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state innovation models

Joanne T Clavelle, Miki Goodwin
An innovative Center for Nursing Excellence model that supports structural empowerment and the achievement of exemplary nursing, patient, and organizational outcomes was implemented in 2 separate health systems in the western United States. Formal leadership roles for nursing practice, research, professional education, and Magnet® continual readiness are aligned to ensure that Magnet designation is attained and maintained in system hospitals.
November 2016: Journal of Nursing Administration
Pierre Santucci, Feriel Bouzid, Nabil Smichi, Isabelle Poncin, Laurent Kremer, Chantal De Chastellier, Michel Drancourt, Stéphane Canaan
Despite a slight decline since 2014, tuberculosis (TB) remains the major deadly infectious disease worldwide with about 1.5 million deaths each year and with about one-third of the population being latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of TB. During primo-infection, the recruitment of immune cells leads to the formation of highly organized granulomas. Among the different cells, one outstanding subpopulation is the foamy macrophage (FM), characterized by the abundance of triacylglycerol-rich lipid bodies (LB)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Marisol Sánchez-García, P Brandon Matheny
Although fungi are one of the most diverse groups of organisms, little is known about the processes that shape their high taxonomic diversity. This study focuses on evolution of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mushroom-forming fungi, symbiotic associates of many trees and shrubs, in the suborder Tricholomatineae of the Agaricales. We used the BiSSE model and BAMM to test the hypothesis that the ECM habit represents an evolutionary key innovation that allowed the colonization of new niches followed by an increase in diversification rate...
October 21, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Wanjiku F M Njoroge, Cody A Hostutler, Billie S Schwartz, Jennifer A Mautone
There are multiple barriers to accessing high quality, evidence-based behavioral health care for children and adolescents, including stigma, family beliefs, and the significant paucity of child and adolescent psychiatrists. Although equal access continues to be an unmet need in the USA, there is growing recognition that integrated behavioral health services in pediatric primary care have the potential to reduce health disparities and improve service utilization. In a joint position paper, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) highlighted the multiple benefits of children receiving initial behavioral health screening, assessment, and evidence-based behavioral health treatments in the medical home...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Russell A Ligon, Richard K Simpson, Nicholas A Mason, Geoffrey E Hill, Kevin J McGraw
The ornaments used by animals to mediate social interactions are diverse, and by reconstructing their evolutionary pathways we can gain new insights into the mechanisms underlying ornamental innovation and variability. Here, we examine variation in plumage carotenoids among the true finches (Aves: Fringillidae) using biochemical and comparative phylogenetic analyses to reconstruct the evolutionary history of carotenoid states and evaluate competing models of carotenoid evolution. Our comparative analyses reveal that the most likely ancestor of finches used dietary carotenoids as yellow plumage colorants, and that the ability to metabolically modify dietary carotenoids into more complex pigments arose secondarily once finches began to use modified carotenoids to create red plumage...
October 19, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Archana Vimal, Awanish Kumar
Allosterism has emerged as an innovative and significant mode of drug discovery. It facilitates the targeting of an allosteric site that is unique and more specific. A relatively new approach to allosteric regulation is the morpheein model, a concerted dissociative model that describes the equilibrium of alternate quaternary structure assemblies, whose architectures are dictated by alternate conformations in the dissociated state. It is involved in various biological phenomena, including enzyme regulation. One such enzyme is l-asparaginase, which is exploited by pathogenic microbes to cause infectious disease in humans...
October 11, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
R Sarlo, G Pereira, M Surica, D Almeida, C Araújo, O Figueiredo, E Rocha, E Vargas
Establishing an organization to promote organ donation and a good organ procurement team assure quality and improve performance on organ donation rates. Brazil's organ procurement structure is based on 2 models disseminated worldwide: the "Spanish model," based on in-house coordinators, and the "American organ procurement organization (OPO) model," with extra-hospital coordinators. In 2006, Brazil's Federal Government had formally introduced the in-house coordination model for every hospital equipped with a mechanical ventilator bed...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Zobair M Younossi, Haesuk Park, Douglas Dieterich, Sammy Saab, Aijaz Ahmed, Stuart C Gordon
BACKGROUND: New direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy has dramatically increased cure rates for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), but has also substantially raised treatment costs. AIM: The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the therapeutic benefit and net costs (i.e. efficiency frontier) and the quality-adjusted cost of care associated with the evolution of treatment regimens for patients with HCV genotype 1 in the United States. DESIGN: A decision-analytic Markov model...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Catherine M Wright, Paula J Duquesnay, Stephanie Anzman-Frasca, Virginia R Chomitz, Kenneth Chui, Christina D Economos, Elizabeth G Langevin, Miriam E Nelson, Jennifer M Sacheck
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is critical to preventing childhood obesity and contributes to children's overall physical and cognitive health, yet fewer than half of all children achieve the recommended 60 min per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Schools are an ideal setting to meeting PA guidelines, but competing demands and limited resources have impacted PA opportunities. The Fueling Learning through Exercise (FLEX) Study is a randomized controlled trial that will evaluate the impact of two innovative school-based PA programs on children's MVPA, cognitive function, and academic outcomes...
October 13, 2016: BMC Public Health
Xianghong Zhang, Sanyi Tang, Robert A Cheke, Huaiping Zhu
Dengue fever has rapidly become the world's most common vector-borne viral disease. Use of endosymbiotic Wolbachia is an innovative technology to prevent vector mosquitoes from reproducing and so break the cycle of dengue transmission. However, strategies such as population eradication and replacement will only succeed if appropriate augmentations with Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes that take account of a variety of factors are carried out. Here, we describe the spread of Wolbachia in mosquito populations using an impulsive differential system with four state variables, incorporating the effects of cytoplasmic incompatibility and the augmentation of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes with different sex ratios...
October 12, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Fadar Oliver Otite, Priyank Khandelwal, Seemant Chaturvedi, Jose G Romano, Ralph L Sacco, Amer M Malik
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in atrial fibrillation (AF) prevalence in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and TIA in the United States. METHODS: We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to retrospectively compute weighted prevalence of AF in AIS (n = 4,355,140) and TIA (n = 1,816,459) patients admitted to US hospitals from 2004 to 2013. Multivariate-adjusted models were used to evaluate the association of AF with clinical factors, mortality, length of stay, and cost. RESULTS: From 2004 to 2013, AF prevalence increased by 22% in AIS (20%-24%) and by 38% in TIA (12%-17%)...
October 12, 2016: Neurology
Anne Lorenz, Vinay Pawar, Susanne Häussler, Siegfried Weiss
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen that can cause acute respiratory infections in immunocompetent patients or chronic infections in immunocompromised individuals and in patients with cystic fibrosis. When acquiring the chronic infection state, bacteria are encapsulated within biofilm structures enabling them to withstand diverse environmental assaults, including immune reactions and antimicrobial therapy. Understanding the molecular interactions within the bacteria, as well as with the host or other bacteria, is essential for developing innovative treatment strategies...
October 12, 2016: FEBS Letters
Kenneth R Cooke, Leo Luznik, Stefanie Sarantopoulos, Frances T Hakim, Madan Jagasia, Daniel H Fowler, Marcel R M van den Brink, John A Hansen, Robertson Parkman, David B Miklos, Paul J Martin, Sophie Paczesny, Georgia Vogelsang, Steven Pavletic, Jerome Ritz, Kirk R Schultz, Bruce R Blazar
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the leading cause of late, non-relapse, mortality and disability in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) patients and a major obstacle to improving outcomes. Chronic GVHD biology remains enigmatic, but understanding the underpinnings of the immunologic mechanisms responsible for the initiation and progression of disease is fundamental to developing effective prevention and treatment strategies. The goals of this task force review are as follows: • Summarize the current "state-of-the-science" regarding pathogenic mechanisms of chronic GVHD and critical knowledge gaps...
October 3, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Yacine Kherdjemil, Robert L Lalonde, Rushikesh Sheth, Annie Dumouchel, Gemma de Martino, Kyriel M Pineault, Deneen M Wellik, H Scott Stadler, Marie-Andrée Akimenko, Marie Kmita
The fin-to-limb transition represents one of the major vertebrate morphological innovations associated with the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life and is an attractive model for gaining insights into the mechanisms of morphological diversity between species. One of the characteristic features of limbs is the presence of digits at their extremities. Although most tetrapods have limbs with five digits (pentadactyl limbs), palaeontological data indicate that digits emerged in lobed fins of early tetrapods, which were polydactylous...
October 5, 2016: Nature
Mohamed Amiche
The search for new bioactive molecules that could be used in therapeutics is a major public health issue, particularly in the treatment of certain diseases such as cancer. In this context the exploration of the venom of animals (snakes, amphibians, cones, scorpions, insects...) that produce molecules of various structures and biological activities, is a very promising direction. Research in this area led to the discovery of neuropeptides, hormones, toxins, antimicrobial peptides and other extremely potent mediators...
2016: Biologie Aujourd'hui
Lisa Simon
Since the founding of dental schools as institutions distinct from medical schools, dentistry-its practice, service delivery, and insurance coverage, for example-and dental care have been kept separate from medical care in the United States. This separation is most detrimental to undeserved groups at highest risk for poor oral health. As awareness grows of the important links between oral and general health, physicians and dentists are collaborating to develop innovative service delivery and payment models that can reintegrate oral health care into medical care...
2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
George Molina, Bridget A Neville, Stuart R Lipsitz, Lorri Gibbons, Ashley Kay Childers, Atul A Gawande, William R Berry, Alex B Haynes
BACKGROUND: Surgical procedures in the United States are increasingly performed in the ambulatory setting, including freestanding ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs). However, there is a lack of research and tracking of surgical outcomes in this setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from a state all-payer claims database to produce a retrospective cohort study on the rate of acute care use (emergency department [ED] visits and inpatient admissions) within 7 d after operations performed in freestanding ASCs in South Carolina...
October 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Matthew C Nattinger, Brian Kaskie
Continued growth in the number of individuals with dementia residing in assisted living (AL) facilities raises concerns about their safety and protection. However, unlike federally regulated nursing facilities, AL facilities are state-regulated and there is a high degree of variation among policies designed to protect persons with dementia. Despite the important role these protection policies have in shaping the quality of life of persons with dementia residing in AL facilities, little is known about their formation...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Aging & Social Policy
Yasser A Alaska, Abdulaziz D Aldawas, Nawfal A Aljerian, Ziad A Memish, Selim Suner
BACKGROUND: Mass gatherings present enormous challenges for emergency preparedness. Planners must anticipate and prepare for communicable and non-communicable disease outbreaks, illnesses, and injuries to participants, crowd control, and disaster responses to unforeseen natural or man-made threats. The Hajj, the largest annually recurring mass gathering event on earth. It attracts about 3 million pilgrims from over 180 countries who assemble in Mecca over a 1-week period. METHODS: A literature review was conducted using Medline and OVID, while searching for published data concerning human stampedes and crowd control measures implemented to prevent human stampedes...
September 14, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Oliver W Griffith, Matthew C Brandley, Katherine Belov, Michael B Thompson
The evolution of new organs is difficult to study because most vertebrate organs evolved only once, more than 500 million years ago. An ideal model for understanding complex organ evolution is the placenta, a structure that is present in live bearing reptiles and mammals (amniotes), which has evolved independently more than 115 times. Using transcriptomics, we characterised the uterine gene expression patterns through the reproductive cycle of a viviparous skink lizard, Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii Then we compare these patterns with the patterns of gene expression from two oviparous skinks Lampropholis guichenoti and Lerista bougainvillii While thousands of genes are differentially expressed between pregnant and non-pregnant uterine tissue in the viviparous skink, few differentially expressed genes were identified between gravid and non-gravid oviparous skinks...
September 15, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
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