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Rola Abu Dalfa, Khaled I Abu El Aish, Mohamed El Raai, Nermeen El Gazaly, Ahmed Shatat
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea causes 15% of under-5 mortality in developing countries. Zinc (Zn) stores in the body are known to be depleted during acute diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Zn given with standard treatment to children with acute or moderate diarrhoea. METHODS: In this quasi-unmasked, parallel-group study, we enrolled children with diarrhoea at El-Dorra Paediatric Hospital, Gaza Strip, occupied Palestinian territory. Inclusion criteria were children with more than three unformed stools in the preceding 24 h, duration of diarrhoea up to 72 h, and ability to accept oral fluids or feeds...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Raed Tafish, Khaled I Abu El Aish, Walid Madi
BACKGROUND: General anaesthesia and spinal anaesthesia are commonly used for caesarean sections. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes from caesarean sections with these two types of anaesthesia. METHODS: In this quasi-controlled trial, we enrolled women undergoing caesarean sections at Al-Helal Al-Emirati Hospital, Rafah, Gaza Strip. Women were assigned either to general anaesthesia (20% intravenous propofol for anaesthesia induction followed by atracurium for muscle relaxation, and nitrous oxide and oxygen for anaesthesia maintenance) or to spinal anaesthesia (0·5% hyperbaric solution bupivacaine with 20 μg fentanyl intrathecally)...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Aeysha Chaudhry, Shakoor Hajat, Najwa Rizkallah, Ala'a Abu-Rub
BACKGROUND: Vitamin A and vitamin D are essential for a child's growth and development. However, research on micronutrients in the occupied Palestinian territory is scarce. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and risk factors of vitamin A and vitamin D deficiencies in children living in the occupied Palestinian territory. METHODS: The Palestinian Micronutrient Survey in 2013 measured concentrations of vitamin A in 1054 children (569 children in the West Bank and 485 children in the Gaza Strip) and vitamin D in 150 children (75 children in the West Bank and 75 children in the Gaza Strip)...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Majed Hababeh, Wafaa Zeidan, Mariam Abdel El-Kader, Anwar Al Thaher, Nimer Kassim, Elias Habash, Hasan Arab, Ali Khader, Akihiro Seita
BACKGROUND: UNRWA introduced family planning services in 1994 as an integral part of its expanded maternal and child health-care programme. The main objective of UNRWA's family planning programme is to promote the health of mothers, children, and their families. The aim of this follow-up study was to assess contraceptive practices in the target population 5 years after the 2010 follow-up study and to identify future programme needs. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was a done by trained nurses from June 1 to Dec 31, 2015...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Khaled Abu El Aish, Raed Tafish, Haly Zourob
BACKGROUND: Finding appropriate analgesics is important for a mother's recovery after a caesarean section. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic effect of spinal morphine and fentanyl for women undergoing a caesarean section. METHODS: In this randomised, unmasked, parallel-group, controlled trial, eligible participants were women undergoing caesarean section with spinal anaesthetic at the Al-Helal Al-Emirati Hospital, Rafah, Gaza Strip, occupied Palestinian territory...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Khaled Abu Saman, Salwa Massad, Ali Abu Ibaid, Huda Anan, Mamhoud Daher, Rand Salman, Saleh Aldeqes
BACKGROUND: About 9% of the world's population has diabetes. Most people with diabetes live in developing countries. Diabetes is the fourth leading cause of death in the occupied Palestinian territory. The likelihood of diabetes complications increases with depression. Worldwide, about half of patients with diabetes have severe depression that has been misidentified by health providers. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with depression in patients with type 2 diabetes in the Gaza governorate...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Giulia Canali, Victoria Tittle, Akihiro Seita
BACKGROUND: The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) estimated that in 2016, 11% of Palestine refugees older than 40 years living in Jordan were diagnosed with diabetes and that the disease is controlled in only 45% of Palestine refugees with diabetes. As medication adherence is one of the most important modifiable self-care behaviours to achieve adequate metabolic control, the aims of this study were to measure medication adherence and to review the factors associated with different levels of medication adherence in patients with diabetes...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Sarah C M Roberts, Diana Greene Foster, Heather Gould, M Antonia Biggs
OBJECTIVE: Research on effects of pregnancy termination on women's alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use suffers from methodological and conceptual problems. Improving on prior methodologies, this study examines changes in ATOD use over 5 years among women seeking terminations. METHOD: Data are from the Turnaway Study, a longitudinal study of 956 women seeking terminations at 30 U.S. facilities. Participants presented just below a facility's gestational limit and received terminations (Near-Limits) or just beyond the limit and were denied terminations (Turnaways)...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Kaigang Li, Elizabeth Ochoa, Federico E Vaca, Bruce Simons-Morton
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and covariates among emerging adults of riding with an impaired peer or older adult driver (RWI) because of marijuana (MJ), alcohol (ALC), or illicit drugs (ID). METHOD: Data were from Waves 4 (W4, N = 2,085) and 5 (W5, N = 2,116) of the NEXT Generation Health Study, collected in 2013-2014, 1 and 2 years after high school. W5 RWI was specified for substance-specific impaired peer and older adult (peer/older adult) drivers...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Zoe R Smith, Rosanna P Breaux, Cathrin D Green, Joshua M Langberg
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated which Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) factors (i.e., Slow, Sleepy, Daydreamer) are most strongly associated with homework motivation, and whether homework motivation mediates the path between SCT and academic impairment. METHOD: Participants were 285 middle school students (boys 209) in Grades 6 to 8 (ages 10-15 years) who were comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD. RESULTS: Parent- and self-report of SCT Slow behaviors predicted homework motivation above and beyond symptoms of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety, depression, and intelligence...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Christopher A Caulfield, John Stephens, Zarina Sharalaya, Jeffrey P Laux, Carlton Moore, Daniel E Jonas, Edmund A Liles
OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) by hospitalist physicians. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study at a tertiary academic medical center. METHODS: We used consultation Current Procedural Technology codes to identify patients discharged from the ED after referral for hospitalist admission from April 2011 to April 2014. We report patient demographics and primary diagnoses...
March 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Julia Ae Walters, Daniel J Tan, Clinton J White, Richard Wood-Baker
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend that patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should be treated with systemic corticosteroid for seven to 14 days. Intermittent systemic corticosteroid use is cumulatively associated with adverse effects such as osteoporosis, hyperglycaemia and muscle weakness. Shorter treatment could reduce adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of short-duration (seven or fewer days) and conventional longer-duration (longer than seven days) systemic corticosteroid treatment of adults with acute exacerbations of COPD...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Tokio Higaki, Shintaro Yamazaki, Yusuke Mitsuka, Masaru Aoki, Nao Yoshida, Yutaka Midorikawa, Hisashi Nakayama, Tadatoshi Takayama
To clarify whether high transient elevation of serum transaminase predicts severe complications and is related to the ischemic area on CT. Postoperative laboratory data and ischemia area on CT were analyzed on the basis of the presence of high transaminase elevation (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) > 1,000 IU/L within postoperative day (POD) 2 after liver resection. In the high elevation group, volume of ischemic areas was assessed by CT on POD2. The 538 patients were divided into a high transaminase group (n = 51) and a control group (n = 487)...
2018: Bioscience Trends
Ruihong Luo, Janice M Weinberg, Tamar F Barlam
OBJECTIVE Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is common in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, but few studies have examined long-term outcomes. We studied the impact of CDI after SOT on mortality and transplant organ complication-related hospitalizations (TOH). METHODS SOT recipients ≥18 years of age with at least 1 year of posttransplant data were analyzed using the MarketScan database for 2007-2014. Patients who died within one year of transplant were followed until death. Patients were grouped as early CDI (ie, first occurrence ≤90 days posttransplant), late CDI (ie, first occurrence >90 days posttransplant) and controls (ie, no CDI occurrence during follow-up)...
March 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Mini Kamboj, Teresa Childers, Jessica Sugalski, Donna Antonelli, Juliane Bingener-Casey, Jamie Cannon, Karie Cluff, Kimberly A Davis, E Patchen Dellinger, Sean C Dowdy, Kim Duncan, Julie Fedderson, Robert Glasgow, Bruce Hall, Marilyn Hirsch, Matthew Hutter, Lisa Kimbro, Boris Kuvshinoff, Martin Makary, Melanie Morris, Sharon Nehring, Sonia Ramamoorthy, Rebekah Scott, Mindy Sovel, Vivian Strong, Ashley Webster, Elizabeth Wick, Julio Garcia Aguilar, Robert Carlson, Kent Sepkowitz
BACKGROUND Surgical site infections (SSIs) following colorectal surgery (CRS) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Reduction in colorectal SSI rates is an important goal for surgical quality improvement. OBJECTIVE To examine rates of SSI in patients with and without cancer and to identify potential predictors of SSI risk following CRS DESIGN American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) data files for 2011-2013 from a sample of 12 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions were combined...
March 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Emily A Kringle, Lauren Terhorst, Meryl A Butters, Elizabeth R Skidmore
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify clinical predictors that could distinguish clients' level of engagement in inpatient rehabilitation following stroke. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of pooled data from three randomized controlled trials that examined the effects of a behavioral intervention. The sample (n=208) consisted of clients with stroke who had cognitive deficits (Quick-EXIT≥3) and were admitted to inpatient rehabilitation facilities associated with a university medical center...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Bart N Ford, Robert H Yolken, Faith B Dickerson, T Kent Teague, Michael R Irwin, Martin P Paulus, Jonathan Savitz
BACKGROUND: Depression can impair the immunogenicity of vaccine administration in adults. Whereas many vaccinations are administered in childhood, it is not known whether adolescent or adult onset depression is associated with impairments in the maintenance of protection of childhood vaccines. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with adolescent or adult onset mood disorders would display compromised immunity to measles, a target of childhood vaccination. METHODS: IgG antibodies to measles were quantified using a solid phase immunoassay in volunteers with bipolar disorder (BD, n = 64, mean age of onset = 16...
March 19, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Rong Biaoxue, Yang Shuanying
BACKGROUND: Many studies have evaluated the accuracy of EGFR mutation status in blood against that in tumor tissues as the reference. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether blood can be used as a substitute for tumor tissue in detecting EGFR mutations. METHODS: Investigations that provided data on EGFR mutation status in blood were searched in the databases of Medline, Embase, Ovid Technologies and Web of Science. The detect efficiency of EGFR mutations in paired blood and tissues was compared using a random-effects model of meta-analysis...
January 2018: International Journal of Biological Markers
Hayley B Gershengorn, Carri W Chan, Yunchao Xu, Hanxi Sun, Ronni Levy, Mor Armony, Michelle N Gong
OBJECTIVE: To understand the impact of adding a medical step-down unit (SDU) on patient outcomes and throughput in a medical intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Two academic tertiary care hospitals within the same health-care system. PATIENTS: Adults admitted to the medical ICU at either the control or intervention hospital from October 2013 to March 2014 (preintervention) and October 2014 to March 2015 (postintervention)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Craig M Lilly, Omar Badawi, Xinggang Liu, Gill Christine S, Ilene Harris
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients transfused red blood cell (RBC) products according to guideline-specified pretransfusion hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations or for other reasons were more likely to survive their intensive care unit (ICU) stay. DESIGN: An observational study of 375 478 episodes of ICU care, over 5 years, was performed with ICU survival as the primary outcome. Outcomes were analyzed as a function of pretransfusion Hb concentration for groups with distinct transfusion indications while adjusting for potential confounders...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
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