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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813739/pharmacogenetics-of-ppis-lessons-learned
#1
Chencheng Xie, Wilke A Wilke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811194/immunogenetic-studies-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-an-era-of-pan-genotype-antiviral-therapies-effective-treatment-is-coming
#2
Joel Henrique Ellwanger, Valéria de Lima Kaminski, Jacqueline Maria Valverde-Villegas, Daniel Simon, Vagner Ricardo Lunge, José Artur Bogo Chies
What are the factors that influence human hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatitis status establishment, and disease progression? Firstly, one has to consider the genetic background of the host and HCV genotypes. The immunogenetic host profile will reflect how each infected individual deals with infection. Secondly, there are environmental factors that drive susceptibility or resistance to certain viral strains. These will dictate (I) the susceptibility to infection; (II) whether or not an infected person will promote viral clearance; (III) the immune response and the response profile to therapy; and (IV) whether and how long it would take to the development of HCV-associated diseases, as well as their severity...
August 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806024/atomoxetine-pharmacogenetics-lessons-learned
#3
David Ermer, Tamara Vik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805581/nonmotor-parkinson-s-and-future-directions
#4
Nataliya Titova, K Ray Chaudhuri
Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) are integral to the condition largely regarded as a motor syndrome. A range of NMS underpin the prodromal stage of Parkinson's and are present with variable frequency, range, and nature across the whole journey of a patient with Parkinson's from the onset of the motor disease to palliative stage. These symptoms also are key determinants of quality of life of the patient as well as the carer. Despite this, recognition management and focused treatment of NMS of PD remain poor...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805572/personalized-medicine-and-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Nataliya Titova, K Ray Chaudhuri
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multineurotransmitter dysfunction related disorder resulting in a range of motor and nonmotor symptoms. Phenotypic heterogeneity is pronounced in PD and nonmotor symptoms dominant subtypes have been described. These endophenotypes may be underpinned by considerable nondopaminergic dysfunction; however, conventional treatment of PD continues to be mostly reliant on dopamine replacement strategy or manipulation of brain dopaminergic pathways. Consequently, treatment of many nondopaminergic nonmotor and some motor symptoms remains a key unmet need...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804651/pharmacogenetic-biomarkers-to-predict-treatment-response-in-multiple-sclerosis-current-and-future-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Patricia K Coyle
Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) have significantly advanced the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS), decreasing the frequency of relapses, disability, and magnetic resonance imaging lesion formation. However, patients' responses to and tolerability of DMTs vary considerably, creating an unmet need for biomarkers to identify likely responders and/or those who may have treatment-limiting adverse reactions. Most studies in MS have focused on the identification of pharmacogenetic markers, using either the candidate-gene approach, which requires prior knowledge of the genetic marker and its role in the target disease, or genome-wide association, which examines multiple genetic variants, typically single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
2017: Multiple Sclerosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803225/carboxylesterase-1a2-encoding-gene-with-increased-transcription-and-potential-rapid-drug-metabolism-in-asian-populations
#7
Henrik Berg Rasmussen, Majbritt Busk Madsen, Yassine Kamal Lyauk, Peter Riis Hansen, Timothy Hughes
The carboxylesterase 1 gene (CES1) encodes a hydrolase implicated in the metabolism of commonly used drugs. CES1A2, a hybrid of CES1 and a CES1-like pseudogene, has a promoter that is weak in most individuals. However, some individuals harbor a promoter haplotype of this gene with two overlapping Sp1 sites that confer significantly increased transcription potentially leading to rapid drug metabolism. This CES1A2 haplotype has previously been reported to be common among Asians. Using polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing, the present study examined variation in the promoter and 5' untranslated region of CES1A2 in 120 Han Chinese and 120 Japanese people enrolled in the 1000 Genomes Project...
August 14, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799976/effect-of-gene-gene-and-gene-environment-interactions-associated-with-antituberculosis-drug-induced-hepatotoxicity
#8
Julián G Chamorro, Jorge P Castagnino, Omar Aidar, Rosa M Musella, Ana Frías, Mabel Visca, Mabel Nogueras, Lucas Costa, Alessandro Perez, Fabio Caradonna, Gabriela F de Larrañaga
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association between environmental factors and genetic variations in enzymes that metabolize antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs [arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1), and glutathione S-transferase mu 1] with antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity (ATDH). We also investigated the potential gene-gene and gene-environment interactions as well as their association with ATDH development in a population of hospitalized TB patients from Buenos Aires...
August 9, 2017: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796939/do-you-order-pharmacogenetic-testing-why
#9
Joseph F Goldberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794102/optogenetics-and-pharmacogenetics-principles-and-applications
#10
Jingwei Jiang, Huxing Cui, Kamal Rahmouni
Remote and selective spatiotemporal control of the activity of neurons to regulate behavior and physiological functions has been a long-sought goal in system neuroscience. Identification and subsequent bioengineering of light-sensitive ion channels (e.g., channelrhodopsins, halorhodopsin and archaerhodopsins) from the bacteria has made it possible to utilize light to artificially modulate neuronal activity, namely optogenetics. Recent advance in genetics has also allowed development of novel pharmacological tools to selectively and remotely control neuronal activity using engineered G-protein coupled receptors which can be activated by otherwise inert drug-like small molecules such as the Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drug (DREADD) - a form of chemogenetics...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791697/the-association-of-genetic-variations-in-dna-repair-pathways-with-severe-toxicities-in-nsclc-patients-undergoing-platinum-based-chemotherapy
#11
Yi Zheng, Zheng Deng, Jiye Yin, Shiming Wang, Daru Lu, Xiaoke Wen, Xiangping Li, Di Xiao, Chengping Hu, Xiang Chen, Wei Zhang, Honghao Zhou, Zhaoqian Liu
Genetic variations in genes involved in repairing platinum-induced DNA lesions may contribute to the toxicity of platinum-based chemotherapy. The role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within DNA repair pathways in the occurrence of severe toxicity is not yet understood. Current studies prefer to do original works rather than analyze previously published data. Our study aimed to replicate associations between previously investigated SNPs and toxicities as well as to identify new genetic makers. We systematically examined the relevance of 97 SNPs in 54 candidate genes responsible for repairing DNA inter-strand and intra-strand crosslinks to severe toxicity in a discovery cohort of 437 NSCLC patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790862/hyperbilirubinemia-in-atazanavir-treated-hiv-infected-patients-the-impact-of-the-ugt1a1-28-allele
#12
REVIEW
Periklis Panagopoulos, Efstathios Maltezos, Angelos Hatzakis, Dimitrios Paraskevis
Combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) has significantly improved the life expectancy of people living with HIV. The life-long nature of cART increases the risk of side effects, which in some cases may have been caused by specific genetic characteristics. Patients treated with atazanavir (ATV) boosted with ritonavir (rit), which is a protease inhibitor used for the treatment of HIV, present with elevated bilirubin levels, at high proportions. ATV/rit-related hyperbilirubinemia has been previously associated with genetic characteristics in uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzyme...
2017: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783044/phenotypic-and-pharmacogenetic-evaluation-of-patients-with-thiazide-induced-hyponatremia
#13
James S Ware, Louise V Wain, Sarath K Channavajjhala, Victoria E Jackson, Elizabeth Edwards, Run Lu, Keith Siew, Wenjing Jia, Nick Shrine, Sue Kinnear, Mahli Jalland, Amanda P Henry, Jenny Clayton, Kevin M O'Shaughnessy, Martin D Tobin, Victor Schuster, Stuart Cook, Ian P Hall, Mark Glover
Thiazide diuretics are among the most widely used treatments for hypertension, but thiazide-induced hyponatremia (TIH), a clinically significant adverse effect, is poorly understood. Here, we have studied the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of patients hospitalized with TIH. In a cohort of 109 TIH patients, those with severe TIH displayed an extended phenotype of intravascular volume expansion, increased free water reabsorption, urinary prostaglandin E2 excretion, and reduced excretion of serum chloride, magnesium, zinc, and antidiuretic hormone...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782490/unmet-needs-in-schizophrenia
#14
Maurizio Pompili, Herbert Y Meltzer
The objectives of this article are to describe current trends in the treatment of schizophrenia and the most interesting new approaches to optimizing outcome and fostering the development of new schizophrenia treatments. RESULTS: Increasing utilization of diverse types of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g. clozapine-type serotonin (5-HT)2A and weak dopamine (DA) D2 antagonist, amisulpride, a D2/D3/5-HT7 antagonist, and cariprazine, a D3 partial agonist with additional neurotransmitter targets, is occurring as their advantages in efficacy, especially for cognitive impairment and mood symptoms, and side effects is becoming appreciated...
August 3, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782406/severe-sunitinib-induced-myelosuppression-in-a-patient-with-a-cyp-3a4-polymorphism
#15
Nirav D Patel, Kanishka Chakrabory, Garrett Messmer, Koyamangalath Krishnan, John B Bossaer
Sunitinib, an oral vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, is a first-line option for metastatic renal cell carcinoma and widely used in clinical practice. Despite the proven benefit of sunitnib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma, patients may suffer from a variety of adverse events including hypertension, fatigue, hypothyroidism, hand-foot skin reactions, rash, depigmentation, and myelosuppression. Myelosuppression is usually mild, transient and resolves during the two weeks at the end of each cycle where no drug is taken...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777243/systematic-evaluation-of-commercial-pharmacogenetic-testing-in-psychiatry-a-focus-on-cyp2d6-and-cyp2c19-allele-coverage-and-results-reporting
#16
Chad A Bousman, Philip Jaksa, Christos Pantelis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to systematically assess commercial pharmacogenetic tests relevant to prescribing in psychiatry, with specific attention on CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 star allele coverage as well as compliance with consensus recommendations for pharmacogenetic test result reporting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CYP2D6 and CY2C19 star (*) allele contents of 20 pharmacogenetic test panels were compared and their test results reports were evaluated on the basis of consensus reporting recommendations published by The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as well as the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium...
August 2, 2017: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776468/falls-the-adverse-drug-reaction-of-the-elderly-and-the-impact-of-pharmacogenetics
#17
Katja Susanne Just, Katharina Luise Schneider, Marlen Schurig, Julia Carolin Stingl, Jürgen Brockmöller
Falls is a frequent type of adverse drug reactions causing significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly. We reviewed, with which drugs the risk of falls is relevant and might depend on genomic variation. Pharmacogenetic variability may contribute to drug-induced falls for instance mediated by impaired drug elimination due to inherited deficiency in enzymes like CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6. The relative role of specific genes and polymorphisms in old age may differ from younger people. Biomarkers for frailty, but also genomic biomarkers might help identifying patients at high risk for drug-induced falls...
August 4, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776467/pharmacogenetics-and-the-treatment-of-asthma
#18
María Isidoro-García, Almudena Sánchez-Martín, Asunción García-Sánchez, Catalina Sanz, Belén García-Berrocal, Ignacio Dávila
Heterogeneity defines both the natural history of asthma as well as patient's response to treatment. Pharmacogenomics contribute to understand the genetic basis of drug response and thus to define new therapeutic targets or molecular biomarkers to evaluate treatment effectiveness. This review is initially focused on different genes so far involved in the pharmacological response to asthma treatment. Specific considerations regarding allergic asthma, the pharmacogenetics aspects of polypharmacy and the application of pharmacogenomics in new drugs in asthma will also be addressed...
August 4, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775269/hipp-neurons-in-the-dentate-gyrus-mediate-the-cholinergic-modulation-of-background-context-memory-salience
#19
Syed Ahsan Raza, Anne Albrecht, Gürsel Çalışkan, Bettina Müller, Yunus Emre Demiray, Susann Ludewig, Susanne Meis, Nicolai Faber, Roland Hartig, Burkhart Schraven, Volkmar Lessmann, Herbert Schwegler, Oliver Stork
Cholinergic neuromodulation in the hippocampus controls the salience of background context memory acquired in the presence of elemental stimuli predicting an aversive reinforcement. With pharmacogenetic inhibition we here demonstrate that hilar perforant path-associated (HIPP) cells of the dentate gyrus mediate the devaluation of background context memory during Pavlovian fear conditioning. The salience adjustment is sensitive to reduction of hilar neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression via dominant negative CREB expression in HIPP cells and to acute blockage of NPY-Y1 receptors in the dentate gyrus during conditioning...
August 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770331/the-pharmacogenetics-of-metformin
#20
REVIEW
Jose C Florez
Despite its widespread use as the first-line agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, it has become clear that metformin does not work optimally for everyone. Elucidating who are the likely metformin responders and non-responders is hampered by our limited knowledge of its precise molecular mechanism of action. One approach to achieve the related goals of stratifying patients into response subgroups and identifying the molecular targets of metformin involves the deployment of agnostic genome-wide approaches in cohorts of appropriate size to attain sufficient statistical power...
August 3, 2017: Diabetologia
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