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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325848/a-genetic-investigation-of-sex-bias-in-the-prevalence-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Joanna Martin, Raymond K Walters, Ditte Demontis, Manuel Mattheisen, S Hong Lee, Elise Robinson, Isabell Brikell, Laura Ghirardi, Henrik Larsson, Paul Lichtenstein, Nicholas Eriksson, Thomas Werge, Preben Bo Mortensen, Marianne Giørtz Pedersen, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, David M Hougaard, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, Naomi R Wray, Barbara Franke, Stephen V Faraone, Michael C O'Donovan, Anita Thapar, Anders D Børglum, Benjamin M Neale
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows substantial heritability and is two to seven times more common in male individuals than in female individuals. We examined two putative genetic mechanisms underlying this sex bias: sex-specific heterogeneity and higher burden of risk in female cases. METHODS: We analyzed genome-wide autosomal common variants from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium and iPSYCH Project (n = 20,183 cases, n = 35,191 controls) and Swedish population register data (n = 77,905 cases, n = 1,874,637 population controls)...
December 2, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246205/the-autism-tics-adhd-and-other-comorbidities-inventory-a-tac-previous-and-predictive-validity
#2
Caroline Mårland, Paul Lichtenstein, Alessio Degl'Innocenti, Tomas Larson, Maria Råstam, Henrik Anckarsäter, Christopher Gillberg, Thomas Nilsson, Sebastian Lundström
BACKGROUND: Reliable and easy to administer screening instruments focusing on neurodevelopmental disorders and associated conditions are scarce. The Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory (A-TAC) has previously been validated and reporting good- excellent validity for several disorders. This article aims to expand these findings by including more conditions in a substantially larger sample augmented with the Swedish National Patient Register (NPR). METHODS: Since 2004 parents of all 9-year-old Swedish twins have been invited to participate in a telephone interview in the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, CATSS...
December 16, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224418/the-characteristics-and-age-effects-of-emotional-lability-in-adhd-children-with-and-without-oppositional-defiant-disorder
#3
Lu Liu, Wai Chen, Li Sun, Jia Cheng, Yi Su, Daniel Rudaizky, Hai-Mei Li, Li Yang, Qiu-Jin Qian, Yu-Feng Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the concurrent validity of emotional lability (EL) in children with ADHD. METHOD: A total of 2,015 children with ADHD and 745 typically developed controls (TDCs) were assessed and compared on EL. RESULTS: ADHD participants expressed higher EL scores than TDCs, not influenced by gender or IQ. Higher levels of EL symptoms were found in children with comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and with ADHD-combined subtype...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209833/fine-motor-ability-and-psychiatric-disorders-in-youth
#4
Lorenna Sena Teixeira Mendes, Gisele Gus Manfro, Ary Gadelha, Pedro Mario Pan, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan, Luis Augusto Rohde, Giovanni Abrahão Salum
Impaired fine motor ability has been linked to several domains of psychopathology. However, studies validating the specificity of this association among several categorical psychiatric disorders are still needed. The aim of this study was to assess differences in fine motor ability performance among four non-overlapping groups of psychiatric disorders and a group of typical developing comparisons (TDC). Our sample consisted of 2035 subjects aged 6-14-year-old. Diagnoses of psychiatric disorders were performed with the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA)...
December 5, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209386/medical-and-psychiatric-comorbidities-in-korean-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Kee Jeong Park, Jung Sun Lee, Hyo-Won Kim
Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with a high rate of comorbid disorders. We aimed to investigate the medical and psychiatric comorbidities of Korean children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods: Data were obtained from Korean National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service-National Patient Sample (HI-RA-NPS) for 2011. We included 2,140 (mean age, 10.9±3.1 years; boys, 1,710) and 219,410 (non-ADHD; mean age, 12.4±3...
November 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128953/is-the-association-of-adhd-with-socio-economic-disadvantage-explained-by-child-comorbid-externalizing-problems-or-parent-adhd
#6
Lindsay L Miller, Hanna C Gustafsson, Jessica Tipsord, Minkyoung Song, Elizabeth Nousen, Nathan Dieckmann, Joel T Nigg
It has been unclear whether an associations of child ADHD with socio-economic disadvantage (SES) could be accounted for by (a) parental ADHD explaining both low SES and child ADHD, and/or (b) the joint overlap of ODD or CD with low SES and ADHD. Study 1 used a community-recruited case-control sample with detailed evaluation of SES indicators, child ADHD, child externalizing, and parent ADHD symptoms (n = 931 children, 521 ADHD, 577 boys, 354 girls) in a path modeling analysis with latent variables. Study 2 evaluated ADHD and externalizing behavior in a regression model using a poverty index for SES, in 70,927 children (48...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033006/relative-age-within-the-school-year-and-diagnosis-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#7
Kapil Sayal, Roshan Chudal, Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Petteri Joelsson, Andre Sourander
BACKGROUND: Findings are mixed on the relationship between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and younger relative age in the school year. We aimed to investigate whether relative age is associated with ADHD diagnosis in a country where prescribing rates are low and whether any such association has changed over time or relates to comorbid disorders (eg, conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD], or learning disorder [LD]). METHODS: We used nationwide population-based registers to identify all Finnish children born between Jan 1, 1991, and Dec 31, 2004, who were diagnosed with ADHD from age 7 years onwards (age of starting school)...
November 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992752/comorbid-internalizing-and-externalizing-disorders-predict-lability-of-negative-emotions-among-children-with-adhd
#8
Kirsten D Leaberry, Paul J Rosen, Nicholas D Fogleman, Danielle M Walerius, Kelly E Slaughter
OBJECTIVE: A subset of children with ADHD experience more frequent, sudden, and intense shifts toward negative emotions. The current study utilized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to provide a valid assessment of the impact of comorbid internalizing and externalizing disorders on negative emotional lability (EL) among children with ADHD. METHOD: Parents of 58, 8- to 12-year-old children with ADHD were administered a diagnostic interview to assess for ADHD and for the presence of comorbid disorders...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983772/the-impact-of-comorbid-mental-health-symptoms-and-sex-on-sleep-functioning-in-children-with-adhd
#9
Stephen P Becker, Caroline N Cusick, Craig A Sidol, Jeffery N Epstein, Leanne Tamm
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display more sleep problems than their peers, but it remains unclear whether comorbid mental health symptoms [i.e., anxiety, depression, oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD)] are uniquely related to sleep functioning. It is also largely unknown whether boys and girls with ADHD differ in their sleep functioning. This study (1) examined whether boys or girls with ADHD differ in their sleep functioning, (2) evaluated comorbid symptoms as uniquely related to sleep functioning domains, and (3) explored whether sex moderated associations between comorbid symptoms and sleep...
October 5, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963809/psychiatric-comorbidities-and-use-of-psychotropic-medications-in-people-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-the-united-states
#10
Richard Houghton, Rose C Ong, Federico Bolognani
This study investigated psychotropic medication usage in two large, cohorts of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) throughout the calendar year 2014. The cohorts referred to individuals with commercial (employer-sponsored) and Medicaid insurance in the United States. We aimed to understand prescribing patterns of such medications across a wide age-range and in the presence/absence of other clinical and non-clinical characteristics, including psychiatric comorbidities. We described the prevalence and length of prescriptions by age, psychiatric comorbidity and overall...
December 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959903/the-effect-of-methylphenidate-treatment-on-suspiciousness-in-children-with-adhd-alone-or-comorbid-with-odd
#11
Pavel Golubchik, Abraham Weizman
OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of the suspiciousness in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in comparison to ADHD alone and the response of suspiciousness symptoms to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment. METHODS: In this open-label comparative study, children with DSM-IV-TR ADHD, aged 8-18 years, with (N = 30) or without (N = 30) ODD received MPH treatment for 12 weeks. The severity of ODD symptoms was assessed by the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953039/determinants-of-pharmacological-treatment-initiation-and-persistence-in-publicly-insured-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#12
Yan Li, Wei Liu, Yanmin Zhu, Xinyue Liu, Almut Gertrud Winterstein
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to describe the longitudinal trends of pharmacological treatment initiation and persistence in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to explore how patients' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics affect these patterns. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 23,747 adult patients with new ADHD episodes was assembled using Medicaid extract files of 29 US states from 1999 and 2010. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of treatment initiators and noninitiators, and treatment persistent and nonpersistent patients were compared using multivariable logistic regression...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911901/structural-brain-abnormalities-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder
#13
Siri D S Noordermeer, Marjolein Luman, Corina U Greven, Kim Veroude, Stephen V Faraone, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with structural abnormalities in total gray matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Findings of structural abnormalities in frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, and insula are less consistent. Remarkably, the impact of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (comorbidity rates up to 60%) on these neuroanatomical differences is scarcely studied, while ODD (in combination with conduct disorder) has been associated with structural abnormalities of the frontal lobe, amygdala, and insula...
November 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875352/specificity-of-reward-sensitivity-and-parasympathetic-based-regulation-among-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-and-disruptive-behavior-disorders
#14
Rachel B Tenenbaum, Erica D Musser, Joseph S Raiker, Erika K Coles, Elizabeth M Gnagy, William E Pelham
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with disruptionsin reward sensitivity and regulatory processes. However, it is unclear whether thesedisruptions are better explained by comorbid disruptive behavior disorder (DBD)symptomology. This study sought to examine this question using multiple levels ofanalysis (i.e., behavior, autonomic reactivity). One hundred seventeen children (aged 6 to 12 years; 72.6% male; 69 with ADHD) completed theBalloon-Analogue Risk Task (BART) to assess external reward sensitivity behaviorally...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806385/a-naturalistic-comparison-of-methylphenidate-and-risperidone-monotherapy-in-drug-naive-youth-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-comorbid-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder-and-aggression
#15
Gabriele Masi, Azzurra Manfredi, Giulia Nieri, Pietro Muratori, Chiara Pfanner, Annarita Milone
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are frequently co-occurring in youth, but data about the pharmacological management of this comorbidity are scarce, especially when impulsive aggression is prominent. Although stimulants are the first-line medication for ADHD, second-generation antipsychotics, namely, risperidone, are frequently used. We aimed to assess effectiveness and safety of monotherapy with the stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) and risperidone in a consecutive sample of 40 drug-naive male youths diagnosed as having ADHD-combined presentation, comorbid with ODD and aggression, without psychiatric comorbidities, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria and a structured clinical interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version)...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768287/the-association-of-poor-academic-performance-with-tic-disorders-a-longitudinal-mainstream-school-based-population-study
#16
Esther Cubo, Cristina Gonzalez, Vanesa Ausin, Vanesa Delgado, Sara Saez, Sara Calvo, Xose Garcia Soto, José Cordero, Katie Kompoliti, Elan D Louis, Raquel de la Fuente Anuncibay
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the academic performance of students with tic disorders (TD). Our aim was to investigate the association of TD and poor academic performance over time. METHODS: Longitudinal, observational study of mainstream schoolchildren comparing grade retention (GR) and learning disorders (LD) in students with vs. without TD between 2010 and 2014. Students with vs. without TD based on DSM-IV-TR criteria, or with vs. without GR and LD were compared in terms of comorbidities, school, and environmental characteristics...
July 29, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760090/the-impact-of-emotional-lability-symptoms-during-childhood-in-adults-with-adhd
#17
Laura Gisbert, Vanesa Richarte, Montserrat Corrales, Pol Ibáñez, Rosa Bosch, Miquel Casas, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether emotional lability (EL) in adult ADHD patients can already be identified during their childhood and the extent to which this childhood symptomatology can predict EL in adulthood. METHOD: Seven hundred eighteen adults with ADHD were examined. EL in adulthood was assessed using the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). According to Conners' definition of EL, seven items from the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) were used to determine this symptomatology in childhood...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738196/parental-age-and-the-risk-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-tourette-syndrome-chronic-tic-disorder-in-a-nationwide-population-based-sample
#18
Roshan Chudal, Susanna Leivonen, Hanna Rintala, Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Andre Sourander
OBJECTIVES: Advancing paternal age has been associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders in children. However, there is limited understanding of this association with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome/chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) with inconsistent findings. We examined the association between parental age and offspring OCD and TS/CT. METHODS: This nested case-control study used the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR) to identify 1358 individuals with OCD and 1195 with TS/CT, born from 1991 to 2009 and diagnosed by 2010...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689473/psychiatric-comorbidities-modify-the-association-between-childhood-adhd-and-risk-for-suicidality-a-population-based-longitudinal-study
#19
Kouichi Yoshimasu, William J Barbaresi, Robert C Colligan, Robert G Voigt, Jill M Killian, Amy L Weaver, Slavica K Katusic
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of psychiatric comorbidities on the association between childhood ADHD and suicidality among adults. METHOD: Subjects were recruited from a population-based birth cohort. Participating adult subjects with childhood ADHD and non-ADHD controls were administered a structured psychiatric interview to assess suicidality and psychiatric comorbidities. Associations were assessed using logistic regression...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527021/comorbidity-prevalence-and-treatment-outcome-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd
#20
Laura Reale, Beatrice Bartoli, Massimo Cartabia, Michele Zanetti, Maria Antonella Costantino, Maria Paola Canevini, Cristiano Termine, Maurizio Bonati
Although ADHD comorbidity has been widely studied, some issues remain unsolved. This multicenter observational study aims to examine comorbid psychiatric disorders in a clinical sample of newly diagnosed, treatment naïve children and adolescents with and without ADHD and, to compare treatment efficacy based on the type of comorbidity. We performed an analysis of the medical records of patients identified from the Regional ADHD Registry database, enrolled in 18 ADHD centers in the 2011-2016 period. 1919 of 2861 subjects evaluated (67%) met the diagnostic criteria for ADHD: 650 (34%) had only ADHD, while 1269 (66%) had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder (learning disorders, 56%; sleep disorders, 23%; oppositional defiant disorder, 20%; anxiety disorders, 12%)...
December 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
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