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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040348/desumoylation-signaling-a-novel-mechanism-of-liver-csc-properties-and-hepatocarcinogenesis-in-hypoxia
#1
Hong Zhao, Pingbo Yao, Nian Fu, Linxi Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034206/leukemia-initiating-cells-in-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#2
REVIEW
Shi Hao Tan, Fatima Carla Bertulfo, Takaomi Sanda
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a hematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of immature T-cell precursors. T-ALL has many similar pathophysiological features to acute myeloid leukemia, which has been extensively studied in the establishment of the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory, but the CSC concept in T-ALL is still debatable. Although leukemia-initiating cells (LICs), which can generate leukemia in a xenograft setting, have been found in both human T-ALL patients and animal models, the nature and origin of LICs are largely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033320/mitophagy-controls-the-activities-of-tumor-suppressor-p53-to-regulate-hepatic-cancer-stem-cells
#3
Kai Liu, Jiyoung Lee, Ja Yeon Kim, Linya Wang, Yongjun Tian, Stephanie T Chan, Cecilia Cho, Keigo Machida, Dexi Chen, Jing-Hsiung James Ou
Autophagy is required for benign hepatic tumors to progress into malignant hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the mechanism is unclear. Here, we report that mitophagy, the selective removal of mitochondria by autophagy, positively regulates hepatic cancer stem cells (CSCs) by suppressing the tumor suppressor p53. When mitophagy is enhanced, p53 co-localizes with mitochondria and is removed by a mitophagy-dependent manner. However, when mitophagy is inhibited, p53 is phosphorylated at serine-392 by PINK1, a kinase associated with mitophagy, on mitochondria and translocated into the nucleus, where it binds to the NANOG promoter to prevent OCT4 and SOX2 transcription factors from activating the expression of NANOG, a transcription factor critical for maintaining the stemness and the self-renewal ability of CSCs, resulting in the reduction of hepatic CSC populations...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029887/long-term-clinical-safety-of-high-dose-proton-radiation-therapy-delivered-with-pencil-beam-scanning-technique-for-extracranial-chordomas-and-chondrosarcomas-in-adult-patients-clinical-evidence-of-spinal-cord-tolerance
#4
Sonja Stieb, James W Snider, Lorenzo Placidi, Ulrike Kliebsch, Anthony J Lomax, Ralf A Schneider, Damien C Weber
PURPOSE: To assess the radiation dose tolerance of the spinal cord by reviewing our institutional experience regarding the incidence of radiation-induced spinal cord toxicity after high-dose pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PBSPT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Seventy-six patients (median age 53 years; range, 23-79 years) treated for spinal chordoma (n=55) or chondrosarcoma (n=21) met the following criteria and were retrospectively analyzed: PBSPT only, no reirradiation or concomitant chemotherapy, maximum dose (Dmax) to the spinal cord of ≥45 Gy(relative biological effectiveness [RBE]), ≥18 years of age, and follow-up of ≥12 months...
September 4, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029495/metadherin-promotes-metastasis-by-supporting-putative-cancer-stem-cell-properties-and-epithelial-plasticity-in-pancreatic-cancer
#5
Kensuke Suzuki, Shigetsugu Takano, Hideyuki Yoshitomi, Hitoe Nishino, Shingo Kagawa, Hiroaki Shimizu, Katsunori Furukawa, Masaru Miyazaki, Masayuki Ohtsuka
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a high metastatic potential. However, the mechanism of metastatic colonization in PDAC remains poorly understood. Metadherin (MTDH) has emerged in recent years as a crucial mediator of metastasis in several cancer types, although the biological role of MTDH in PDAC has not been investigated. Here, we demonstrated the functional roles of MTDH in PDAC progression, especially focusing on the metastatic cascade. In vitro studies showed that MTDH provides cancer stem cell (CSC) properties in metastatic PDAC cells and contributes to anoikis resistance with epithelial characteristics in PDAC cells...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028842/in-vitro-investigation-of-head-and-neck-cancer-stem-cell-proportions-and-their-changes-following-x-ray-irradiation-as-a-function-of-hpv-status
#6
Paul Reid, Puthenparampil Wilson, Yanrui Li, Loredana G Marcu, Alexander H Staudacher, Michael P Brown, Eva Bezak
INTRODUCTION: Some head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) have a distinct aetiology, which depends on the presence of oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV). Also, HNSCC contains cancer stem cells (CSCs) that have greater radioresistance and capacity to change replication dynamics in response to irradiation compared to non-clonogenic cells. Since there is limited data on CSCs in HNSCC as a function of HPV status, better understanding of their radiobiology may enable improved treatment outcome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028834/validation-of-a-theoretically-motivated-approach-to-measuring-childhood-socioeconomic-circumstances-in-the-health-and-retirement-study
#7
Anusha M Vable, Paola Gilsanz, Thu T Nguyen, Ichiro Kawachi, M Maria Glymour
Childhood socioeconomic status (cSES) is a powerful predictor of adult health, but its operationalization and measurement varies across studies. Using Health and Retirement Study data (HRS, which is nationally representative of community-residing United States adults aged 50+ years), we specified theoretically-motivated cSES measures, evaluated their reliability and validity, and compared their performance to other cSES indices. HRS respondent data (N = 31,169, interviewed 1992-2010) were used to construct a cSES index reflecting childhood social capital (cSC), childhood financial capital (cFC), and childhood human capital (cHC), using retrospective reports from when the respondent was <16 years (at least 34 years prior)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028335/metallo-supramolecular-complexes-enantioselectively-eradicate-cancer-stem-cells-in-vivo
#8
Hongshuang Qin, Chuanqi Zhao, Yuhuan Sun, Jinsong Ren, Xiaogang Qu
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for drug resistance, metastasis and recurrence of cancers. However, there is still no clinically approved drug that can effectively eradicate CSCs. Thus, it is crucial and important to develop specific CSC-targeting agents. Chiral molecular recognition of DNA plays an important role in rational drug design. Among them, poly-morphic telomeric G-quadruplex DNA has received much attention due to its significant roles in telomerase activity and chromosome stability. Herein, we find that one enantiomer of zinc-finger-like chiral metallohelices, [Ni2L3]4+-P, a telomeric G-quadruplex-targeting ligand, can preferentially reduce cell growth in breast CSCs compared to the bulk cancer cells...
October 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026462/murine-hepatocellular-carcinoma-derived-stem-cells-reveal-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-plasticity
#9
Aparna Jayachandran, Ritu Shrestha, Bijay Dhungel, I-Tao Huang, Marianna Yumi Kawashima Vasconcelos, Brian J Morrison, Charmaine A Ramlogan-Steel, Jason C Steel
AIM: To establish a model to enrich and characterize stem-like cells from murine normal liver and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and to further investigate stem-like cell association with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). METHODS: In this study, we utilized a stem cell conditioned serum-free medium to enrich stem-like cells from mouse HCC and normal liver cell lines, Hepa 1-6 and AML12, respectively. We isolated the 3-dimensional spheres and assessed their stemness characteristics by evaluating the RNA levels of stemness genes and a cell surface stem cell marker by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR)...
September 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024795/are-valved-holding-chambers-vhcs-interchangeable-an-in-vitro-evaluation-of-vhc-equivalence
#10
Sanjeeva Dissanayake, Mark Nagel, Emanuela Falaschetti, Jason Suggett
INTRODUCTION: The European Medicines Agency (EMA) requires that a specific valved holding chamber (VHC) is designated for use with a given pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI). No other regulatory authorities impose similar requirements, implying that VHCs are interchangeable. This in vitro study, employing EMA assessment criteria, assessed the equivalence of four anti-static VHCs (aVHCs) versus the non-conducting VHC most widely referenced in pMDI monographs, the AeroChamber Plus™ (AC+) VHC...
October 9, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024225/snail-mediated-cancer-stem-cell-like-phenotype-in-human-cne2-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cell
#11
Shan Peng, Cheng Wu, Wei Sun, Dongbo Liu, Min Luo, Beibei Su, Linli Zhang, Qi Mei, Guoqing Hu
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype, which has been proven to play a critical role in invasion and metastasis of many kinds of cancers, has also been reported to be associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Snail, a potent repressor of E-cadherin expression, was found to have a function to regulate the aforementioned processes. METHODS: In the current study, expression of putative CSCs biomarkers and the ratio of CSC-like CNE2 (cancer cell line) in total CNE2 were measured, and CSC-like characteristics were analyzed with tumor-sphere self-renewal and colony-forming assays...
October 12, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017913/the-use-of-natural-compounds-for-the-targeting-and-chemoprevention-of-ovarian-cancer
#12
Francesca Pistollato, Ruben Calderón Iglesias, Roberto Ruiz, Silvia Aparicio, Jorge Crespo, Luis Dzul Lopez, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino
Among gynaecological cancers, ovarian cancer represents the leading cause of death in women. Current treatment for ovarian cancer entails surgery followed by combined chemotherapy with platinum and taxane, which are associated, particularly cisplatin, with severe side effects. While this treatment approach appears to be initially effective in a high number of patients, nearly 70% of them suffer a relapse within a few months after initial treatment. Therefore, more effective and better-tolerated treatment options are clearly needed...
October 7, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017605/collaborative-shared-care-to-improve-psychosis-outcome-cosimpo-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Oye Gureje, Victor Makanjuola, Lola Kola, Bidemi Yusuf, Leshawndra Price, Oluyomi Esan, Bibilola D Oladeji, John Appiah-Poku, Benjamin Haris, Caleb Othieno, Soraya Seedat
BACKGROUND: Psychotic disorders are a group of severe mental disorders that cause considerable disability to sufferers and a high level of burden to families. In many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), traditional and faith healers are the main providers of care to affected persons. Even though frequently canvassed as desirable for improved care delivery, collaboration between these complementary alternative health providers (CAPs) and conventional health providers has yet to be rigorously tested for feasibility and effectiveness on patient outcomes...
October 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016451/concurrent-idiopathic-macular-telangiectasia-type-2-and-central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#14
Alexandre Matet, Suzanne Yzer, Emily Y Chew, Alejandra Daruich, Francine Behar-Cohen, Richard F Spaide
PURPOSE: To describe cases presenting with features of idiopathic macular telangiectasia (MacTel) Type 2 and central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). METHODS: Databases from four tertiary retina centers were searched for cases copresenting CSC and MacTel Type 2. RESULTS: Five cases were identified (4 men, 1 woman; mean age: 67.2 years). Four patients were referred for chronic or nonresolving CSC, and the diagnosis of MacTel Type 2 was made based on multimodal imaging findings...
October 9, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990139/association-between-morphological-patterns-of-myometrial-invasion-and-cancer-stem-cell-markers-in-endometrial-endometrioid-carcinoma
#15
Ji Y Park, Daegy Hong, Ji Young Park
In endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EEC), the depth of myometrial invasion (MI) is an important parameter for determining whether additional treatment is warranted. The present study investigated the association between MI patterns, cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotypes, and their clinicopathological significance in EEC. A total of 73 cases of EEC with MI were examined in this study. Haematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue specimens were analysed for MI pattern, which was categorised as infiltrating; expansile; adenomyosis (AM)-like; or microcystic, elongated, and fragmented (MELF)-type...
October 8, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990068/macc1-facilitates-chemoresistance-and-cancer-stem-cell%C3%A2-like-properties-of-colon-cancer-cells-through-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#16
Jiankai Wang, Wenjuan Wang, Hongyi Cai, Binbin Du, Lijuan Zhang, Wen Ma, Yongguo Hu, Shifang Feng, Guoying Miao
With regards to colon cancer, resistance to 5‑fluorouracil (5‑FU)‑based chemotherapy and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered important factors underlying therapy failure. Metastasis‑associated colon cancer 1 (MACC1) has been associated with poor prognosis and the promotion of metastasis within several types of cancer. However, the biological behavior of MACC1 in chemoresistance and CSC‑like properties remains unclear. In the present study, various methods including gene knockdown, gene overexpression, western blotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and MTT assay, have been adopted...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986898/immunohistochemistry-for-cancer-stem-cells-detection-principles-and-methods
#17
Martina Intartaglia, Rosalaura Sabetta, Monica Gargiulo, Giovanna Roncador, Federica Zito Marino, Renato Franco
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are rare immortal cells within a tumor that can self-renew and drive tumorigenesis. CSCs play a pivotal role in the tumor development, progression and relapse, as well as in the resistance of anticancer therapy. Different tools could help in the analysis of CSCs, especially Immunohistochemistry (IHC) represents a useful technique able to identify several specific CSC markers. The main aims of this chapter are the description of the explain immunohistochemical methods used in the characterization of CSCs...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986892/tumor-tissue-analogs-for-the-assessment-of-radioresistance-in-cancer-stem-cells
#18
Meenakshi Upreti
Over the years, radiotherapy-related research has been based on local tumor control as an experimental endpoint, yielding a wealth of data demonstrating the importance of cancer stem cells in tumor reoccurrence after radiotherapy. Literature is replete with experimental and clinical evidence that the cancer stem cell population in a tumor affects its radiocurability. An important consideration for radiotherapy is the microenvironmental stimuli in the CSC niche that results from factors such as hypoxia, extracellular matrix (ECM) elements and their intercellular interaction with non-stem cells and other cell types that prevail in the tumor milieu...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986888/in-vitro-tumorigenic-assay-the-tumor-spheres-assay
#19
Hui Wang, Anna M Paczulla, Martina Konantz, Claudia Lengerke
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cells within cancer tissues that are thought to mediate tumor initiation. CSCs are furthermore considered the cause of tumor progression and recurrence after conventional therapies, based on their enhanced therapy resistance properties. A method commonly used to assess CSC potential in vitro is the so-called tumor spheres assay in which cells are plated under non-adherent culture conditions in serum-free medium supplemented with growth factors. Tumor spheres assays have been used in cancer research as an intermediate in vitro cell culture model to be explored before performing more laborious in vivo tumor xenograft assays...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986887/self-renewal-and-cscs-in-vitro-enrichment-growth-as-floating-spheres
#20
Pooja Mehta, Caymen Novak, Shreya Raghavan, Maria Ward, Geeta Mehta
Cancer stem cells (CSC) are a vital component to the progression and reoccurrence of cancers, making them a primary target of study for both fundamental understanding of cancer biology and the development of effective and targeted treatments. CSCs reside in a complex 3D microenvironment, and the 3D spheroids are an indispensable tool in tumor biology due to their 3D structure and replication of the tumor microenvironment. Within this chapter the methodology for CSC isolation, suspension culture in hanging drop model, and characterization assays for CSC are described...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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