature of CSCs, which are capable of residing in a dormant state, and able to rapidly proliferate when the need to repopulate the tumor mass arises...
February 15, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444383/stemness-and-anti-cancer-drug-resistance-in-abcg2-highly-expressed-pancreatic-cancer-is-induced-on-3d-culture-condition
#18
Norihiko Sasaki, Toshiyuki Ishiwata, Fumio Hasegawa, Masaki Michishita, Hiroki Kawai, Yoko Matsuda, Tomio Arai, Naoshi Ishikawa, Junko Aida, Kaiyo Takubo, Masashi Toyoda
The expression of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) is related with tumorigenic cancer stem cells (CSCs) in several cancers. However, the effects of ABCG2 on CSC-related malignant characteristics in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are not well elucidated. In this study, we compared the characteristics of low (ABCG2-) and high (ABCG2+)-ABCG2-expressing PDAC cells after cell sorting. In adherent culture condition, human PDAC cells, PANC-1, contained approximately 10% ABCG2+ cell populations, and ABCG2+ cells displayed more and longer microvilli compared with ABCG2- cells...
February 14, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444190/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomal-mir-21-protects-c-kit-cardiac-stem-cells-from-oxidative-injury-through-the-pten-pi3k-akt-axis
#19
Bei Shi, Yan Wang, Ranzhun Zhao, Xianping Long, Wenwen Deng, Zhenglong Wang
Stem cell (SC) therapy for ischemic cardiomyopathy is hampered by poor survival of the implanted cells. Recently, SC-derived exosomes have been shown to facilitate cell proliferation and survival by transporting various proteins and non-coding RNAs (such as microRNAs and lncRNAs). In this study, miR-21 was highly enriched in exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Interestingly, exosomes collected from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-treated MSCs (H-Exo) contained higher levels of miR-21 than exosomes released from MSCs under normal conditions (N-Exo)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442283/eplerenone-versus-observation-in-the-treatment-of-acute-central-serous-chorioretinopathy-a-retrospective-controlled-study
#20
Ilaria Zucchiatti, Riccardo Sacconi, Maria Cristina Parravano, Eliana Costanzo, Lea Querques, Daniela Montorio, Francesco Bandello, Giuseppe Querques
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the effects of eplerenone compared to observation in the treatment of acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). METHODS: Charts of consecutive patients with a diagnosis of acute CSC (visual symptoms < 12 weeks) were reviewed. Included patients were divided into a treatment group (treated with eplerenone) and a control group (observation). Main outcome measures included changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), height of subretinal fluid (SRF) and subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT) at 1 and 3 months in the two groups...
February 13, 2018: Ophthalmology and Therapy
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