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Surya Prakash Yarramalle, Kartik Munta, S Manimala Rao, Pradeep Marur Venkategowda, Sagar Sunka, Sai Kiran Dudam
Background: Tramadol, a preferred analgesic due to its less respiratory depression. It also has a central action that blocks the reuptake and enhances the release of serotonin at spinal antinociceptive pathways. Ondansetron, an antiemetic is a serotonin receptor antagonist. Due to the contradictory actions of the two drugs, co-administration of these drugs resulted in higher usage of tramadol. All these studies were done in the postoperative period. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of tramadol infusion versus tramadol plus ondansetron infusion in Medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Ola M Ezzatt, Iman M Helmy
OBJECTIVES: Oral lichen plans (OLP) is a potentially malignant inflammatory mucocutaneous disease. CD133 is an investigated surface marker for cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) that may be involved in tumor initiation in head and neck carcinomas. We compared short-term clinical effectiveness of topical pimecrolimus as selective inflammatory cytokine release inhibitor with betamethasone cream for erosive/atrophic OLP and investigated the influence of this therapy on CD133 expression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty patients were randomly assigned into two equal groups to receive topical pimecrolimus (group I) or betamethasone (group II) four times daily for 4 weeks...
June 16, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Ahmed El-Badawy, Nehal I Ghoneim, Mohamed A Nasr, Hoda Elkhenany, Toka A Ahmed, Sara M Ahmed, Nagwa El-Badri
Telomerase and its core component, telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), are critical for stem cell compartment integrity. Normal adult stem cells have the longest telomeres in a given tissue, a property mediated by high hTERT expression and high telomerase enzymatic activity. In contrast, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have short telomeres despite high expression of hTERT, indicating that the role of hTERT in CSCs is not limited to telomere elongation and/or maintenance. The function of hTERT in CSCs remains poorly understood...
June 15, 2018: Biology Open
Loredana Gabriela Marcu, Leyla Moghaddasi, Eva Bezak
PURPOSE: Improvements in personalized therapy are made possible by the advances in molecular biology that led to developments in molecular imaging, allowing highly specific in vivo imaging of biological processes. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the most specific and sensitive imaging technique for in vivo molecular targets and pathways, offering quantification and evaluation of functional properties of the targeted anatomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This work is an integrative research review that summarizes and evaluates the accumulated current status of knowledge of recent advances in PET imaging for cancer diagnosis and treatment, concentrating on novel radiotracers and evaluating their advantages and disadvantages in cancer characterization...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Weijiang Zhang, Hongshe Dang, Rolando Simoes
Regarding to the growing trend of photovoltaic (PV) energy as a clean energy source in electrical networks and its uncertain nature, PV energy prediction has been proposed by researchers in recent decades. This problem is directly effects on operation in power network while, due to high volatility of this signal, an accurate prediction model is demanded. A new prediction model based on Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) and integration of improved empirical mode decomposition (IEMD) with feature selection and forecast engine is presented in this paper...
June 12, 2018: ISA Transactions
Chandramallika Basak, Shuo Qin, Kaoru Nashiro, Margaret A O'Connell
The data presented in this article is related to the research article entitled "Age-related Differences in BOLD Modulation to Cognitive Control Costs in a Multitasking Paradigm: Global Switch, Local Switch, and Compatibility-Switch Costs" (Nashiro et al., 2018) [1]. This article describes age-related differences in accuracies for various cognitive costs incurred during task switching across three different age-cohorts: younger (18-35 years), younger-old (50-64 years) and older-old (65-80 years). The cognitive costs evaluated were global switch costs (GSC), local switch costs (LSC) and compatibility switch costs (CSC)...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Jing-Yu Min, Yanan Lv, Suqin Yu, Yuan-Yuan Gong
PURPOSE: The present study analyzed the appearances of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) based on fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). METHOD: In the current case series, 54 eyes of 50 patients diagnosed as CSC were evaluated retrospectively. OCTA, FA, and ICGA were performed on each patient. Two trained observers examined the OCTA images independently to confirm and compare the choriocapillary appearance with that on FA/ICGA...
June 12, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Deep Shah, Debra Wyatt, Andrew Baker, Patricia Simms, Daniel S Peiffer, Michelle L Fernandez, Emad A Rakha, Andrew R Green, Aleksandra Filipovic, Lucio Miele, Clodia Osipo
PURPOSE: Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) positive breast cancer is driven by cells possessing stem-like properties of self-renewal and differentiation, referred to as Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs). CSCs are implicated in radiotherapy, chemotherapy resistance, and tumor recurrence. Notch promotes breast CSCs survival and self-renewal, and overexpression of Notch1 and the Notch ligand Jagged1 predict poor outcome. Resistance to anti-HER2 therapy in HER2+ breast cancer requires Notch1, and that combination of trastuzumab and a Gamma Secretase Inhibitor (GSI) prevents tumor relapse in xenograft models...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Sergio Rivas, Inés M Antón, Francisco Wandosell
Wild-type p53 (wtp53) is described as a tumour suppressor gene, and mutations in p53 occur in many human cancers. Indeed, in high-grade malignant glioma, numerous molecular genetics studies have established central roles of RTK-PI3K-PTEN and ARF-MDM2-p53 INK4a-RB pathways in promoting oncogenic capacity. Deregulation of these signalling pathways, among others, drives changes in the glial/stem cell state and environment that permit autonomous growth. The initially transformed cell may undergo subsequent modifications, acquiring a more complete tumour-initiating phenotype responsible for disease advancement to stages that are more aggressive...
June 9, 2018: Cancers
Dominik Langgartner, Ulrich Wachter, Clair Hartmann, Michael Gröger, Josef Vogt, Tamara Merz, Oscar McCook, Marina Fink, Sandra Kress, Michael Georgieff, Julia F Kunze, Peter L Radermacher, Stefan O Reber, Martin Wepler
BACKGROUND: Hypoxemia and tissue ischemia during hemorrhage as well as formation of oxygen and nitrogen radicals during resuscitation promote hyperinflammation and, consequently, trigger severe multiple-organ-failure (MOF). Individuals diagnosed with stress-related disorders or reporting a life history of psychosocial stress are characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation and a reduced glucocorticoid (GC) signaling. We hypothesized that exposure to chronic psychosocial stress during adulthood prior to hemorrhagic shock increases oxidative/nitrosative stress and therefore the risk of developing MOF in mice...
June 8, 2018: Shock
Jing Zhao, Yan Fu, Jing Wu, Juan Li, Guangjian Huang, Lunxiu Qin
Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The high frequency of recurrence and metastasis is the main reason for poor prognosis. Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) have unlimited self-renewal, differentiation, and tumor-regenerating capacities. The maintenance of CSCs may account for the refractory features of liver cancer. Despite extensive investigations, the underlying regulatory mechanisms of liver CSCs remain elusive. miRNA and lncRNA, two major classes of the ncRNA family, can exert important roles in various biological processes, and their diverse regulatory mechanisms in CSC maintenance have acquired increasing attention...
2018: BioMed Research International
Yang Li, Qingxin Liu, Daniel J McGrail, Hui Dai, Kaiyi Li, Shiaw-Yih Lin
Endometrial cancer is one of the most common cancers of the female reproductive system. CHD4, a core subunit of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation (NuRD) complex, is frequently mutated in these patients. However the role it plays in promoting endometrial tumorigenesis is poorly understood. Here, we use genetic engineering approaches to modulate CHD4 expression levels and functionally evaluate hot spot mutations R975H and R1162W. We find that CHD4 depletion induces up-regulation of the cancer stem cell (CSC) marker CD133...
2018: American Journal of Cancer Research
Elisabet Cuyàs, Sara Verdura, Núria Folguera-Blasco, Cristian Bastidas-Velez, Ángel G Martin, Tomás Alarcón, Javier A Menendez
Unraveling the key mechanisms governing the retention versus loss of the cancer stem cell (CSC) state would open new therapeutic avenues to eradicate cancer. Mitochondria are increasingly recognized key drivers in the origin and development of CSC functional traits. We here propose the new term "mitostemness" to designate the mitochondria-dependent signaling functions that, evolutionary rooted in the bacterial origin of mitochondria, regulate the maintenance of CSC self-renewal and resistance to differentiation...
June 9, 2018: Cell Cycle
Longzhen Piao, Zhaoting Yang, Jiajun Jin, Weidong Ni, Wenbo Qi, Yanhua Xuan
B7H4 is overexpressed in human cancers and often correlates with poor clinical outcome. There is a lack of data on the role of B7H4 as a cancer stem cell (CSC) regulator in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and its expression levels compared to other stemness genes in ESCC. In this study, we have assessed the expression of B7H4 and cancer stemness proteins in 156 paraffin embedded ESCC tissue samples using immunohistochemistry as well as in ESCC cell lines using western blotting and immunofluorescence imaging...
June 6, 2018: Human Pathology
N Hojo, A L Huisken, H Wang, E Chirshev, N S Kim, S M Nguyen, H Campos, C A Glackin, Y J Ioffe, J J Unternaehrer
To develop effective therapies for advanced high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), understanding mechanisms of recurrence and metastasis is necessary. In this study, we define the epithelial/mesenchymal status of cell lines that accurately model HGSOC, and evaluate the therapeutic potential of targeting Snai1 (Snail), a master regulator of the epithelial/mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro and in vivo. The ratio of Snail to E-cadherin (S/E index) at RNA and protein levels was correlated with mesenchymal morphology in four cell lines...
June 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Li Wang, Hang Wen, Li Li
Reactive solutes flow, transport, and transform in natural subsurface that is ubiquitously heterogeneous. How much are the heterogeneity effects on solute reactive transport? At what spatial scale heterogeneity effects diminish? Answers to these questions are important to understand controls of and to predict solute reactive transport in natural environments. Although these questions have been explored for non-reactive tracers and solutes that go through relatively simple single-component sorption, heterogeneity effects remain poorly understood for solutes that go through surface complexation...
September 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Arka Saha, Souvick Roy, Madhabananda Kar, Shomereeta Roy, Shweta Thakur, SwatiShree Padhi, Yusuf Akhter, Birendranath Banerjee
The major problem to effective treatment of oral cancer is the presence of therapy resistance. Presence of cancer stem cell in the bulk of tumor have been implicated in therapeutic resistance. In this study, we report a non-telomeric role of TRF2 in formation of oral cancer spheroids and CSC phenotype maintenance via an efficient DNA damage repair mechanism in the presence of chemotherapeutic insult. We report reduced sphere formation efficiency and reduced spheroid size in TRF2 silenced oral cancer cell lines...
June 5, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Norashikin Zakaria, Narazah Mohd Yusoff, Zubaidah Zakaria, Darius Widera, Badrul Hisham Yahaya
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells that play a pivotal role in tumor development, invasion, metastasis, and recurrence. We and others have reported significant involvement of the NF-κB pathway in regulating CSCs of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we evaluated the effects of NF-κB inhibition on self-renewal, stemness, migration, and expression of genes involved in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and apoptosis resistance in lung CSCs. Different concentrations of the NF-κB inhibitor BMS-345541 (0...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Kamini Kaushal, Ainsley Mike Antao, Kye-Seong Kim, Suresh Ramakrishna
The ability of cancers to evade conventional treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy, has been attributed to a subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are regulated by mechanisms similar to those that regulate normal stem cells (NSCs), including processes involving ubiquitination and deubiquitination enzymes (DUBs) that regulate the expression of various factors, such as Notch, Wnt, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), and Hippo. In this review, we discuss the roles of various DUBs involved in the regulation of core stem cell transcription factors and CSC-related proteins that are implicated in the modulation of cellular processes and carcinogenesis...
June 1, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Masafumi Takeno, Shinya Kitagawa, Junpei Yamanaka, Mayumi Teramoto, Haruka Tomita, Naohiro Shirai, Saotomo Itoh, Shigeaki Hida, Kazuichi Hayakawa, Kikuo Onozaki, Takemasa Takii
The risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is linked to environmental and genetic factors. Cigarette smoking is an established environmental risk factor for the disease that contributes to its development and severity. Previously, we found that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), both mainstream and sidestream, aggravates collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA), which was observed following either intraperitoneal inoculation or nasal exposure. In the present study, we aimed to identify the compound in CSC, which aggravates CIA...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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