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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471431/making-waves-new-developments-in-toxicology-with-the-zebrafish
#1
Katharine A Horzmann, Jennifer L Freeman
The laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio) is now an accepted model in toxicologic research. The zebrafish model fills a niche between in vitro models and mammalian biomedical models. The developmental characteristics of the small fish are strategically being used by scientists to study topics ranging from high-throughput toxicity screens to toxicity in multi- and transgenerational studies. High-throughput technology has increased the utility of zebrafish embryonic toxicity assays in screening of chemicals and drugs for toxicity or effect...
February 19, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467773/characterization-of-novel-plant-symbiosis-mutants-using-a-new-multiple-gene-expression-reporter-sinorhizobium-meliloti-strain
#2
Claus Lang, Lucinda S Smith, Sharon R Long
The formation of nitrogen fixing root nodules by Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti requires communication between both organisms and coordinated differentiation of plant and bacterial cells. After an initial signal exchange, the bacteria invade the tissue of the growing nodule via plant-derived tubular structures, called infection threads. The bacteria are released from the infection threads into invasion-competent plant cells, where they differentiate into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. Both organisms undergo dramatic transcriptional, metabolic and morphological changes during nodule development...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462363/a-gene-regulatory-network-for-cellular-reprogramming-in-plant-regeneration
#3
Momoko Ikeuchi, Michitaro Shibata, Bart Rymen, Akira Iwase, Anne-Maarit Bågman, Lewis Watt, Duncan Coleman, David S Favero, Tatsuya Takahashi, Sebastian E Ahnert, Siobhan M Brady, Keiko Sugimoto
Wounding triggers organ regeneration in many plant species, and application of plant hormones, such as auxin and cytokinin, enhances their regenerative capacities in tissue culture. Recent studies have identified several key players mediating wound- and/or plant hormone-induced cellular reprogramming, but the global architecture of gene regulatory relationships underlying plant cellular reprogramming is still far from clear. In this study, we uncovered a gene regulatory network (GRN) associated with plant cellular reprogramming by using an enhanced yeast one-hybrid (eY1H) screen systematically to identify regulatory relationships between 252 transcription factors (TFs) and 48 promoters...
February 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459217/better-together-developmental-screening-and-monitoring-best-identify-children-who-need-early-intervention
#4
Brian Barger, Catherine Rice, Rebecca Wolf, Andrew Roach
BACKGROUND: Widely recommended developmental surveillance methods include developmental monitoring (DM) and development screening (DS). Much research has been done on DS, but very little research has compared the effectiveness of DM and DS together. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between DM and DS in Part C early intervention (EI) service receipt. METHODS: Authors used data from the 2007/2008 and 2011/2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH)...
February 2, 2018: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458080/transcriptomic-and-phenotypic-profiling-in-developing-zebrafish-exposed-to-thyroid-hormone-receptor-agonists
#5
Derik E Haggard, Pamela D Noyes, Katrina M Waters, Robert L Tanguay
There continues to be a need to develop in vivo high-throughput screening (HTS) and computational methods to screen chemicals for interaction with the estrogen, androgen, and thyroid pathways and as complements to in vitro HTS assays. This study explored the utility of an embryonic zebrafish HTS approach to identify and classify endocrine bioactivity using phenotypically-anchored transcriptome profiling. Transcriptome analysis was conducted on zebrafish embryos exposed to 25 estrogen-, androgen-, or thyroid-active chemicals at concentrations that elicited adverse malformations or mortality at 120 hours post-fertilization in 80% of animals exposed...
February 16, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454059/towards-a-regulatory-use-of-alternative-developmental-neurotoxicity-testing-dnt
#6
Andrea Terron, Susanne Hougaard Bennekou
There is a need for a more effective Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) screening which is scientifically driven by the fact that the developing nervous system might be more sensitive to exposures to some hazardous chemical. Additional concern comes from the recent societal concerns that toxic chemicals can contribute to the prevalence of neurodevelopment disabilities. Consequently, hazard identification and actions to reduce exposure to these chemicals is a priority in chemical risk assessment. To reach this goal a cost-efficient testing strategy based on a reliable in-vitro testing battery should be developed...
February 14, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452931/identification-of-novel-uncertainty-factors-and-thresholds-of-toxicological-concern-for-health-hazard-and-risk-assessment-application-to-cleaning-product-ingredients
#7
REVIEW
Zhen Wang, W Casan Scott, E Spencer Williams, Michael Ciarlo, Paul C DeLeo, Bryan W Brooks
Uncertainty factors (UFs) are commonly used during hazard and risk assessments to address uncertainties, including extrapolations among mammals and experimental durations. In risk assessment, default values are routinely used for interspecies extrapolation and interindividual variability. Whether default UFs are sufficient for various chemical uses or specific chemical classes remains understudied, particularly for ingredients in cleaning products. Therefore, we examined publicly available acute median lethal dose (LD50), and reproductive and developmental no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) values for the rat model (oral)...
February 13, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452811/effects-on-adult-cognitive-function-after-neonatal-exposure-to-clinically-relevant-doses-of-ionising-radiation-and-ketamine-in-mice
#8
S Buratovic, B Stenerlöw, S Sundell-Bergman, A Fredriksson, H Viberg, T Gordh, P Eriksson
BACKGROUND: Radiological methods for screening, diagnostics and therapy are frequently used in healthcare. In infants and children, anaesthesia/sedation is often used in these situations to relieve the patients' perception of stress or pain. Both ionising radiation (IR) and ketamine have been shown to induce developmental neurotoxic effects and this study aimed to identify the combined effects of these in a murine model. METHODS: Male mice were exposed to a single dose of ketamine (7...
March 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452698/are-cleavage-anomalies-multinucleation-or-specific-cell-cycle-kinetics-observed-with-time-lapse-imaging-predictive-of-embryo-developmental-capacity-or-ploidy
#9
Nina Desai, Jeffrey M Goldberg, Cynthia Austin, Tommaso Falcone
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cleavage anomalies, multinucleation, and specific cellular kinetic parameters available from time-lapse imaging are predictive of developmental capacity or blastocyst chromosomal status. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: Single academic center. PATIENT(S): A total of 1,478 zygotes from patients with blastocysts biopsied for preimplantation genetic screening were cultured in the EmbryoScope...
February 13, 2018: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449939/innovative-approaches-to-genome-editing-in-avian-species
#10
REVIEW
Caitlin A Cooper, Timothy J Doran, Arjun Challagulla, Mark L V Tizard, Kristie A Jenkins
The tools available for genome engineering have significantly improved over the last 5 years, allowing scientist to make precise edits to the genome. Along with the development of these new genome editing tools has come advancements in technologies used to deliver them. In mammals genome engineering tools are typically delivered into in vitro fertilized single cell embryos which are subsequently cultured and then implanted into a recipient animal. In avian species this is not possible, so other methods have been developed for genome engineering in birds...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447803/maternal-knowledge-and-attitudes-to-universal-newborn-hearing-screening-reviewing-an-established-program
#11
Maggie Yee Yan Lam, Eddie Chi Ming Wong, Chi Wai Law, Helena Hui Ling Lee, Bradley McPherson
OBJECTIVES: To facilitate early diagnosis of infants with hearing loss, a universal newborn hearing screening program (UNHS) has been implemented in Hong Kong's public hospitals for over a decade. However, there have been no known studies investigating parent attitudes to, and satisfaction with, UNHS since its launch in Hong Kong. The present study aimed to investigate knowledge of UNHS as well as infant hearing development, and attitudes and satisfaction with UNHS, in Hong Kong mothers with newborns...
February 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446767/clapo-syndrome-identification-of-somatic-activating-pik3ca-mutations-and-delineation-of-the-natural-history-and-phenotype
#12
Lara Rodriguez-Laguna, Kristina Ibañez, Gema Gordo, Sixto Garcia-Minaur, Fernando Santos-Simarro, Noelia Agra, Elena Vallespín, Victoria E Fernández-Montaño, Rubén Martín-Arenas, Ángela Del Pozo, Héctor González-Pecellín, Rocío Mena, Inmaculada Rueda-Arenas, María V Gomez, Cristina Villaverde, Ana Bustamante, Carmen Ayuso, Víctor L Ruiz-Perez, Julián Nevado, Pablo Lapunzina, Juan C Lopez-Gutierrez, Victor Martinez-Glez
PurposeCLAPO syndrome is a rare vascular disorder characterized by capillary malformation of the lower lip, lymphatic malformation predominant on the face and neck, asymmetry, and partial/generalized overgrowth. Here we tested the hypothesis that, although the genetic cause is not known, the tissue distribution of the clinical manifestations in CLAPO seems to follow a pattern of somatic mosaicism.MethodsWe clinically evaluated a cohort of 13 patients with CLAPO and screened 20 DNA blood/tissue samples from 9 patients using high-throughput, deep sequencing...
February 15, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445507/development-of-the-japanese-version-of-the-cornell-assessment-of-pediatric-delirium
#13
Haruhiko Hoshino, Yujiro Matsuishi, Nobutake Shimojo, Yuki Enomoto, Takahiro Kido, Yoshiaki Inoue
Aim: Delirium is a form of acute cerebral dysfunction and is associated with increased length of hospital stay, mortality, and health-care costs for adult patients in intensive care. However, in Japan, there are currently no reliable criteria or tools for diagnosing delirium in critically ill pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to translate the Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium (CAPD)-a screening tool for pediatric delirium-from English to Japanese for use in the diagnosis of delirium for pediatric patients in pediatric intensive care units...
January 2018: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444762/hemimegalencephaly-with-bannayan-riley-ruvalcaba-syndrome
#14
Ryan Ghusayni, Monisha Sachdev, William Gallentine, Mohamad A Mikati, Marie T McDonald
Hemimegalencephaly is known to occur in Proteus syndrome, but has not been reported, to our knowledge, in the other PTEN mutation-related syndrome of Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba. Here, we report a patient with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome who also had hemimegalencephaly and in whom the hemimegalencephaly was evident well before presentation of the characteristic manifestations of Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome. An 11-year-old boy developed drug-resistant focal seizures on the fifth day of life. MRI revealed left hemimegalencephaly...
February 14, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444173/transcriptome-variations-among-human-embryonic-stem-cell-lines-are-associated-with-their-differentiation-propensity
#15
Changbin Sun, Jiawen Zhang, Dongmin Zheng, Jian Wang, Huanming Yang, Xi Zhang
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to form any cell type in the body, making them attractive cell sources in drug screening, regenerative medicine, disease and developmental processes modeling. However, not all hESC lines have the equal potency to generate desired cell types in vitro. Significant variations have been observed for the differentiation efficiency of various human ESC lines. The precise underpinning molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In this work, we compared transcriptome variations of four hESC lines H7, HUES1, HUES8 and HUES9...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443111/zika-virus-infection-of-cultured-human-fetal-brain-neural-stem-cells-for-immunocytochemical-analysis
#16
Erica L McGrath, Junling Gao, Ping Wu
Human fetal brain neural stem cells are a unique non-genetically modified model system to study the impact of various stimuli on human developmental neurobiology. Rather than use an animal model or genetically modified induced pluripotent cells, human neural stem cells provide an effective in vitro system to examine the effects of treatments, screen drugs, or examine individual differences. Here, we provide the detailed protocols for methods used to expand human fetal brain neural stem cells in culture with serum-free media, to differentiate them into various neuronal subtypes and astrocytes via different priming procedures, and to freeze and recover these cells...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443098/a-novel-in-vitro-live-imaging-assay-of-astrocyte-mediated-phagocytosis-using-ph-indicator-conjugated-synaptosomes
#17
Youkyeong Gloria Byun, Won-Suk Chung
Astrocytes are the major cell type in the brain and directly contact synapses and blood vessels. Although microglial cells have been considered the major immune cells and only phagocytes in the brain, recent studies have shown that astrocytes also participate in various phagocytic processes, such as developmental synapse elimination and clearance of amyloid beta plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite these findings, the efficiency of astrocyte engulfment and degradation of their targets is unclear compared with that of microglia...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442320/amphibian-zic-genes
#18
Christa Merzdorf, Jennifer Forecki
Studies in Xenopus laevis have greatly contributed to understanding the roles that the Zic family of zinc finger transcription factors play as essential drivers of early development. Explant systems that are not readily available in other organisms give Xenopus embryos a unique place in these studies, facilitated by the recent sequencing of the Xenopus laevis genome. A number of upstream regulators of zic gene expression have been identified, such as inhibition of BMP signaling, as well as calcium, FGF, and canonical Wnt signaling...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441282/specific-learning-disability-in-mathematics-a-comprehensive-review
#19
REVIEW
Neelkamal Soares, Teresa Evans, Dilip R Patel
Math skills are necessary for success in the childhood educational and future adult work environment. This article reviews the changing terminology for specific learning disabilities (SLD) in math and describes the emerging genetics and neuroimaging studies that relate to individuals with math disability (MD). It is important to maintain a developmental perspective on MD, as presentation changes with age, instruction, and the different models (educational and medical) of identification. Intervention requires a systematic approach to screening and remediation that has evolved with more evidence-based literature...
January 2018: Translational Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439664/heart-rate-defined-sustained-attention-in-infants-at-risk-for-autism
#20
Bridgette L Tonnsen, John E Richards, Jane E Roberts
BACKGROUND: Although aberrant visual attention has been identified in infants at high familial risk for autism, the developmental emergence of atypical attention remains unclear. Integrating biological measures of attention into prospective high-risk infant studies may inform more nuanced developmental trajectories, clarifying the onset and course of atypical attention and potentially advancing early screening or treatment protocols. Heart rate-defined sustained attention (HRDSA) is a well-validated biological measure of attentional engagement that, in non-clinical infant populations, provides incremental information about attentional engagement beyond looking behaviors alone...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
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