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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822889/metformin-targets-gastric-cancer-stem-cells
#1
Sarah Courtois, Raúl V Durán, Julie Giraud, Elodie Sifré, Julien Izotte, Francis Mégraud, Philippe Lehours, Christine Varon, Emilie Bessède
Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and has still a poor prognosis. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are needed: among them, targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs) could offer new opportunities. The aim of our study was to evaluate the anti-tumoural effect of metformin on gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo and especially, to determine whether this molecule could target the gastric CSCs. Metformin effects were evaluated on the proliferation and tumourigenic properties of the gastric CSCs from patient-derived primary tumour xenografts (PDXs) and cancer cell lines (MKN45, AGS and MKN74) in vitro in conventional 2 dimensional (2D) and in 3 dimensional (3D) culture systems, in which only CSCs are able to form tumourspheres and in mouse xenograft models in vivo...
August 17, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819442/interferon-%C3%AE-promotes-the-expression-of-cancer-stem-cell-markers-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#2
Hailong Ma, Shufang Jin, Wenyi Yang, Zhuowei Tian, Shuli Liu, Yang Wang, Ge Zhou, Mei Zhao, Shalva Gvetadze, Zhiyuan Zhang, Jingzhou Hu
Objectives: IFNα can stimulate an antitumor immune response and has a direct inhibition on cancer cells. This study is to test whether IFNα can activate dormant cancer stem cell (CSC) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to facilitate their elimination by chemotherapy. Materials and methods: Nude mouse transplantation tumor model was established and administrated with IFNα and saline. The influence on CD44 and ALDH1A1 expression under IFNα treatment was detected by in vivo experiments. Flow cytometry, western blot, and immunofluorescence were used to detect the expression of CD44 and ALDH1A1 after INFa treatment in OSCC cell lines...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819374/variant-cd44-expression-is-enriching-for-a-cell-population-with-cancer-stem-cell-like-characteristics-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma
#3
Makoto Nishino, Mari Ozaki, Ahmed E Hegab, Junko Hamamoto, Shizuko Kagawa, Daisuke Arai, Hiroyuki Yasuda, Katsuhiko Naoki, Kenzo Soejima, Hideyuki Saya, Tomoko Betsuyaku
Background: Preliminary studies have identified cancer stem cells (CSCs) in various cancers and there are several ongoing clinical studies targeting these cells. CD44 (standard or variant isoforms) and/or aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expression is the most commonly used markers for the identification of CSCs. The goal of the current study was to examine the ability of CD44v, either alone or in combination with ALDH, to identify CSCs within human lung cancer cells lines. Methods: We examined several lung adenocarcinoma cell lines for the ability of CD44v and/or ALDH expression to enrich for cells with CSC characteristics such as in vitro differential proliferation rate, chemotherapeutic-resistance, tumorsphere formation, and in vivo tumorigenicity...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819364/the-crosstalk-between-ovarian-cancer-stem-cell-niche-and-the-tumor-microenvironment
#4
REVIEW
Manuel Varas-Godoy, Gregory Rice, Sebastián E Illanes
Ovarian cancer is one of the most important causes of cancer-related death among women in the world. Despite advances in ovarian cancer treatment, 70-80% of women who initially respond to therapy eventually relapse and die. There is evidence that a small population of cells within the tumors called cancer stem cells (CSCs) could be responsible for treatment failure due to their enhanced chemoresistance and tumorigenicity. These cells reside in a niche that maintains the principal properties of CSCs. These properties are associated with the capacity of CSCs to interact with different cells of the tumor microenvironment including mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial cells, immune cells, and fibroblasts, promoting cancer progression...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817733/changing-patterns-of-cataract-services-in-north-west-nigeria-2005-2016
#5
Nasiru Muhammad, Mohammed Dantani Adamu, Mpyet Caleb, Nuhu Mohammed Maishanu, Aliyu Mohammed Jabo, Muhammad Mansur Rabiu, Covadonga Bascaran, Sunday Isiyaku, Allen Foster
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to assess the impact of the eye care programme on cataract blindness and cataract surgical services in Sokoto, Nigeria over a 12 year period 2005-2016. METHODS: Data from the 2005 population based cross-sectional study of blindness in Sokoto state was re-analysed to obtain baseline estimates of the prevalence of cataract blindness and cataract surgical coverage for persons 50 years and over in Wurno health zone. A population based survey of a representative sample of persons 50 years and over in Wurno health zone was conducted in July 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800308/cancer-stem-cells-as-functional-biomarkers
#6
Vito D'Andrea, Alessandra Panarese, Maya Tonda, Marco Biffoni, Massimo Monti
According to the American Association of Cancer Research (AACR), a Cancer Stem Cell is a cell within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that constitutes the tumor [1]. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) are involved in the metastatic process, in the resistance to therapeutic treatments of many types of human cancers and consequently in the onset of recurrences. Numerous translational studies have been conducted to understand CSC characteristics and evaluate association between CSC-related biomarkers and clinical outcomes...
July 31, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800128/adult-cardiac-stem-cells-are-multipotent-and-robustly-myogenic-c-kit-expression-is-necessary-but-not-sufficient-for-their-identification
#7
Carla Vicinanza, Iolanda Aquila, Mariangela Scalise, Francesca Cristiano, Fabiola Marino, Eleonora Cianflone, Teresa Mancuso, Pina Marotta, Walter Sacco, Fiona C Lewis, Liam Couch, Victoria Shone, Giulia Gritti, Annalaura Torella, Andrew J Smith, Cesare Mn Terracciano, Domenico Britti, Pierangelo Veltri, Ciro Indolfi, Bernardo Nadal-Ginard, Georgina M Ellison-Hughes, Daniele Torella
Multipotent adult resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs) were first identified by the expression of c-kit, the stem cell factor receptor. However, in the adult myocardium c-kit alone cannot distinguish CSCs from other c-kit-expressing (c-kit(pos)) cells. The adult heart indeed contains a heterogeneous mixture of c-kit(pos) cells, mainly composed of mast and endothelial/progenitor cells. This heterogeneity of cardiac c-kit(pos) cells has generated confusion and controversy about the existence and role of CSCs in the adult heart...
August 11, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800012/quality-assessment-of-prognostic-studies-using-cancer-stem-cell-markers-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#8
Marina G Teixeira, Luciana Corrêa
Cancer stem cells (CSC) have been investigated as prognostic markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, an assessment of the reporting quality of these studies has not been performed yet. The aim of this study was to describe the reporting quality of prognostic studies involving CSCs and OSCC, focusing mainly on the immunohistochemical reproducibility. By means a systematic review, 34 articles were selected. Analyses of both general reporting quality and immunohistochemistry technique were performed by using checklists for multiple aspects related to study reproducibility...
August 9, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794048/hepatitis-c-virus-core-protein-modulates-endoglin-cd105-signaling-pathway-for-liver-pathogenesis
#9
Young-Chan Kwon, Reina Sasaki, Keith Meyer, Ranjit Ray
Endoglin is part of the TGF-β receptor complex and has a crucial role in fibrogenesis and angiogenesis. It is also an important protein for tumor growth, survival, and cancer cell metastasis. In our previous study, we have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition state (EMT) and cancer stem-like cell (CSC) properties in human hepatocytes. Our array data suggested that endoglin (CD105) mRNA is significantly upregulated in HCV associated CSCs. In this study, we have observed increased endoglin expression on the cell surface of HCV core expressing hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line or immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) and activation of its downstream signaling molecules...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793245/sox2-is-a-marker-for-stem-like-tumor-cells-in-bladder-cancer
#10
Fengyu Zhu, Weiqing Qian, Haojie Zhang, Yu Liang, Mingqing Wu, Yingyin Zhang, Xiuhong Zhang, Qian Gao, Yang Li
It has been reported that functionally distinct cancer stem cells (CSCs) exist in human bladder cancer (BCa). Here, we found that Sox2, a transcription factor that is well characterized as a marker for stem cells, is upregulated in both mouse and human BCa. Sox2 expression is absent in normal urothelial cells, but it begins to be expressed in pre-neoplastic bladder tumors and continues to be expressed in invasive mouse BCa. Using s as a reporter of Sox2 transcriptional expression, we demonstrated that Sox2-expressing cells mark a subpopulation of tumor cells that fuel the growth of established BCa...
August 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792135/gene-expression-profiling-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-derived-cancer-stem-like-cell-under-hypoxia
#11
Sung Hoon Choi, Sang Woo Lee, Minseon Ok, Kyung Sik Kim, Sungsik Kim, Sang Hoon Ahn
PURPOSE: Cancer stem like cells (CSCs), with unlimited self-renewal potential and other stem cell characteristics, occur in several cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although CSCs can initiate tumors, malignant proliferation, relapse and multi-drug resistance, the ways how to activate them still remain unknown. This study aims to evaluate whether CSC acquire tumorigenic characters under tumor hypoxia, analyzed by microarray analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CSCs were purified from HCC patients and Affymetrix microarray was used to investigate their gene expression profiles...
September 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791061/visual-and-anatomical-outcomes-of-spironolactone-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#12
Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani, Anahita Amirsardari, Abbas Habibi, Acieh Eshaghi, Shohreh Bakhti, Kaveh Abri Aghdam
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of spironolactone on chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). METHODS: In this prospective interventional case series, patients with chronic CSC were treated with spironolactone (25 mg daily) for at least 6 weeks. If the subretinal fluid (SRF) had not completely resolved by this time, treatment was continued, and the dosage was increased to 25 mg twice daily. Primary outcome measure was the change in maximum SRF height at the final follow-up visit, as detected by optical coherence tomography...
July 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783177/autophagy-dependent-generation-of-axin2-cancer-stem-like-cells-promotes-hepatocarcinogenesis-in-liver-cirrhosis
#13
J Li, S B Hu, L Y Wang, X Zhang, X Zhou, B Yang, J H Li, J Xiong, N Liu, Y Li, Y Z Wu, Q C Zheng
Autophagy is a pathophysiological phenomenon in liver cirrhosis that can further progress into hepatocarcinoma. Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to initiate hepatocarcinogenesis. To investigate the precise mechanism related to the origin of CSCs in liver cirrhosis and hepatocarcinogenesis, we labeled Axin2+ hepatic cells with EGFP in Axin2Cre;Rosa26EGFP transgenic rats, and then stratified clinical and rat liver cirrhosis samples by autophagy flux. Clinical follow-up and lineage tracing in transgenic rat liver cirrhosis revealed that while Axin2/EGFP+ hepatic cells were present in normal livers and cirrhotic livers without aberrant autophagy, hepatic Axin2/EGFP+CD90+ cells were generated exclusively in cirrhotic livers with aberrant autophagy and promoted hepatocarcinogenesis...
August 7, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781954/mammalian-enabled-mena-protein-enhances-oncogenic-potential-and-cancer-stem-cell-like-phenotype-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#14
Kunpeng Hu, Pinzhu Huang, Hui Luo, Zhicheng Yao, Qingliang Wang, Zhiyong Xiong, Jizong Lin, He Huang, Shilei Xu, Peng Zhang, Bo Liu
Mammalian-enabled (MENA) protein is an actin-regulatory protein that influences cell motility and adhesion. It is known to play a role in tumorigenicity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the oncogenic potential of MENA and its capacity to regulate cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotypes in HCC cells. Real-time-PCR and western blot were used to assess mRNA and protein levels of target genes in human HCC tissue specimens and HCC cell lines, respectively...
August 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779846/immune-modulation-by-a-cellular-network-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-breast-cancer-cell-subsets-implication-for-cancer-therapy
#15
Hussam S Eltoukhy, Garima Sinha, Caitlyn A Moore, Oleta A Sandiford, Pranela Rameshwar
The immune modulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are mostly controlled by the particular microenvironment. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which can initiate a clinical tumor, have been the subject of intense research. This review article discusses investigative studies of the roles of MSCs on cancer biology including on CSCs, and the potential as drug delivery to tumors. An understanding of how MSCs behave in the tumor microenvironment to facilitate the survival of tumor cells would be crucial to identify drug targets...
August 1, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778071/suppression-of-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-upregulated-factor-pauf-increases-the-sensitivity-of-pancreatic-cancer-to-gemcitabine-and-5fu-and-inhibits-the-formation-of-pancreatic-cancer-stem-like-cells
#16
Jae Hee Cho, Sun A Kim, Soo Been Park, Hee Man Kim, Si Young Song
Pancreatic cancer stem cells (CSCs) play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and chemoresistance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF), a novel secretory protein, has been shown to contribute to cancer progression and metastasis. Because the clinical relationship between PAUF and pancreatic CSCs is largely unknown, we investigated the associations between the functional role of PAUF and pancreatic CSCs. Pancreatic cancer sphere cultured from the CFPAC-1 cells showed elevated expression of PAUF and pluripotent stemness genes (Oct4, Nanog, Stat3, and Sox2), and the mRNA of PAUF were increased in CD44+CD24+ESA+ pancreatic CSCs...
July 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776391/cancer-stem-cell-research-in-iran-potentials-and-challenges
#17
Raheleh Roudi, Marzieh Ebrahimi, Ahmad Shariftabrizi, Zahra Madjd
Treatment modalities can reduce cancer-related mortality; however, a majority of patients develop drug resistance, metastasis and relapse. It has been proposed that tumorigenic characteristics of tumors are related to a proportion of cancer cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs). Following the first evidence regarding the existence of CSC population in acute myeloid leukemia in 1997, publications in CSCs field showed an explosive trend in all cancer types around the world. First research paper in the field of CSCs in Iran was published in 2004 on prostate cancer...
August 4, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774727/reprogramming-to-developmental-plasticity-in-cancer-stem-cells
#18
REVIEW
Caitlin O'Brien-Ball, Adrian Biddle
During development and throughout adult life, sub-populations of cells exist that exhibit phenotypic plasticity - the ability to differentiate into multiple lineages. This behaviour is important in embryogenesis, is exhibited in a more limited context by adult stem cells, and can be re-activated in cancer cells to drive important processes underlying tumour progression. A well-studied mechanism of phenotypic plasticity is the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process which has been observed in both normal and cancerous cells...
July 31, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774289/acute-uveal-effusion-during-phacoemulsification-with-preoperative-central-serous-chorioretinopathy-a-case-report
#19
Ruiqi Chang, Yu Du, Zhou Peng, Yi Lu, Xiangjia Zhu
BACKGROUND: We report a case of acute uveal effusion during phacoemulsification in an eye with preoperative chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old man with a history of chronic CSC for >18 months presented with bilateral opaque lenses. A preoperative ophthalmic examination showed suspected lenticonus and risky anatomical features, including a thick ciliary body, and anterior rotation of the ciliary process and iris root in both eyes...
August 3, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772211/autophagy-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-during-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-an-in-vitro-study
#20
Mamta Singla, Shalmoli Bhattacharyya
Cancer progression toward invasive and metastatic disease is aided by reactivation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), involving transdifferentiation of epithelial cells into mesenchymal phenotype. This leads to increased migratory and stem cell-like features in the cells. These EMT cells are more resistant to chemotherapy and it is hypothesized that the phenomenon of autophagy induces resistance, providing a survival strategy for cells. In the present study, we induced EMT-like phenotype in renal carcinoma cells and identified corresponding higher autophagy flux in these cells...
July 31, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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