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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236331/reduction-of-histone-marks-h3k9me3-and-h3k27me3-by-epidrug-induces-neuroendocrine-differentiation-in-prostate-cancer
#1
Eunsohl Lee, Jingcheng Wang, Younghun Jung, Frank C Cackowski, Russell S Taichman
Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NE PCa) is an aggressive malignancy, often presenting with advanced metastasis. We previously reported that reduction of histone marks regulated by DNMT1 following epidrug (5-Azacitidine, 5-Aza) treatment controls induction of epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT) and a cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype, which facilitates tumorigenesis in PCa cells. Here, we use the epidrug 5-Aza as a model for how histone marks may regulate the reprogramming of prostate adenocarcinoma into NE phenotypic cells...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230322/macular-retinal-vessel-oxygen-saturation-elevation-in-chinese-central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#2
Cheng Li, Xiaoxiao Feng, Xin Wen, Xiaobing Qian, Qishan Zheng, Yongguang Yuan, Yue Fu, Wanwen Shao, Yujie Li, Xiaofeng Lin, Qianying Gao
Purpose: To evaluate the retinal vessel oxygen saturation in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) cases among the Chinese. Methods: Relative oxygen saturation of retinal blood vessels was measured in 33 Chinese patients with single-eye CSC using the Oxymap T1 retinal oximeter. The contralateral eyes were the control. The mean saturation of the retinal arteriole (AS) and venule (VS), arteriovenous difference (AVS), and arteriole and venule diameters (AD, VD) was analyzed in the optic disc area and macular region...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229854/interferon-beta-represses-cancer-stem-cell-properties-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#3
Mary R Doherty, HyeonJoo Cheon, Damian J Junk, Shaveta Vinayak, Vinay Varadan, Melinda L Telli, James M Ford, George R Stark, Mark W Jackson
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), the deadliest form of this disease, lacks a targeted therapy. TNBC tumors that fail to respond to chemotherapy are characterized by a repressed IFN/signal transducer and activator of transcription (IFN/STAT) gene signature and are often enriched for cancer stem cells (CSCs). We have found that human mammary epithelial cells that undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) following transformation acquire CSC properties. These mesenchymal/CSCs have a significantly repressed IFN/STAT gene expression signature and an enhanced ability to migrate and form tumor spheres...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228576/comparison-of-tumor-biology-of-two-distinct-cell-sub-populations-in-lung-cancer-stem-cells
#4
Jianyu Wang, Zhiwei Sun, Yongli Liu, Liangsheng Kong, Shixia Zhou, Junlin Tang, Hongmei Rosie Xing
Characterization of the stem-like properties of cancer stem cells (CSCs) remain indirect and qualitative, especially the ability of CSCs to undergo asymmetric cell division for self renewal and differentiation, a unique property of cells of stem origin. It is partly due to the lack of stable cellular models of CSCs. In this study, we developed a new approach for CSC isolation and purification to derive a CSC-enriched cell line (LLC-SE). By conducting five consecutive rounds of single cell cloning using the LLC-SE cell line, we obtained two distinct sub-population of cells within the Lewis lung cancer CSCs that employed largely symmetric division for self-renewal (LLC-SD) or underwent asymmetric division for differentiation (LLC-ASD)...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228308/rxr%C3%AE-enriched-cancer-stem-cell-like-properties-triggered-by-cddp-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-hnscc
#5
Pan Jiang, Chaoqi Xu, Ming Zhou, Huaqun Zhou, Weida Dong, Xiaoyue Wu, Aochang Chen, Qing Feng
Retinoid X receptor-α (RXRα) is a kind of nuclear receptor and is a target of cancer prevention and treatment in various types of cancers. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are regarded as the main cause of carcinoma metastasis, tumor recurrence and chemotherapy resistance. So far, the mechanism how RXRα regulates CSCs remains unknown. In the present study, we found that RXRα was up-regulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) tissues and the enriched HNSCC cancer stem cells. Over-expression of RXRα was able to expand the CSC-like properties in HNSCC cells, while knockdown of RXRα could repress the stemness respectively...
December 6, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224811/cancer-stem-cell-and-its-niche-in-malignant-progression-of-oral-potentially-malignant-disorders
#6
Subin Surendran, Gangotri Siddappa, Amrutha Mohan, Wesley Hicks, Vijayvel Jayaprakash, Christina Mimikos, Mohammed Mahri, Fatima Almarzouki, Kayla Morrell, Ravindra Ravi, Sindhu Govindan, C N Sushma, Nisheena Raghavan, Praveen Birur, Jeyaram Ilayaraja, Mihai Merzianu, Mary Reid, Amritha Suresh, Moni Abraham Kuriakose
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine association between cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their niche with progression of oral potentially malignant disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with histologically confirmed oral potentially malignant disorders, stratified into high/low risk lesions based on the degree of dysplasia and oral cancer were included in this study. Immunohistochemical profiling of markers of CSCs (CD44), endothelial cells (CD31) and CSC-vascular niche cross-talk (CXCR4 and SDF1) were carried out...
December 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222642/pituitary-adenomas-stem-cells-and-cancer-stem-cells-what-s-new
#7
REVIEW
M Caffarini, M Orciani, L Trementino, R Di Primio, G Arnaldi
PURPOSE: To clarify the existence of pituitary stem cells (SCs) both in the embryonic and the postnatal gland and the role for SCs in pituitary adenomas. METHODS: This work, which does not address the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas, reviews the latest research findings and discoveries on SCs in pituitary and cancer SCs (CSCs) in pituitary adenomas and discusses the involvement of the EMT. RESULTS: Several groups using different approaches and techniques have demonstrated the existence of SCs and CSCs and as they are major players in pituitary adenoma onset...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222037/diabetes-as-risk-factor-for-pancreatic-cancer-hyperglycemia-promotes-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-stem-cell-properties-in-pancreatic-ductal-epithelial-cells
#8
Sascha Rahn, Vivien Zimmermann, Fabrice Viol, Hendrike Knaack, Kerstin Stemmer, Lena Peters, Lennart Lenk, Hendrik Ungefroren, Dieter Saur, Heiner Schäfer, Ole Helm, Susanne Sebens
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with hyperglycemia and a risk to develop pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the most fatal malignancies. Cancer stem cells (CSC) are essential for initiation and maintenance of tumors, and acquisition of CSC-features is linked to epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT). The present study investigated whether hyperglycemia promotes EMT and CSC-features in premalignant and malignant pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (PDEC). Under normoglycemia (5 mM d-glucose), Panc1 PDAC cells but not premalignant H6c7-kras cells exhibited a mesenchymal phenotype along with pronounced colony formation...
December 5, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221159/melatonin-suppresses-fibrotic-responses-induced-by-cigarette-smoke-via-downregulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#9
Na-Rae Shin, Ji-Won Park, In-Chul Lee, Je-Won Ko, Sung-Hyeuk Park, Joong-Sun Kim, Jong-Choon Kim, Kyung-Seop Ahn, In-Sik Shin
Cigarette smoke (CS) is the most important risk factor in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pulmonary fibrosis is an irreversible response and important feature of COPD. In this study, we investigated the effects of melatonin on fibrotic response in development of COPD using a CS and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced COPD model and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC)-stimulated NCI-H292 cells, a human mucoepidermoid cell line. Mice were exposed to CS for 1 h per day (8 cigarettes per day) from day 1 to day 7 and were treated intranasally with LPS on day 4...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221154/expression-of-ganglioside-gd2-reprogram-the-lipid-metabolism-and-emt-phenotype-in-bladder-cancer
#10
Venkatrao Vantaku, Sri Ramya Donepudi, Chandrashekar R Ambati, Feng Jin, Vasanta Putluri, Khoa Nguyen, Kimal Rajapakshe, Cristian Coarfa, Venkata Lokesh Battula, Yair Lotan, Nagireddy Putluri
High-grade Bladder Cancer (BLCA) represents the most aggressive and treatment-resistant cancer that renders the patients with poor survival. However, only a few biomarkers have been identified for the detection and treatment of BLCA. Recent studies show that ganglioside GD2 can be used as cancer biomarker and/or therapeutic target for various cancers. Despite its potential relevance in cancer diagnosis and therapeutics, the role of GD2 is unknown in BLCA. Here, we report for the first time that high-grade BLCA tissues and cell lines have higher expression of GD2 compared to low-grade by high-resolution Mass Spectrometry...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218545/a2b-adenosine-receptor-agonist-induces-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis-in-breast-cancer-stem-cells-via-erk1-2-phosphorylation
#11
Seyyed Mehdi Jafari, Hamid Reza Joshaghani, Mojtaba Panjehpour, Mahmoud Aghaei
PURPOSE: It has been reported that cancer stem cells (CSCs) may play a crucial role in the development, recurrence and metastasis of breast cancer. Targeting signaling pathways in CSCs is considered to be a promising strategy for the treatment of cancer. Here, we investigated the role of the A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAR) and its associated signaling pathways in governing the proliferation and viability of breast cancer cell line derived CSCs. METHODS: CSCs were isolated from the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 using a mammosphere assay...
December 7, 2017: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217540/cancer-stem-cell-suppressing-activity-of-chrysotoxine-a-bibenzyl-from-dendrobium-pulchellum
#12
Narumol Bhummaphan, Varisa Pongrakhananon, Boonchoo Sritularak, Pithi Chanvorachote
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been recognized as rare populations driving cancer progression, metastasis, and drug resistance in leading cancers. Attempts have been paid toward identifying compound that specifically targets these CSCs. Therefore, the investigations of the novel therapeutic strategies for CSCs targeting is required. The cytotoxic effects of Chrysotoxine on human NSCLC-derived H460 and H23 cells were tested by MTT assay. The Effect of Chrysotoxine suppresses CSC-like phenotypes was determined in CSC-rich populations and primary CSCs in 3D culture and Extreme limiting dilution assay...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214662/airborne-particulate-concentration-during-laser-hair-removal-a-comparison-between-cold-sapphire-with-aqueous-gel-and-cryogen-skin-cooling
#13
Edward V Ross, Gary S Chuang, Arisa E Ortiz, Scott A Davenport
BACKGROUND: High concentrations of sub-micron nanoparticles have been shown to be released during laser hair removal (LHR) procedures. These emissions pose a potential biohazard to healthcare workers that have prolonged exposure to LHR plume. OBJECTIVE: We sought to demonstrate that cold sapphire skin cooling done in contact mode might suppress plume dispersion during LHR. METHODS: A total of 11 patients were recruited for laser hair removal...
December 7, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212198/targeting-oral-cancer-stemness-and-chemoresistance-by-isoliquiritigenin-mediated-grp78-regulation
#14
Fang-Wei Hu, Cheng-Chia Yu, Pei-Ling Hsieh, Yi-Wen Liao, Ming-Yi Lu, Pei-Ming Chu
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cells that drive tumorigenesis, contributing to metastasis and cancer recurrence as well as resistance to chemotherapy of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). Therefore, approaches to target CSCs become the subject of intense research for cancer therapy. In this study, we demonstrated that isoliquiritigenin, a chalcone-type flavonoid isolated from licorice root, exhibited more toxicity in oral cancer stem cells (OSCC-CSCs) compared to normal cells. Treatment of isoliquiritigenin not only inhibited the self-renewal ability but also reduced the expression of CSC markers, including the ALDH1 and CD44...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212193/microrna-expression-profiling-in-exosomes-derived-from-gastric-cancer-stem-like-cells
#15
Zhan-Peng Sun, An-Qi Li, Wen-Huan Jia, Sen Ye, Grace Van Eps, Jian-Min Yu, Wei-Jun Yang
Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have been identified as the initial cell in formation of cancer. Quiescent CSCs can "hide out" from traditional cancer therapy which may produce an initial response but are often unsuccessful in curing patients. Thus, levels of CSC in patients may be used as an indicator to measure the chance of recurrence of cancer after therapy. The goals of our work are to develop specific exosomal miRNA clusters for gastric CSCs that can potentially predict which patients are at high risk for developing gastric cancer (GC) in order to diagnose GC at an early stage...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212028/non-canonical-hedgehog-signaling-is-a-positive-regulator-of-the-wnt-pathway-and-is-required-for-the-survival-of-colon-cancer-stem-cells
#16
Joseph L Regan, Dirk Schumacher, Stephanie Staudte, Andreas Steffen, Johannes Haybaeck, Ulrich Keilholz, Caroline Schweiger, Nicole Golob-Schwarzl, Dominik Mumberg, David Henderson, Hans Lehrach, Christian R A Regenbrecht, Reinhold Schäfer, Martin Lange
Colon cancer is a heterogeneous tumor driven by a subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). To study CSCs in colon cancer, we used limiting dilution spheroid and serial xenotransplantation assays to functionally define the frequency of CSCs in a panel of patient-derived cancer organoids. These studies demonstrated cancer organoids to be enriched for CSCs, which varied in frequency between tumors. Whole-transcriptome analysis identified WNT and Hedgehog signaling components to be enhanced in CSC-enriched tumors and in aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive CSCs...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208670/inhibition-of-id1-bmpr2-intrinsic-signaling-sensitizes-glioma-stem-cells-to-differentiation-therapy
#17
Xiong Jin, Xun Jin, Leo J Y Kim, Deobrat Dixit, Hee-Young Jeon, Eun-Jung Kim, Jun-Kyum Kim, Seon Yong Lee, Jinlong Yin, Jeremy N Rich, Hyunggee Kim
PURPOSE: Normal stem cells tightly control self-renewal and differentiation during development, but their neoplastic counterparts, cancer stem cells (CSCs), sustain tumorigenicity both through aberrant activation of stemness and evasion of differentiation. Although regulation of CSC stemness has been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms suppressing differentiation remain unclear. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed in silico screening and in vitro validation studies through western blotting, q-RT-PCR for treatment of WNT and SHH signaling inhibitors and BMP signaling inducer with control and ID1-overexpressing cells...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207135/bfgf-promotes-sca%C3%A2-1-cardiac-stem-cell-migration-through-activation-of-the-pi3k-akt-pathway
#18
Lin Ling, Shaohua Gu, Yan Cheng, Liucheng Ding
Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) are important for improving cardiac function following myocardial infarction, with CSC migration to infarcted or ischemic myocardium important for cardiac regeneration. Strategies to improve cell migration may improve the efficiency of myocardial regeneration. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is an essential molecule in cell migration, but the endogenous bFGF level is too low to be effective. The effect of exogenously delivered bFGF on CSC migration was observed in vitro and in vivo in the present study...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207035/in-vitro-characterization-of-spheres-derived-from-colorectal-cancer-cell-lines
#19
Agata Olejniczak, Magdalena Szaryńska, Zbigniew Kmieć
Spherical cultures (SCs) can be regarded in cancer research as a link between in vitro investigations on cancer lines and in vivo studies of tumor development. SCs are believed to mimic tumor architecture and to be enriched in cancer stem cell-like cells (CSC-like cells). In the present study we characterized colonospheres derived from colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, and we confirmed the ability of HCT116 and HT29 cell lines to form spheres within serum-free medium, however, the detailed analysis presented the major differences concerning their characteristics including morphology, phenotype, proliferative potential, distribution in the cell cycle phases and spherogenicity...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204831/glioblastoma-stem-cells-and-their-microenvironment
#20
Anirudh Sattiraju, Kiran Kumar Solingapuram Sai, Akiva Mintz
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant astrocytoma associated with a poor patient survival. Apart from arising de novo, GBMs also occur due to progression of slower growing grade III astrocytomas. GBM is characterized by extensive hypoxia, angiogenesis, proliferation and invasion. Standard treatment options such as surgical resection, radiation therapy and chemotherapy have increased median patient survival to 14.6 months in adults but recurrent disease arising from treatment resistant cancer cells often results in patient mortality...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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