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Ian Jenkins, Tamra O'Bryan, Janet Holdych, Gregory Maynard
BACKGROUND: Reliable prophylaxis of hospitalassociated venous thromboembolism (HA-VTE) is not achieved in many hospitals. Efforts to improve prophylaxis have had uneven results. OBJECTIVE: To reduce HA-VTE with a scalable quality improvement collaborative. DESIGN: A prospective, unblinded, open-intervention study with historical controls. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: All adult inpatients at 35 community hospitals in California, Arizona, and Nevada...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Mark A Ricca, Peter S Coates, K Benjamin Gustafson, Brianne E Brussee, Jeanne C Chambers, Shawn P Espinosa, Scott C Gardner, Sherri Lisius, Pilar Ziegler, David J Delehanty, Michael L Casazza
Managers require quantitative yet tractable tools that can identify areas for restoration yielding effective benefits for targeted wildlife species and the ecosystems they inhabit. As a contemporary example of high national significance for conservation, the persistence of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter 'sage-grouse') in the Great Basin ecoregion is compromised, in part, by strongly interacting stressors of conifer encroachment, annual grass invasion, and larger and more frequent wildfires occurring in sagebrush ecosystems...
February 14, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Jacob W Dittel, Stephen B Vander Wall
Scatter hoarding is a common behavioral strategy to conserve food during periods of scarcity, but this type of food storage is vulnerable to theft or pilferage. A variety of environmental factors and cache characteristics influence the rate of pilferage. Here we investigate two environmental factors, which heretofore have not received much attention: the abundance and species richness of scatter-hoarding animals in the vicinity of scatter-hoarded seeds. We measured the rate of cache pilferage at seven sites that differed in the number and species composition of granivorous rodents in western Nevada using local native seeds and sunflower seeds...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Katherine Telfeyan, S Doug Ware, Paul W Reimus, Kay H Birdsell
Diffusion cell and diffusion wafer experiments were conducted to compare methods for estimating effective matrix diffusion coefficients in rock core samples from Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS). A diffusion wafer method, in which a solute diffuses out of a rock matrix that is pre-saturated with water containing the solute, is presented as a simpler alternative to the traditional through-diffusion (diffusion cell) method. Both methods yielded estimates of effective matrix diffusion coefficients that were within the range of values previously reported for NNSS volcanic rocks...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
M S Wallace, S Haque, P Neill, N R Pereira, R Presura
A recently developed single-crystal x-ray spectropolarimeter has been used to record paired sets of polarization-dependent and axially resolved x-ray spectra emitted by wire array z-pinches. In this measurement, two internal planes inside a suitable crystal diffract the x-rays into two perpendicular directions that are normal to each other, thereby separating incident x-rays into their linearly polarized components. This paper gives considerations for fielding the instrument on extended sources. Results from extended sources are difficult to interpret because generally the incident x-rays are not separated properly by the crystal...
January 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Gennadi I Naumov, Elena S Naumova, Kyria L Boundy-Mills
Five methylotrophic strains (UCDFST 71-1024T, UCDFST 54-11.16, UCDFST 54-11.141, UCDFST 68-967.1 and UCDFST 74-1030) from the Phaff Yeast Culture Collection (University of California Davis, USA) that were originally designated as Pichia pastoris were found to represent a novel Komagataella species. Strains of Komagataella mondaviorum sp. nov. UCDFST 71-1024T(type strain) = CBS 15017, UCDFST 54-11.16, UCDFST 54-11.141, UCDFST 68-967.1, and UCDFST 74-1030 were isolated in USA, respectively, from cottonwood tree Populus deltoides in 1971 (Davis, CA), slime flux of Quercus sp...
January 31, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Sarah B Kapnick, Xiaosong Yang, Gabriel A Vecchi, Thomas L Delworth, Rich Gudgel, Sergey Malyshev, P C D Milly, Elena Shevliakova, Seth Underwood, Steven A Margulis
Western US snowpack-snow that accumulates on the ground in the mountains-plays a critical role in regional hydroclimate and water supply, with 80% of snowmelt runoff being used for agriculture. While climate projections provide estimates of snowpack loss by the end of the century and weather forecasts provide predictions of weather conditions out to 2 weeks, less progress has been made for snow predictions at seasonal timescales (months to 2 years), crucial for regional agricultural decisions (e.g., plant choice and quantity)...
January 22, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Wenlian Zhou, Pearl Kim, Jay J Shen, Joseph Greenway, Marcia Ditmyer
OBJECTIVES: To examine trends and socioeconomic disparities for preventable dental-related emergency department (ED) visits in Nevada. METHODS: We pooled retrospective data containing 66 267 ED visits involving dental conditions from Nevada hospital ED databases from 2009 to 2015. The dependent variable was nontraumatic dental conditions identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes; 3 independent variables included treatment year, health insurance status, and race/ethnicity...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Duarte S Viana, José Enrique Granados, Paulino Fandos, Jesús M Pérez, Francisco Javier Cano-Manuel, Daniel Burón, Guillermo Fandos, María Ángeles Párraga Aguado, Jordi Figuerola, Ramón C Soriguer
Background: Space use by animals is determined by the interplay between movement and the environment, and is thus mediated by habitat selection, biotic interactions and intrinsic factors of moving individuals. These processes ultimately determine home range size, but their relative contributions and dynamic nature remain less explored. We investigated the role of habitat selection, movement unrelated to habitat selection and intrinsic factors related to sex in driving space use and home range size in Iberian ibex, Capra pyrenaica...
2018: Movement Ecology
Mary M Peacock, Evon R Hekkala, Veronica S Kirchoff, Lisa G Heki
Currently one small, native population of the culturally and ecologically important Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi, LCT, Federally listed) remains in the Truckee River watershed of northwestern Nevada and northeastern California. The majority of populations in this watershed were extirpated in the 1940s due to invasive species, overharvest, anthropogenic water consumption and changing precipitation regimes. In 1977, a population of cutthroat trout discovered in the Pilot Peak Mountains in the Bonneville basin of Utah, was putatively identified as the extirpated LCT lacustrine lineage native to Pyramid Lake in the Truckee River basin based on morphological and meristic characters...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
J Jódar, E Carpintero, S Martos-Rosillo, A Ruiz-Constán, C Marín-Lechado, J A Cabrera-Arrabal, E Navarrete-Mazariegos, A González-Ramón, L J Lambán, C Herrera, M P González-Dugo
Assessing water resources in high mountain semi-arid zones is essential to be able to manage and plan the use of these resources downstream where they are used. However, it is not easy to manage an unknown resource, a situation that is common in the vast majority of high mountain hydrological basins. In the present work, the discharge flow in an ungauged basin is estimated using the hydrological parameters of an HBV (Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning) model calibrated in a "neighboring gauged basin"...
December 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Guogen Shan, Shawn Gerstenberger
This research is motivated by one of our survey studies to assess the potential influence of introducing zebra mussels to the Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada. One research question in this study is to investigate the association between the boating activity type and the awareness of zebra mussels. A chi-squared test is often used for testing independence between two factors with nominal levels. When the null hypothesis of independence between two factors is rejected, we are often left wondering where does the significance come from...
2017: PloS One
Anisbeth Daza, Martín Caicedo, Oscar Lisi, Sigmer Quiroga
By examining material collected in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Department of Magdalena, Colombia), the authors report a new record for the entire South America, Doryphoribius gibber Beasley & Pilato, 1987, and two species new to science, Paramacrobiotus sagani sp. nov., and Doryphoribius rosane sp. nov., are described. Paramacrobiotus sagani sp. nov. belongs to the richtersi group, vanescens subgroup (by having sculptured egg areolae) and is characterized by a peculiar cuticular granulation, trunco-conical egg processes with cylindrical indented apices, and other more detailed cha-racters both qualitative and metric; by the unique combination of characters, it differs from all the other known species of the genus...
December 4, 2017: Zootaxa
Francisco Provenzano R, Nadia Milani, Carlos Ardila R
As a part of an assessment of loricariid catfishes inhabiting the Andes of Colombia, specimens belonging to an interesting new species were identified. The new species is described herein, and it is tentatively included in the genus Cordylancistrus. The new species can be easily distinguished among its congeners by the presence of a unique diagnostic character: a fleshy keel or excrescence, black or dark brown, over the posterior tip of supraoccipital. Specimens of the new species were captured in rivers of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Sierra de Perijá that drain to the Magdalena River Basin and Caribbean Sea...
October 4, 2017: Zootaxa
Ryan R Walsh, Florian Krismer, Wendy R Galpern, Gregor K Wenning, Phillip A Low, Glenda Halliday, Walter J Koroshetz, Janice Holton, Niall P Quinn, Olivier Rascol, Leslie M Shaw, David Eidelberg, Pam Bower, Jeffrey L Cummings, Victor Abler, Judy Biedenharn, Gal Bitan, David J Brooks, Patrik Brundin, Hubert Fernandez, Philip Fortier, Roy Freeman, Thomas Gasser, Art Hewitt, Günter U Höglinger, Matt J Huentelman, Poul H Jensen, Andreas Jeromin, Un Jung Kang, Horacio Kaufmann, Lawrence Kellerman, Vikram Khurana, Thomas Klockgether, Woojin Scott Kim, Carol Langer, Peter LeWitt, Eliezer Masliah, Wassilios Meissner, Ronald Melki, Susanne Ostrowitzki, Steven Piantadosi, Werner Poewe, David Robertson, Cyndi Roemer, Dale Schenk, Michael Schlossmacher, Jeremy D Schmahmann, Klaus Seppi, Lily Shih, Andrew Siderowf, Glenn T Stebbins, Nadia Stefanova, Shoji Tsuji, Sharon Sutton, Jing Zhang
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with substantial knowledge gaps despite recent gains in basic and clinical research. In order to make further advances, concerted international collaboration is vital. In 2014, an international meeting involving leaders in the field and MSA advocacy groups was convened in Las Vegas, Nevada, to identify critical research areas where consensus and progress was needed to improve understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. Eight topic areas were defined: pathogenesis, preclinical modeling, target identification, endophenotyping, clinical measures, imaging biomarkers, nonimaging biomarkers, treatments/trial designs, and patient advocacy...
January 9, 2018: Neurology
Mary H Straub, Austin N Roy, Amanda Martin, Kathleen E Sholty, Nicole Stephenson, Janet E Foley
California, with 13 chipmunk (Tamias) species, has more than any other state or country, occupying habitats ranging from chaparral to the high peaks of the Sierra Nevada. Chipmunks host zoonotic pathogens including Yersinia pestis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, relapsing fever (RF) Borrelia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, and spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia species. Chipmunk species are often not differentiated by public health workers, yet different species utilize different ecological niches and may have intrinsically different capacities for maintaining vector-borne pathogens and infecting vectors...
2017: PloS One
Lindsay J Arvin, Clifford S Riebe, Sarah M Aciego, Molly A Blakowski
A global compilation of erosion rates and modeled dust fluxes shows that dust inputs can be a large fraction of total soil inputs, particularly when erosion is slow and soil residence time is therefore long. These observations suggest that dust-derived nutrients can be vital to montane ecosystems, even when nutrient supply from bedrock is substantial. We tested this hypothesis using neodymium isotopes as a tracer of mineral phosphorus contributions to vegetation in the Sierra Nevada, California, where rates of erosion and dust deposition are both intermediate within the global compilation...
December 2017: Science Advances
Catherine A Richards, Andrew G Rundle, Jason D Wright, Dawn L Hershman
Importance: Hospital financial distress (HFD) is a state in which a hospital is at risk of closure because of its financial condition. Hospital financial distress may reduce the services a hospital can offer, particularly unprofitable ones. Few studies have assessed the association of HFD with quality of care. Objective: To examine the association between HFD and receipt of immediate breast reconstruction surgery after mastectomy among women diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)...
December 6, 2017: JAMA Surgery
Emily Kouzes, Christine Thompson, Cari Herington, Lily Helzer
BACKGROUND: Cumulative exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a risk factor for development of skin cancer. We estimated changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Nevada school-age children following implementation of a program to decrease UV exposure. COMMUNITY CONTEXT: The Nevada Cancer Coalition's Sun Smart Schools pilot program was implemented in 7 Nevada schools during the 2015-2016 school year. The target population was students at participating schools...
November 30, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
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