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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937874/can-a-label-help-me-drink-in-moderation-a-review-of-the-evidence-on-standard-drink-labelling
#1
Ashley Wettlaufer
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the concept of a standard drink (SD) is foundational knowledge to many public health policies aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms. These policies include adhering to low-risk drinking guidelines, screening brief intervention and referral activities, and counter alcohol-impaired driving initiatives. A lack of awareness of SDs might preclude the effectiveness of these interventions. A systematic review was conducted to review the evidence about how effective alcohol labels are in communicating SD information to the consumer...
September 22, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936720/development-of-finger-force-coordination-in-children
#2
Sharon Shaklai, Aviva Mimouni-Bloch, Moran Levin, Jason Friedman
Coordination is often observed as body parts moving together. However, when producing force with multiple fingers, the optimal coordination is not to produce similar forces with each finger, but rather for each finger to correct mistakes of other fingers. In this study, we aim to determine whether and how this skill develops in children aged 4-12 years. We measured this sort of coordination using the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis (UCM). We recorded finger forces produced by 60 typically developing children aged between 4 and 12 years in a finger-pressing task...
September 21, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935360/when-guidelines-conflict-a-case-study-of-mammography-screening-initiation-in-the-1990s
#3
Mireille Jacobson, Srikanth Kadiyala
BACKGROUND: Cancer screening guidelines communicate important information to patients and physicians regarding the costs and benefits of screening. Currently, guideline recommendations from major organizations conflict regarding the age of mammography screening initiation. To understand current and future U.S. mammography screening patterns we study age-mammography patterns from the 1990s, another period of conflicting guideline recommendations. METHODS: We examine mammography use rates by single year of age to understand compliance with guideline-recommended initiation ages in the 1990s...
September 18, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934711/alterations-of-larval-photo-dependent-swimming-responses-pdr-new-endpoints-for-rapid-and-diagnostic-screening-of-aquatic-contamination
#4
Luis Colón-Cruz, Lauren Kristofco, Jonathan Crooke-Rosado, Agnes Acevedo, Aranza Torrado, Bryan W Brooks, María A Sosa, Martine Behra
Detection and toxicity assessment of waterborne contaminants are crucial for protecting human health and the environment. Development of easy-to-implement, rapid and cost-effective tools to measure anthropogenic effects on watersheds are critical for responsible management, particularly in times of increasing development and urbanization. Traditionally, environmental toxicology has focused on limited endpoints, such as lethality and fertility, which are directly affecting population levels. However, more sensitive readings are needed to assess sub-lethal effects...
September 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933870/the-role-of-young-adult-social-bonds-substance-problems-and-sexual-risk-in-pathways-between-adolescent-substance-use-and-midlife-risky-sexual-behavior-among-urban-african-americans
#5
Katarzyna A Zebrak, Kerry M Green
African Americans are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections relative to other racial groups. Although substance use has been linked to risky sexual behavior, the understanding of how these associations develop over the life course remains limited, particularly the role of social bonds. This study uses structural equation modeling to examine pathways from adolescent substance use to young adult sexual risk, substance problems, and social bonds and then to midlife risky sexual behavior among African American men and women, controlling for childhood confounders...
September 21, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933746/evaluation-of-novel-dual-acetyl-and-butyrylcholinesterase-inhibitors-as-potential-anti-alzheimer-s-disease-agents-using-pharmacophore-3d-qsar-and-molecular-docking-approaches
#6
Xiaocong Pang, Hui Fu, Shilun Yang, Lin Wang, Ai-Lin Liu, Song Wu, Guan-Hua Du
DL0410, containing biphenyl and piperidine skeletons, was identified as an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitor through high-throughput screening assays, and further studies affirmed its efficacy and safety for Alzheimer's disease treatment. In our study, a series of novel DL0410 derivatives were evaluated for inhibitory activities towards AChE and BuChE. Among these derivatives, compounds 6-1 and 7-6 showed stronger AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities than DL0410. Then, pharmacophore modeling and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models were performed...
July 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933736/pulsed-polarization-based-nox-sensors-of-ysz-films-produced-by-the-aerosol-deposition-method-and-by-screen-printing
#7
Jörg Exner, Gaby Albrecht, Daniela Schönauer-Kamin, Jaroslaw Kita, Ralf Moos
The pulsed polarization technique on solid electrolytes is based on alternating potential pulses interrupted by self-discharge pauses. Since even small concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the ppm range significantly change the polarization and discharge behavior, pulsed polarization sensors are well suited to measure low amounts of NOx. In contrast to all previous investigations, planar pulsed polarization sensors were built using an electrolyte thick film and platinum interdigital electrodes on alumina substrates...
July 26, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933311/mg17-a-novel-triazole-derivative-abrogated-neuroinflammation-and-related-neurodegenerative-symptoms-in-rodents
#8
Gangadhar Matharasala, Ganesh Samala, Yogeeswari Perumal
The objective of present study is to explore multiple effects of the compound MG17 and relate them to achieve better therapeutic potential against neuroinflammation related disorders. We examined whether our compound is acting through regulating neuroinflammatory mediators. We have done some preliminary behavioral studies to shortlist the derivatives using rodent models of peripheral nerve injury in our earlier publication and now we extended our screening studies to explore the test compounds efficacy on other related peripheral neurological disorders such as Streptozotocin-induced diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and methyl mercury (MeHg) induced neurodegeneration in rats...
September 19, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932980/understanding-clinical-mammographic-breast-density-assessment-a-deep-learning-perspective
#9
Aly A Mohamed, Yahong Luo, Hong Peng, Rachel C Jankowitz, Shandong Wu
Mammographic breast density has been established as an independent risk marker for developing breast cancer. Breast density assessment is a routine clinical need in breast cancer screening and current standard is using the Breast Imaging and Reporting Data System (BI-RADS) criteria including four qualitative categories (i.e., fatty, scattered density, heterogeneously dense, or extremely dense). In each mammogram examination, a breast is typically imaged with two different views, i.e., the mediolateral oblique (MLO) view and cranial caudal (CC) view...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932735/attitude-to-human-papillomavirus-deoxyribonucleic-acid-based-cervical-cancer-screening-in-antenatal-care-in-nigeria-a-qualitative-study
#10
Temitope E Filade, Eileen O Dareng, Toyosi Olawande, Tolani A Fagbohun, Amos O Adebayo, Clement A Adebamowo
OBJECTIVES: Human papillomavirus (HPV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based testing is increasingly used for cervical cancer screening in developed countries, but the best approach to utilizing it in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is unclear. Incorporation of HPV DNA-based testing into routine antenatal care (ANC) is a potential yet poorly explored strategy for cervical cancer screening in LMIC. We explored the attitude of health care workers and pregnant women to the incorporation of HPV DNA-based tests into routine ANC in Nigeria...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931647/randomized-open-label-trial-of-dextromethorphan-in-rett-syndrome
#11
Constance L Smith-Hicks, Siddharth Gupta, Joshua B Ewen, Manisha Hong, Lisa Kratz, Richard Kelley, Elaine Tierney, Rebecca Vaurio, Genila Bibat, Abanti Sanyal, Gayane Yenokyan, Nga Brereton, Michael V Johnston, Sakkubai Naidu
OBJECTIVE: To determine safety and perform a preliminary assessment of dose-dependent efficacy of dextromethorphan in normalizing electrographic spikes, clinical seizures, and behavioral and cognitive functions in girls with Rett syndrome. METHODS: We used a prospective randomized, open-label trial in fast metabolizers of dextromethorphan to examine the effect of dextromethorphan on core clinical features of Rett syndrome. Interictal spike activity and clinical seizures were determined using EEG and parent reporting...
September 20, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931578/lipid-topology-and-electrostatic-interactions-underpin-lytic-activity-of-linear-cationic-antimicrobial-peptides-in-membranes
#12
David J Paterson, Manlio Tassieri, Julien Reboud, Rab Wilson, Jonathan M Cooper
Linear cationic antimicrobial peptides are a diverse class of molecules that interact with a wide range of cell membranes. Many of these peptides disrupt cell integrity by forming membrane-spanning pores that ultimately lead to their death. Despite these peptides high potency and ability to evade acquired bacterial drug resistance, there is a lack of knowledge on their selectivity and activity mechanisms. Such an understanding would provide an informative framework for rational design and could lead to potential antimicrobial therapeutic targets...
September 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931443/conversational-assessment-of-cognitive-dysfunction-among-residents-living-in-long-term-care-facilities
#13
Hikaru Oba, Shinichi Sato, Hiroaki Kazui, Yoshiko Nitta, Tatsuya Nashitani, Akio Kamiyama
BACKGROUND: There are some existing barriers posed by neuropsychological tests that interfere with the assessment of cognitive functioning by staff who work in long-term care facilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of assessing cognitive function through conversation. METHODS: A total of 100 care staff was randomly selected as participants. Each staff member evaluated cognitive function in one to three residents using the Conversational Assessment of Neurocognitive Dysfunction (CANDy), which is a screening test for dementia using conversation...
September 21, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931221/modeling-of-us-human-papillomavirus-hpv-seroprevalence-by-age-and-sexual-behavior-indicates-an-increasing-trend-of-hpv-infection-following-the-sexual-revolution
#14
Marc D Ryser, Anne Rositch, Patti E Gravitt
Background: The United States has experienced an increase in the incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers that are not screen-detectable. It has been hypothesized, but not directly demonstrated, that this is due to increasing HPV prevalence in the unvaccinated population. Methods: Female self-reported numbers of lifetime sex partners and HPV serology from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to develop mathematical models of sexual partner acquisition and antibody dynamics...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930355/conformations-and-membrane-driven-self-organization-of-rodlike-fd-virus-particles-on-freestanding-lipid-membranes
#15
Anastasiia B Petrova, Christoph Herold, Eugene P Petrov
Membrane-mediated interactions and aggregation of colloidal particles adsorbed to responsive elastic membranes are challenging problems relevant for understanding the microscopic organization and dynamics of biological membranes. We experimentally study the behavior of rodlike semiflexible fd virus particles electrostatically adsorbed to freestanding cationic lipid membranes and find that their behavior can be controlled by tuning the membrane charge and ionic strength of the surrounding medium. Three distinct interaction regimes of rodlike virus particles with responsive elastic membranes can be observed...
September 20, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930163/zebrafish-in-translational-cancer-research-insight-into-leukemia-melanoma-glioma-and-endocrine-tumor-biology
#16
REVIEW
Aurora Irene Idilli, Francesca Precazzini, Maria Caterina Mione, Viviana Anelli
Over the past 15 years, zebrafish have emerged as a powerful tool for studying human cancers. Transgenic techniques have been employed to model different types of tumors, including leukemia, melanoma, glioblastoma and endocrine tumors. These models present histopathological and molecular conservation with their human cancer counterparts and have been fundamental for understanding mechanisms of tumor initiation and progression. Moreover, xenotransplantation of human cancer cells in embryos or adult zebrafish offers the advantage of studying the behavior of human cancer cells in a live organism...
September 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929349/depression-and-anxiety-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-etiology-and-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Laura G Cooney, Anuja Dokras
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive age women and is associated with an increased prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms. This review presents potential mechanisms for this increased risk and outlines treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: Women with PCOS have increased odds of depressive symptoms (OR 3.78; 95% CI 3.03-4.72) and anxiety symptoms (OR 5.62; 95% CI 3.22-9.80). Obesity, insulin resistance, and elevated androgens may partly contribute to this association...
September 20, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929269/behavioral-health-integration-in-health-care-settings-lessons-learned-from-a-pediatric-hospital-primary-care-system
#18
Leandra Godoy, Melissa Long, Donna Marschall, Stacy Hodgkinson, Brooke Bokor, Hope Rhodes, Howard Crumpton, Mark Weissman, Lee Beers
Behavioral health integration within primary care has been evolving, but literature traditionally focuses on smaller scale efforts. We detail how behavioral health has been integrated across a large, urban pediatric hospital system's six primary care clinics (serving over 35,000 children annually and insured predominately through Medicaid) and discuss strategies for success in sustaining and expanding efforts to achieve effective integration of behavioral health into primary care. In a time span of 3 years, the clinics have implemented routine, universal behavioral health screening at well child visits, participated in a 15-month behavioral health screening quality improvement learning collaborative, and integrated the work of psychologists and psychiatrists...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929252/knowledge-about-cervical-cancer-risk-factors-and-practices-of-pap-testing-among-turkish-immigrant-women-in-the-united-states
#19
Aynur Uysal Toraman, Nilufer Yildirim
The objective of this study was to examine knowledge about cervical cancer risk factors and practices of Pap testing among female Turkish immigrants in the state of Florida in the United States of America (USA). This descriptive study was conducted between April and September 2012. The study sampling was consist of 156 Turkish women living in the state of Florida. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among the population of Turkish immigrant women. On the survey form comprised of a total of 37 questions and three sections there are questions pertaining to the socio-demographic characteristics of the individuals, their knowledge on the cervical cancer risk factors and their approach to getting Pap smear tests...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929133/assembling-oppositely-charged-lock-and-key-responsive-colloids-a-mesoscale-analog-of-adaptive-chemistry
#20
Adriana M Mihut, Björn Stenqvist, Mikael Lund, Peter Schurtenberger, Jérôme J Crassous
We have seen a considerable effort in colloid sciences to copy Nature's successful strategies to fabricate complex functional structures through self-assembly. This includes attempts to design colloidal building blocks and their intermolecular interactions, such as creating the colloidal analogs of directional molecular interactions, molecular recognition, host-guest systems, and specific binding. We show that we can use oppositely charged thermoresponsive particles with complementary shapes, such as spherical and bowl-shaped particles, to implement an externally controllable lock-and-key self-assembly mechanism...
September 2017: Science Advances
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