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Pharmacogenetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334441/statin-pharmacogenetics-moving-from-toxicity-to-efficacy
#1
Eric A Larson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334439/pharmacogenetics-the-year-in-review
#2
EDITORIAL
Roxana A Lupu, Russell A Wilke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333880/pharmacogenetic-analysis-of-opioid-dependence-treatment-dose-and-dropout-rate
#3
Richard C Crist, James Li, Glenn A Doyle, Alex Gilbert, Bryan M Dechairo, Wade H Berrettini
BACKGROUND: Currently, no pharmacogenetic tests for selecting an opioid-dependence pharmacotherapy have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. OBJECTIVES: Determine the effects of variants in 11 genes on dropout rate and dose in patients receiving methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00315341). METHODS: Variants in six pharmacokinetic genes (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4) and five pharmacodynamic genes (HTR2A, OPRM1, ADRA2A, COMT, SLC6A4) were genotyped in samples from a 24-week, randomized, open-label trial of methadone and buprenorphine/naloxone for the treatment of opioid dependence (n = 764; 68...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329142/whole-genome-methylation-profiling-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-for-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-treated-with-corticosteroid
#4
Shih-Wei Lee, Julia Tzu-Ya Weng, Paul Wei-Che Hsu, Tzu-Yi Chuang, Chih-Wei Liu, Chung-Hsuan Chen, Lawrence Shih-Hsin Wu
OBJECTIVE: Although association studies in the general population may be relevant for determining susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), they may be less applicable for pharmacogenetics research in participants who have already acquired the disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A genome-wide methylation profiling (generated by HumanMethylation450 BeadChips study was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 24 patients with AECOPD (acute exacerbation COPD), with good and poor responsiveness to standard corticosteroid treatment...
January 10, 2018: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327657/rare-disease-prevention-and-treatment-the-need-for-a-level-playing-field
#5
Dyfrig A Hughes, Catrin O Plumpton
Pharmacogenetic tests are being used increasingly to prevent rare and potentially life-threatening adverse drug reactions. For many tests, however, cost-effectiveness is hard to demonstrate, and with the exception of a few cases, widespread implementation remains a distant prospect. Many orphan drugs for rare diseases are also not cost effective but are nonetheless normally reimbursed. In this article, we argue that the health technology assessment of pharmacogenetic tests aimed to prevent rare but severe adverse drug reactions should be on a level playing field with orphan drugs...
January 12, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325628/pharmacogenetics
#6
Jeffrey R Bishop
Pharmacogenetics is the study of how genetics influences drug treatment outcomes. Much research has been conducted to identify and characterize gene variants that impact the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of medications used to treat neurologic and psychiatric disorders. This chapter reviews the current state of pharmacogenetic aspects of these treatments. Medications with supporting pharmacogenetic information in product labeling, clinical guidelines, or important mechanistic implications are discussed...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325558/systematic-target-function-annotation-of-human-transcription-factors
#7
Yong Fuga Li, Russ B Altman
BACKGROUND: Transcription factors (TFs), the key players in transcriptional regulation, have attracted great experimental attention, yet the functions of most human TFs remain poorly understood. Recent capabilities in genome-wide protein binding profiling have stimulated systematic studies of the hierarchical organization of human gene regulatory network and DNA-binding specificity of TFs, shedding light on combinatorial gene regulation. We show here that these data also enable a systematic annotation of the biological functions and functional diversity of TFs...
January 10, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325499/insights-and-barriers-to-clinical-use-of-serotonin-transporter-pharmacogenetics-in-antidepressant-therapy
#8
James M Stevenson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322778/using-genome-sequence-to-enable-the-design-of-medicines-and-chemical-probes
#9
Alicia J Angelbello, Jonathan L Chen, Jessica L Childs-Disney, Peiyuan Zhang, Zi-Fu Wang, Matthew D Disney
Rapid progress in genome sequencing technology has put us firmly into a postgenomic era. A key challenge in biomedical research is harnessing genome sequence to fulfill the promise of personalized medicine. This Review describes how genome sequencing has enabled the identification of disease-causing biomolecules and how these data have been converted into chemical probes of function, preclinical lead modalities, and ultimately U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. In particular, we focus on the use of oligonucleotide-based modalities to target disease-causing RNAs; small molecules that target DNA, RNA, or protein; the rational repurposing of known therapeutic modalities; and the advantages of pharmacogenetics...
January 11, 2018: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318929/the-pharmacogenetics-of-medications-used-in-general-anesthesia
#10
Shangchen Xie, Wenjuan Ma, Qulian Guo, Jie Liu, Wei Li, Howard L McLeod, Yijing He
General anesthesia is a state of unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia and akinesia induced by drugs including opioids, hypnotic-sedative agents, muscle relaxants and antiemetics. Clinical and genetic factors are reported to influence the efficacy and side effects of these agents. Based on the evidence, clinical action is needed to improve clinical outcomes. This review summarizes the latest knowledge with regards to the pharmacogenetics of anesthetics and general anesthesia related complications.
January 10, 2018: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318005/precision-medicine-does-ethnicity-information-complement-genotype-based-prescribing-decisions
#11
REVIEW
Rashmi R Shah, Andrea Gaedigk
Inter-ethnic differences in drug response are all too well known. These are underpinned by a number of factors, including pharmacogenetic differences across various ethnic populations. Precision medicine relies on genotype-based prescribing decisions with the aim of maximizing efficacy and mitigating the risks. When there is no access to genotyping tests, ethnicity is frequently regarded as a proxy of the patient's probable genotype on the basis of overall population-based frequency of genetic variations in the ethnic group the patient belongs to, with some variations being ethnicity-specific...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317871/perspective-on-the-genetic-response-to-antiparasitics-a-review-article
#12
REVIEW
Patricia Alarcon-Valdes, Mariana Ortiz-Reynoso, Jonnathan Santillan-Benitez
Background: Drugs' pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics can be affected by diverse genetic variations, within which simple nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common. Genetic variability is one of the factors that could explain questions like why a given drug does not have the desired effect or why do adverse drug reactions arise. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, literature search limits were set within PubMed database as well as the epidemiological bulletins published by the Mexican Ministry of Health, from Jan 1st 2001 to Mar 31st 2017 (16 years)...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317847/pharmacogenetic-guidance-individualized-medicine-promotes-enhanced-pain-outcomes
#13
Lisa Lynn Dragic, Erica L Wegrzyn, Michael E Schatman, Jeffrey Fudin
The use of pharmacogenomics has become more prevalent over the past several years in treating many disease states. Several cytochrome P450 enzymes play a role in the metabolism of many pain medications including opioids and antidepressants. Noncytochrome P450 enzymes such as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) also play a role in the explanation of opioid dosage requirements as well as in response to certain antidepressants. We present the case of a patient with reduced COMT and MTHFR expression treated with leucovorin 10 mg daily for the management of chronic pain...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313967/clinical-pharmacogenetics-implementation-consortium-cpic-guidelines-for-cyp2c19-and-voriconazole-therapy
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313907/adverse-drug-reactions
#15
REVIEW
K Patton, D C Borshoff
Adverse drug reactions are a cause of significant morbidity and mortality to patients and a source of financial burden to the healthcare system. Of the wide spectrum of adverse drug reactions, the most concerning to the anaesthetist remain anaphylaxis and malignant hyperthermia. Although the incidence of anaphylaxis under anaesthesia is difficult to ascertain, it occurs commonly enough that most anaesthetists will manage at least one case in their career. The wide range of drugs given in the peri-operative period and the variable presentation in the anaesthetised patient can delay diagnosis and treatment, and adversely affect outcome...
January 2018: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311141/a-unique-homeostatic-signaling-pathway-links-synaptic-inactivity-to-postsynaptic-mtorc1
#16
Fredrick E Henry, Xiao Wang, David Serrano, Amanda S Perez, Cynthia J L Carruthers, Edward L Stuenkel, Michael A Sutton
mTORC1-dependent translational control plays a key role in several enduring forms of synaptic plasticity such as long term potentiation (LTP) and mGluR-dependent long term depression. Recent evidence demonstrates an additional role in regulating synaptic homeostasis in response to inactivity, where dendritic mTORC1 serves to modulate presynaptic function via retrograde signaling. Presently, it is unclear if LTP and homeostatic plasticity utilize a common route to mTORC1-dependent signaling or if each engage mTORC1 through distinct pathways...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305687/genetics-and-treatment-response-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-update-on-pharmacogenetic-studies
#17
REVIEW
Cristina Politi, Cinzia Ciccacci, Giuseppe Novelli, Paola Borgiani
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive loss of dopamine neurons of the central nervous system. The disease determines a significant disability due to a combination of motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, rigidity and rest tremor and non-motor symptoms such as sleep disorders, hallucinations, psychosis and compulsive behaviors. The current therapies consist in combination of drugs acting to control only the symptoms of the illness by the replacement of the dopamine lost...
January 5, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302220/a-brief-review-of-the-genetics-and-pharmacogenetics-of-opioid-use-disorders
#18
Wade Berrettini
Increased physician prescribing of opioids to treat chronic nonprogressive pain has been accompanied by an increase in opioid addiction. Twin studies of opioid addiction are consistent with an inherited component of risk, approximately 50%. Several genome-wide association study (GWAS) reports indicate that genetic risk for opioid addiction is conveyed by many alleles of small effect (odds ratios <1.5). These reports have detected alleles in potassium-ion-channel genes (KCNC1 and KCNG2) and in a glutamate receptor auxiliary protein (CNIH3)...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301639/genetic-testing-as-a-supporting-tool-in-prescribing-psychiatric-medication-design-and-protocol-of-the-impact-study
#19
Deanna Herbert, Maria Neves-Pereira, Ruth Baidya, Sheraz Cheema, Sarah Groleau, Anashe Shahmirian, Arun K Tiwari, Clement C Zai, Nicole King, Daniel J Müller, James L Kennedy
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacotherapy is one of the primary treatments for psychiatric disorders. Given the variation in individual response, a more personalized approach is needed. This paper will discuss methods for user-friendly referrals, recruitment criteria, data storage and dissemination, biological sample and clinical questionnaire collection, and advertising. METHODS: The Individualized Medicine: Pharmacogenetics Assessment and Clinical Treatment (IMPACT) study is one of the first to use pharmacogenetic testing on a large scale in psychiatry as a tool to predict individual drug response and tolerability...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301387/pharmacogenetics-of-vascular-risk-factors-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Ramón Cacabelos, Arun Meyyazhagan, Juan C Carril, Pablo Cacabelos, Óscar Teijido
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a polygenic/complex disorder in which genomic, epigenomic, cerebrovascular, metabolic, and environmental factors converge to define a progressive neurodegenerative phenotype. Pharmacogenetics is a major determinant of therapeutic outcome in AD. Different categories of genes are potentially involved in the pharmacogenetic network responsible for drug efficacy and safety, including pathogenic, mechanistic, metabolic, transporter, and pleiotropic genes. However, most drugs exert pleiotropic effects that are promiscuously regulated for different gene products...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Personalized Medicine
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