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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230774/inhibition-of-ccar1-a-coactivator-of-%C3%AE-catenin-suppresses-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-gastric-cancer-cells
#1
Te-Sheng Chang, Kuo-Liang Wei, Chung-Kuang Lu, Yi-Hsing Chen, Ying-Tung Cheng, Shui-Yi Tung, Cheng-Shyong Wu, Ming-Ko Chiang
The aberrant activation of Wnt signaling has been implicated in a variety of human cancers, including gastric cancer. Given the current hypothesis that cancer arises from cancer stem cells (CSCs), targeting the critical signaling pathways that support CSC self-renewal appears to be a useful approach for cancer therapy. Cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1) is a transcriptional coactivator which has been shown to be a component of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and which plays an important role in transcriptional regulation by β-catenin...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228412/inequality-in-cataract-blindness-and-services-moving-beyond-unidimensional-analyses-of-social-position
#2
Jacqueline Ramke, Anthony B Zwi, Arier C Lee, Ilse Blignault, Clare E Gilbert
OBJECTIVE: Inequalities in cataract blindness are well known, but data are rarely disaggregated to explore the combined effects of a range of axes describing social disadvantage. We examined inequalities in cataract blindness and services at the intersection of three social axes. METHODS: Three dichotomous social variables (sex (male/female); place of residence (urban/rural); literacy (literate/illiterate)) from cross-sectional national blindness surveys in Pakistan (2001-2004; n=16 507) and Nigeria (2005-2007; n=13 591) were used to construct eight subgroups, with disadvantaged subgroups selected a priori (ie, women, rural dwellers, illiterate)...
February 22, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228161/catching-moving-targets-cancer-stem-cell-hierarchies-therapy-resistance-considerations-for-clinical-intervention
#3
REVIEW
Claudia Gasch, Brendan Ffrench, John J O'Leary, Michael F Gallagher
It is widely believed that targeting the tumour-initiating cancer stem cell (CSC) component of malignancy has great therapeutic potential, particularly in therapy-resistant disease. However, despite concerted efforts, CSC-targeting strategies have not been efficiently translated to the clinic. This is partly due to our incomplete understanding of the mechanisms underlying CSC therapy-resistance. In particular, the relationship between therapy-resistance and the organisation of CSCs as Stem-Progenitor-Differentiated cell hierarchies has not been widely studied...
February 23, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223550/nadh-autofluorescence-a-new-metabolic-biomarker-for-cancer-stem-cells-identification-of-vitamin-c-and-cape-as-natural-products-targeting-stemness
#4
Gloria Bonuccelli, Ernestina Marianna De Francesco, Rianne de Boer, Herbert B Tanowitz, Michael P Lisanti
Here, we assembled a broad molecular "tool-kit" to interrogate the role of metabolic heterogeneity in the propagation of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). First, we subjected MCF7 cells to "metabolic fractionation" by flow cytometry, using fluorescent mitochondrial probes to detect PCG1α activity, as well ROS and hydrogen-peroxide (H2O2) production; NADH levels were also monitored by auto-fluorescence. Then, the various cell populations were functionally assessed for "stem cell activity", using the mammosphere assay (3D-spheroids)...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221890/enhanced-control-of-listeria-monocytogenes-by-enterococcus-faecium-ke82-a-multiple-enterocin-producing-strain-in-different-milk-environments
#5
Elpiniki Vandera, Alexandra Lianou, Athanasia Kakouri, Jinbo Feng, Anna-Irini Koukkou, John Samelis
Enterococcus faecium KE82, isolated from traditional Greek Graviera cheese, was identified in pure broth cultures in vitro as a multiple enterocin-producing bacterial strain possessing the structural entA, entB, and entP enterocin genes. E. faecium KE82 was further assessed for in situ antilisterial activity in raw milk (RM) and commercially thermized milk (TM; 63°C for 30 s) in the presence of the indigenous microbiota and in sterile raw milk (SRM; 121°C for 5 min) with or without the addition of two commercial starter culture (CSC) strains Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis ...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220856/prognostic-value-of-cancer-stem-cell-markers-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-meta-analysis
#6
Zhaona Fan, Mianxiang Li, Xiaobing Chen, Juan Wang, Xueyi Liang, Hongfei Wang, Zhi Wang, Bin Cheng, Juan Xia
Bmi-1, CD133, Nanog and Oct-4 have been reported as cancer stem cell (CSC) markers in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the prognostic value of them in HNSCC remains controversial. Hence, this meta-analysis was conducted to access the association between the four CSC markers and survival outcome of HNSCC patients. A total of 22 articles with 27 studies met the inclusion criteria and the combined hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Data analysis showed that high expression of CSC markers was associated with poor overall survival (OS) (HR = 1...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220661/tunable-luminescence-and-energy-transfer-in-ca3-sio4-cl2-ce-3-li-mn-2-eu-2-phosphors
#7
Xiangqi Li, Xiuzhen Xie, Haiting Wei, Minzhen Zhong
A series of color-tunable Ca3-2x-y-z SiO4 Cl2 (CSC):xCe(3+) ,xLi(+) ,yMn(2+) ,zEu(2+) phosphors with low temperature phase structure was synthesized via the sol-gel method. An energy transfer process from Ce(3+) to Mn(2+) in CSC:0.01Ce(3+) ,0.01Li(+) ,yMn(2+) (y = 0.03-0.09) and the mechanism was verified to be an electric dipole-dipole interaction. The Ce(3+) and Mn(2+) emission intensities were greatly enhanced by co-doping Eu(2+) ions into CSC:0.01Ce(3+) ,0.01Li(+) ,0.07Mn(2+) phosphors due to competitive energy transfers from Eu(2+) /Ce(3+) to Mn(2+) , and Ce(3+) to Eu(2+) ...
February 21, 2017: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219643/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-variants-of-a-cancer-testis-antigen-lemd1-in-colorectal-cancer-stem-like-cells
#8
Rui Takeda, Yoshihiko Hirohashi, Min Shen, Liming Wang, Tadashi Ogawa, Aiko Murai, Eri Yamamoto, Terufumi Kubo, Munehide Nakatsugawa, Takayuki Kanaseki, Tomohide Tsukahara, Toshihiko Nishidate, Kenji Okita, Goro Kutomi, Noriyuki Sato, Ichiro Takemasa, Toshihiko Torigoe
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancy, and the prognosis is not still satisfactory due to treatment resistance, recurrence and distant metastasis. Cancer stem cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) is endowed with higher tumor-initiating ability, self-renewal ability and differentiation ability, and CSCs/CICs are resistant to treatments. Thus, CSCs/CICs are thought to be responsible for recurrence and distant metastasis, and eradication of CSCs/CICs is essential to cure CRCs. However, the molecular mechanisms of CSCs/CICs are remain unknown, and we aimed to elucidate molecular aspects of CR-CSCs/CICs in this study...
February 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218902/retinoic-acid-directs-breast-cancer-cell-state-changes-through-regulation-of-tet2-pkc%C3%AE-pathway
#9
M-J Wu, M R Kim, Y-S Chen, J-Y Yang, C-J Chang
The key molecular mechanism governing the cancer cell state (stem cell-like state vs differentiation state) to control the cancer stem cell (CSC) pool remains elusive. This study provides the first evidence showing that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces the interaction and chromatin recruitment of a novel RARβ-TET2 complex to epigenetically activate a specific cohort of gene targets, including MiR-200c. TET2-activated miR-200c further targets and suppresses PKCζ, a cell polarity protein that has a pivotal role in directing asymmetric division of mammalian stem cells to sustain the stem cell pool...
February 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216417/expression-profiling-of-clinical-specimens-supports-the-existence-of-neural-progenitor-like-stem-cells-in-basal-breast-cancers
#10
Alex Panaccione, Yan Guo, Wendell G Yarbrough, Sergey V Ivanov
BACKGROUND: We previously characterized in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) a novel population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) marked by coexpression of 2 stemness genes, sex-determining region Y (SRY)-related HMG box-containing factor 10 (SOX10) and CD133. We also reported that in ACC and basal-like breast carcinoma (BBC), a triple-negative breast cancer subtype, expression of SOX10 similarly demarcates a highly conserved gene signature enriched with neural stem cell genes. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that BBC might be likewise driven by SOX10-positive (SOX10(+))/CD133(+) cells with neural stem cell properties...
January 27, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215944/cd44-cancer-cell-induced-metastasis-a-feasible-neck-metastasis-model
#11
Tian-Fu Wu, Lei Chen, Lin-Lin Bu, Jie Gao, Wen-Feng Zhang, Jun Jia
Neck metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) indicates a poor prognosis. Few neck metastasis models are currently available for drug trials and clinical research on OSCC. This study constructed a feasible animal model of neck metastasis by using CD44+ stem cell-like cancer cells. Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression levels of several reported cancer stem cell (CSC) markers, including CD44, CD133, ALDH1 and OCT4, in three OSCC cell lines. Magnetic sorting and DiO/DiD labelling were used to isolate subpopulations of cells and monitor cancer cell migration...
February 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214331/pomc-maintains-tumor-initiating-properties-of-tumor-tissue-derived-long-term-cultured-breast-cancer-stem-cells
#12
Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie
The identification and understanding of the molecular network of cancer stem cells (CSCs) have had a profound impact on our view of carcinogenesis and treatment strategy. Unfortunately, a major problem is that serial passages of CSCs from clinical solid tumor specimens currently are not available in any lab, and thus, reported data are difficult to confirm and intensively interrogated. Here, we have generated two tumor tissue-derived breast CSC (BCSC) lines that showed prolonged maintenance over 20 serial passages in vitro, while retaining their tumor-initiating biological properties...
February 18, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214216/cancer-stem-cell-cytokeratins-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-markers-expression-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-derived-from-ortothopic-xenoimplantation-of-cd44-high-cells
#13
Nathália Paiva de Andrade, Maria Fernanda Setúbal Destro Rodrigues, Camila Oliveira Rodini, Fabio Daumas Nunes
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most prevalent neoplasia of oral cavity worldwide and prognosis remains unchanged in decades. Recently, different authors reported that head and neck squamous cell carcinomas have a subpopulation of tumor initiating cells that apparently correspond to cancer stem cells (CSC) and are also responsible for tumor growth and metastasis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the microscopic and phenotypic characteristics of OSCC tumors induced after orthotopic xenoimplantation of SCC9(WT) cell line and CSC-enriched subpopulation isolated from SCC9 cell line based on high expression of the putative CSC marker CD44...
December 23, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213019/growth-interactions-and-antilisterial-effects-of-the-bacteriocinogenic-lactococcus-lactis-subsp-cremoris-m104-and-enterococcus-faecium-ke82-strains-in-thermized-milk-in-the-presence-or-absence-of-a-commercial-starter-culture
#14
Alexandra Lianou, Athanasia Kakouri, Eleni C Pappa, John Samelis
Traditional Greek cheeses are often produced from thermized milk (TM) with the use of commercial starter cultures (CSCs), which may not inhibit growth of Listeria monocytogenes completely. Therefore, this study evaluated the behavior of an artificial L. monocytogenes contamination in commercially TM (63 °C; 30 s) inoculated with a CSC plus Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis M104 and/or Enterococcus faecium KE82, two indigenous strains producing nisin A and enterocin A and B, respectively. Inoculation treatments included TM with the CSC only, and TM without the CSC but with strain M104 alone, or combined with strain KE82...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212529/expression-of-the-cancer-stem-cell-markers-abcg2-and-oct-4-in-right-sided-colon-cancer-predicts-recurrence-and-poor-outcomes
#15
Jun Hu, Jian Li, Xin Yue, Jiacang Wang, Jianzhong Liu, Lin Sun, Dalu Kong
Right-sided colon cancer (RCC) has a poorer prognosis and a higher relapse rate than left-sided colon cancer (LCC). Like cancer stem cells (CSCs), RCC cells cannot be fully eradicated and are often involved in relapse or metastasis. Because CSCs may be linked with poor outcomes, CSC markers may have prognostic value in RCC. ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2) and OCT-4 (also known as POU5F1) are among the most useful markers for CSC identification. We therefore examined the malignant behavior of ABCG2 and OCT-4 in vitro and in vivo, and their expression was assessed in pathology tissues obtained from clinicopathologically recurrent and non-recurrent cases...
February 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212401/preload-based-starling-like-control-of-rotary-blood-pumps-an-in-vitro-evaluation
#16
Mahdi Mansouri, Shaun D Gregory, Robert F Salamonsen, Nigel H Lovell, Michael C Stevens, Jo P Pauls, Rini Akmeliawati, Einly Lim
Due to a shortage of donor hearts, rotary left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are used to provide mechanical circulatory support. To address the preload insensitivity of the constant speed controller (CSC) used in conventional LVADs, we developed a preload-based Starling-like controller (SLC). The SLC emulates the Starling law of the heart to maintain mean pump flow ([Formula: see text]) with respect to mean left ventricular end diastolic pressure (PLVEDm) as the feedback signal. The SLC and CSC were compared using a mock circulation loop to assess their capacity to increase cardiac output during mild exercise while avoiding ventricular suction (marked by a negative PLVEDm) and maintaining circulatory stability during blood loss and severe reductions in left ventricular contractility (LVC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211214/anti-cancer-stem-cell-activity-of-a-hedgehog-inhibitor-gant61-in-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer-cells
#17
Junichi Kurebayashi, Yoshikazu Koike, Yusuke Ohta, Wataru Saitoh, Tetsumasa Yamashita, Naoki Kanomata, Takuya Moriya
Estradiol (E2) increases not only the cell growth but also cancer stem cell (CSC) proportion in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cells. It was suggested that the non-canonical hedgehog (Hh) pathway activated by E2 plays an important role in the regulation of CSC proportion in ER-positive breast cancer cells. We studied anti-CSC activity of a non-canonical Hh inhibitor GANT61 in ER-positive breast cancer cells. Effects of GANT61 on the cell growth, cell cycle progression, apoptosis and CSC proportion were investigated in four ER-positive breast cancer cell lines...
February 17, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209613/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-directs-self-renewal-symmetric-cell-division-of-hterthigh-prostate-cancer-stem-cells
#18
Kai Zhang, Yanjing Guo, Xue Wang, Huifang Zhao, Zhongzhong Ji, Chaping Cheng, Li Li, Yuxiang Fang, Dawei Xu, Helen He Zhu, Wei-Qiang Gao
Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) drive cancer progression and recurrence. Self-renewal expansion of CSC is achieved through symmetric cell division, yet how external stimuli affect intracellular regulatory programs of CSC division modes and stemness remains obscure. Here we report that hTERThigh prostate cancer (PCa) cells exhibit CSC properties, including a stem cell-associated gene expression signature, long term tumor-propagating capacity and epithelial-to-mensenchymal transition (EMT). In promoting the self-renewal symmetric division of hTERThigh PCa cells, WNT3a dramatically decreased the ratio of hTERThigh PCa cells undergoing asymmetric division...
February 16, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209166/intra-tumor-heterogeneity-from-a-cancer-stem-cell-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Pramudita R Prasetyanti, Jan Paul Medema
Tumor heterogeneity represents an ongoing challenge in the field of cancer therapy. Heterogeneity is evident between cancers from different patients (inter-tumor heterogeneity) and within a single tumor (intra-tumor heterogeneity). The latter includes phenotypic diversity such as cell surface markers, (epi)genetic abnormality, growth rate, apoptosis and other hallmarks of cancer that eventually drive disease progression and treatment failure. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been put forward to be one of the determining factors that contribute to intra-tumor heterogeneity...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203307/epigenetic-strategies-to-reverse-drug-resistance-in-heterogeneous-multiple-myeloma
#20
REVIEW
Mark E Issa, Farnaz Sedigheh Takhsha, Chandra Sekhar Chirumamilla, Claudina Perez-Novo, Wim Vanden Berghe, Muriel Cuendet
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy, which remains incurable because most patients eventually relapse or become refractory to current treatments. Due to heterogeneity within the cancer cell microenvironment, cancer cell populations employ a dynamic survival strategy to chemotherapeutic treatments, which frequently results in a rapid acquisition of therapy resistance. Besides resistance-conferring genetic alterations within a tumor cell population selected during drug treatment, recent findings also reveal non-mutational mechanisms of drug resistance, involving a small population of "cancer stem cells" (CSCs) which are intrinsically more refractory to the effects of a variety of anticancer drugs...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
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