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Rosanna P Breaux, Hallie R Brown, Elizabeth A Harvey
The present study examined mediators and moderators of the relation between parental ADHD symptomatology and the development of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms across the preschool years. Participants included 258 (138 boys) 3-year-old children (M = 44.13 months, SD = 3.39) with and without behavior problems and their parents who took part in a 3-year longitudinal study. Maternal ADHD symptoms predicted later ADHD symptoms in children, controlling for early child symptomatology...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Andrew Stickley, Ai Koyanagi, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Yoko Kamio
Prior research has produced conflicting findings on the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and pain, while studies among community-dwelling adults are lacking. This study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and pain in the general adult population, and the extent to which this association is influenced by comorbid common mental disorders (CMDs). Data came from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey which included a representative sample of the English adult household population aged ≥16 years (N=7403)...
October 3, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Jeffrey A Guy, Lisa M Knight, Yinding Wang, Jeanette M Jerrell
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries may be associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity, comorbid psychiatric or medical conditions, and the prescribed psychostimulant. METHODS: A population-based, retrospective cohort design was employed using South Carolina's Medicaid claims data set covering outpatient and inpatient medical services and medication prescriptions over an 11-year period (January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2006) for patients ≤ 17 years of age with ≥ 2 visits for ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes for ADHD...
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Irene Tung, James J Li, Jocelyn I Meza, Kristen L Jezior, Jessica S V Kianmahd, Patrick G Hentschel, Paul M O'Neil, Steve S Lee
CONTEXT: Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at elevated risk for comorbid psychopathology, the clinical correlates of ADHD in girls are far less understood relative to boys, despite ADHD being one of the most common childhood disorders in girls. OBJECTIVE: To meta-analytically summarize rates of comorbid internalizing (anxiety, depression) and externalizing (oppositional defiant disorder [ODD], conduct disorder [CD]) psychopathology among girls with and without ADHD...
October 2016: Pediatrics
Mu-Hong Chen, Tai-Long Pan, Ju-Wei Hsu, Kai-Lin Huang, Tung-Ping Su, Cheng-Ta Li, Wei-Chen Lin, Shih-Jen Tsai, Wen-Han Chang, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Ya-Mei Bai
The comorbidity between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression is common. However, the influence of ADHD comorbidity in the response or resistance to antidepressants remains unknown among patients with major depression. 1891 patients with major depression and ADHD and 1891 age-/sex-matched patients with major depression only were enrolled and followed for 1 year in our study. Use of antidepressants and ADHD medications during 1-year follow-up period were assessed. Antidepressant resistance was defined as treatment failure in two or more than two different antidepressants for adequate treatment dose and duration...
September 22, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Maria T Acosta, James Swanson, Annamarie Stehli, Brooke S G Molina, Ariel F Martinez, Mauricio Arcos-Burgos, Maximilian Muenke
BACKGROUND: ADHD is the most common neuropsychiatric condition affecting individuals of all ages. Long-term outcomes of affected individuals and association with severe comorbidities as SUD or conduct disorders are the main concern. Genetic associations have been extensively described. Multiple studies show that intronic variants harbored in the ADGRL3 (LPHN3) gene are associated with ADHD, especially associated with poor outcomes. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated this association in the Multimodal Treatment Study of children with ADHD (MTA), initiated as a 14-month randomized clinical trial of 579 children diagnosed with DSM-IV ADHD-Combined Type (ADHD-C), that transitioned to a 16-year prospective observational follow-up, and 289 classmates added at the 2-year assessment to serve as a local normative comparison group (LNCG)...
September 2016: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Petteri Joelsson, Roshan Chudal, Ardesheer Talati, Auli Suominen, Alan S Brown, Andre Sourander
BACKGROUND: Prenatal smoking exposure has been associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is commonly associated with a wide spectrum of psychiatric comorbidity. The association between smoking and neuropsychiatric comorbidity of ADHD has remained understudied. The aim of this study is to examine the association between prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and offspring ADHD, and test whether the smoking-ADHD associations are stronger when ADHD is accompanied by other lifetime neuropsychiatric comorbidities...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Vickie Auclair, Philippe-Olivier Harvey, Martin Lepage
Background The international prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated at 2.5%. ADHD is associated with serious impairment in academic, occupational, social and emotional functioning. Despite the debilitating nature of this disorder, few individuals with ADHD receive appropriate help. Further, although psychopharmacology is considered the first-line treatment of adults with ADHD, it is now recognized that medication alone may be insufficient. Thus, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a promising approach...
2016: Santé Mentale Au Québec
Tumaini R Coker, Marc N Elliott, Sara L Toomey, David C Schwebel, Paula Cuccaro, Susan Tortolero Emery, Susan L Davies, Susanna N Visser, Mark A Schuster
OBJECTIVES: We examined racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and medication use and determined whether medication disparities were more likely due to underdiagnosis or undertreatment of African-American and Latino children, or overdiagnosis or overtreatment of white children. METHODS: We used a population-based, multisite sample of 4297 children and parents surveyed over 3 waves (fifth, seventh, and 10th grades)...
September 2016: Pediatrics
Carolyn E Cesta, Mattias Månsson, Camilla Palm, Paul Lichtenstein, Anastasia N Iliadou, Mikael Landén
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting 5-15% of reproductive-aged women and characterized by high levels of circulating androgens. Given that androgens have been implicated in the aetiology of several psychiatric disorders, it was hypothesized that women with PCOS have high risk for psychiatric comorbidity. We aimed to investigate this risk amongst women with PCOS, as well as in their siblings, to elucidate if familial factors underlie any potential associations. Using the Swedish national registers, we identified all women diagnosed with PCOS between 1990 and 2013 (n=24,385), their full-siblings (n=25,921), plus matched individuals (1:10/100) from the general population and their full-siblings...
November 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Veit Roessner, Tobias Banaschewski, Andreas Becker, Judith Buse, Sina Wanderer, Jan K Buitelaar, Joseph A Sergeant, Edmund J Sonuga-Barke, Michael Gill, Iris Manor, Ana Miranda, Fernando Mulas, Robert D Oades, Herbert Roeyers, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen, Steven V Faraone, Philip Asherson, Aribert Rothenberger
BACKGROUND: The association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorder (TD) is frequent and clinically important. Very few and inconclusive attempts have been made to clarify if and how the combination of ADHD+TD runs in families. AIM: To determine the first time in a large-scale ADHD sample whether ADHD+TD increases the risk of ADHD+TD in siblings and, also the first time, if this is independent of their psychopathological vulnerability in general...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Hanna Eklund, Tim Cadman, James Findon, Hannah Hayward, Deirdre Howley, Jennifer Beecham, Kiriakos Xenitidis, Declan Murphy, Philip Asherson, Karen Glaser
BACKGROUND: While Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often persists into adulthood, little is known about the needs and service use among adolescents and young adults with ADHD. The present study followed-up a cohort diagnosed with ADHD as children and assessed their: 1) needs, 2) correlates of contact with clinical services, and 3) experiences of transition from child to adult health services. METHODS: Ninety one young people aged 14-24 were recruited from the UK subset of the International Multi-Centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) Project...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Nicole D Jameson, Brooke K Sheppard, Tarannum M Lateef, Jennifer L Vande Voort, Jian-Ping He, Kathleen Ries Merikangas
Understanding patterns of medical comorbidity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may lead to better treatment of affected individuals as well as aid in etiologic study of disease. This article provides the first systematic evaluation on the medical comorbidity of ADHD in a nationally representative sample (National Comorbidity Replication Survey-Adolescent Supplement; N = 6483) using formal diagnostic criteria. Survey-weighted odds ratios adjusted for demographics, additional medical, and mental disorders were calculated for associations between ADHD and medical conditions...
October 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
T I Bron, D Bijlenga, J J S Kooij, S W N Vogel, D Wynchank, A T F Beekman, B W J H Penninx
BACKGROUND: Comorbid ADHD symptoms may partly account for circadian rhythm disturbances in depression and anxiety disorders. METHODS: Self-reported sleep characteristics of 2090 participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were assessed using the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. We defined 3 groups: healthy controls (HC), persons with lifetime depression and/or anxiety disorders (LDA), and those with both LDA and high ADHD symptoms (LDA+ADHD), using the Conner's Adult ADHD Rating Scale...
August 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Andrea H Kline-Simon, Constance Weisner, Stacy Sterling
OBJECTIVE: To examine the point prevalence of behavioral health conditions (BHCs) and co-occurring chronic medical conditions among adolescents in an integrated health system. METHOD: The sample consisted of adolescents in an integrated health care system diagnosed with at least 1 of the 5 most prevalent BHCs in 2014 (n = 30,643), and patients without a BHC matched on age, sex, and medical home facility (n = 30,643). Electronic health record data was used to identify all adolescents aged 11 to 18 years with at least 1 BHC diagnosis on their diagnosis list, which included current and pre-existing diagnoses from an outpatient (including psychiatry and chemical dependency specialty treatment), inpatient, or emergency department visit at a Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) facility between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014...
May 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Kathleen F Holton, Joel T Nigg
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to examine whether children aged 7 to 11 years with very well-characterized ADHD, recruited from the community, have a similar number of healthy lifestyle behaviors as compared with typically developing children from the same community. METHOD: Parents of children with (n = 184) and without (n = 104) ADHD completed a lifestyle questionnaire asking about water intake, sweetened beverage consumption, multivitamin/supplement use, reading, screen time, physical activity, and sleep...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
C Mohr-Jensen, S Vinkel Koch, M Briciet Lauritsen, H-C Steinhausen
OBJECTIVE: To validate the diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorders (HD) in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry (DPCRR) for children and adolescents aged 4 to 15 given in the years 1995 to 2005. METHOD: From a total of 4568 participants, a representative random subsample of n=387 patients were used to validate the diagnosis. Patient files were systematically scored for the presence of ICD-10 criteria for HD and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD; F91)...
May 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Michelle M Martel, Cheri A Levinson, Christine A Lee, Tess E Smith
Impulsivity is posited to be a key part of the externalizing spectrum during childhood, but this idea has received minimal empirical attention. The goal of the present investigation was to utilize network analysis to determine whether behavioral impulsivity symptoms are key components of the externalizing network across several developmental periods from preschool into adolescence. Participants were 109 preschoolers (64 % male) ages 3 to 6, 237 children (59 % male) ages 6 to 9, 372 children (59 % male) ages 10 to 13, and 357 adolescents (59 % male) ages 13 to 17 and their parents...
March 28, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Kumi Yuki, Jyoti Bhagia, David Mrazek, Peter S Jensen
AIM: To investigate child and adolescent psychiatrists' (CAPs) attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) diagnoses and treatments in real-world clinical practice. METHODS: The medical records of 69 ADHD children (mean age = 9.5 years), newly referred to the ADHD clinic, were reviewed for their scores of parent- and teacher-reported Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Rating Scales (VADRSs), CAPs' diagnoses of ADHD and ODD, and CAPs' treatment recommendations...
March 22, 2016: World Journal of Psychiatry
Josefa Canals, Paula Morales-Hidalgo, M Claustre Jané, Edelmira Domènech
OBJECTIVE: The object was to examine the prevalence of ADHD among preschoolers, analyzing comorbidity, and the association with socio-demographic factors. METHOD: We conducted a two-phase epidemiological study of 1,104 preschoolers aged 3 to 6 years in Catalonia, Spain. The Early Childhood Inventory-4 (ECI-4) was administered to parents and teachers. Children at risk of ADHD were assessed using open-ended face-to-face interviews and were observed in a school setting...
March 23, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
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