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Jennifer Adjemian, Kenneth N Olivier, D Rebecca Prevots
RATIONALE: Pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease represents a significant threat to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, with an estimated annual prevalence of 12%. Prior studies report an increasing annual NTM prevalence in the general population, though similar trends in persons with CF have not been assessed. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the prevalence, geographic patterns, temporal trends and risk factors for NTM positivity by mycobacterial species among persons with CF throughout the United States...
June 13, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Dovid Y Kozlovsky, Carrie L Branch, Angela M Pitera, Vladimir V Pravosudov
Mounting evidence suggests that we are experiencing rapidly accelerating global climate change. Understanding how climate change may affect life is critical to identifying species and populations that are vulnerable. Most current research focuses on investigating how organisms may respond to gradual warming, but another effect of climate change is extreme annual variation in precipitation associated with alternations between drought and unusually heavy precipitation, like that exhibited in the western regions of North America...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
J A Barberá, J Jódar, E Custodio, A González-Ramón, P Jiménez-Gavilán, I Vadillo, A Pedrera, S Martos-Rosillo
In many of the alpine watersheds of Sierra Nevada (Southern Spain) exists an ancient network of dug canals that collect, transport and facilitate the recharge the snowmelt in the underlying aquifer during the spring season. This practice, known as careos, in the lower part of the watersheds supply drinking water as spring discharge during the dry season. To study how this managed recharge technique modifies the natural response of these basins this work focuses on characterizing the hydrological behavior of one of the sites, the Berchules watershed...
June 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Douglas C McDonald, Kenneth E Carlson, Sarah Kuck Jalbert
Objectives: This research looked at whether notifying prescribers and pharmacies about patients who use multiple providers to obtain opioids reduces their prescribing activity (including use of multiple providers, numbers of opioid prescriptions, or amounts of opioids obtained). Design: Nevada's prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) identified patients using multiple providers to obtain opioids and assigned them alternately to an intervention or control group...
May 30, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Olena Mazurenko, Jay Shen, Guogen Shan, Joseph Greenway
OBJECTIVES: In January 2014, Nevada became 1 of the 32 states that have expanded Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act. As a result of the expansion, 276,400 additional Nevada residents received Medicaid insurance. The objectives of this paper were to examine the impact of Nevada's Medicaid expansion on changes in rates of hospital admissions for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs), which are potentially preventable with good access to outpatient medical care, and to examine the racial/ethnic disparities in such rates...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
J C Valenzuela, C Krauland, D Mariscal, I Krasheninnikov, C Niemann, T Ma, P Mabey, G Gregori, P Wiewior, A M Covington, F N Beg
We present the first experimental measurement of temperature and density of a warm dense plasma produced by a pulsed power driver at the Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF). In the early phases of discharge, most of the mass remains in the core, and it has been challenging to diagnose with traditional methods, e.g. optical probing, because of the high density and low temperature. Accurate knowledge of the transport coefficients as well as the thermodynamic state of the plasma is important to precisely test or develop theoretical models...
May 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Margaret Hou, Pei Hsuan Chan, Weldon Havins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: Journal of Legal Medicine
Sue Chung, Tran Nguyen, Weldon Havins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: Journal of Legal Medicine
Susanne J Spano, Arla G Hile, Ratnali Jain, Philip R Stalcup
INTRODUCTION: The baseline characteristics and medical morbidity of hikers on the 354 km (220 mi) John Muir Trail (JMT) have not been previously reported. METHODS: Using online and on-site recruitment, hikers completing the JMT in 2014 were directed to an online 83-question survey. Pearson correlations, regression models, and descriptive statistics were applied to data, reported as mean±SD (range). Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. RESULTS: Of 771 respondents, 57% were men aged 43±14 (13-76) y; they hiked 15...
June 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Laiping Luo, Qiuping Zhai, Yanjun Su, Qin Ma, Maggi Kelly, Qinghua Guo
Crown base height (CBH) is an essential tree biophysical parameter for many applications in forest management, forest fuel treatment, wildfire modeling, ecosystem modeling and global climate change studies. Accurate and automatic estimation of CBH for individual trees is still a challenging task. Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) provides reliable and promising data for estimating CBH. Various methods have been developed to calculate CBH indirectly using regression-based means from airborne LiDAR data and field measurements...
May 14, 2018: Optics Express
Julia Raifman, Ellen Moscoe, S Bryn Austin, Mark L Hatzenbuehler, Sandro Galea
Importance: Recent evidence suggests that state policies affecting sexual minorities are associated with health disparities. Twelve states have laws permitting the denial of services to same-sex couples, and the US Supreme Court is considering whether states can prohibit the denial of services to same-sex couples. Objective: We investigated whether state laws permitting individuals to refuse services to sexual minorities were associated with changes in the proportion of sexual minority adults reporting mental distress...
May 23, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Morgan W Tingley, Andrew N Stillman, Robert L Wilkerson, Christine A Howell, Sarah C Sawyer, Rodney B Siegel
1.Fire creates challenges and opportunities for wildlife through rapid destruction, modification, and creation of habitat. Fire has spatially variable effects on landscapes, however, and for species that benefit from the ephemeral resource patches created by fire, it is critical to understand characteristics of fires that promote post-fire colonization and persistence, and the spatial scales on which they operate. 2.Using a model post-fire specialist, the black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus), we examined how colonization and persistence varied across two spatial scales as a function of four characteristics of fire regimes - fire severity, fire size, fire ignition date, and number of years since fire...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Ashley M Pierce, Mae Sexauer Gustin, John N Christensen, S Marcela Loría-Salazar
Ambient air particulate matter (<2.5μm in diameter) samples were collected on two different filter types in 2014 and 2015 over 24h periods and analyzed for reactive mercury (gaseous oxidized mercury+particulate bound mercury) concentrations and lead isotopes to determine sources of pollution to three sites in Nevada, USA. Two sites were located on the western edge of Nevada (Reno, urban, 1370m and Peavine Peak, rural, high elevation, 2515m); the third location was ~485km east in rural Great Basin National Park, NV (2061m)...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
David P Morin, Patrick J Alexander, James B Beck, Michael D Windham, C Donovan Bailey
Boechera is a model genus that is of particular interest for understanding apomixis due to the presence of numerous apomictic diploid lineages that are tightly correlated with hybridisation events. Boechera includes many narrowly distributed endemics and apomictic hybrid lineages that obscure morphological boundaries amongst taxa. In this study, we focus on the Boechera suffrutescens complex, a phylogenetically well-supported but taxonomically complex north-western United States clade whose diploid species currently include the widespread B...
2018: PhytoKeys
Christy J W Ledford, Kerry P Sadler, Jeremy T Jackson, Jasmyne J Womack, Heather A Rider, Angela B Seehusen
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate how the chronic care model can be applied in prenatal care. METHODS: This study was conducted through analysis of data generated in the women's health and family medicine departments of one community hospital and two medical centers across three states (Georgia, Nevada, and Virginia). 159 low-risk obstetric patients were monitored throughout their pregnancy for patient activation and biometric measures including: blood pressure at each appointment, baby's gestational age at birth, and mode of delivery...
April 30, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Mireia Alcántara Rodríguez, Andrea Angueyra, Antoine M Cleef, Tinde Van Andel
BACKGROUND: The Sierra Nevada del Cocuy-Güicán in the Colombian Andes is protected as a National Natural Park since 1977 because of its fragile páramo ecosystems, extraordinary biodiversity, high plant endemism, and function as water reservoir. The vegetation on this mountain is threatened by expanding agriculture, deforestation, tourism, and climate change. We present an ethnobotanical inventory among local farmer communities and discuss the effects of vegetation change on the availability of useful plants...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Rebecca J Eisen, Shane Feirer, Kerry A Padgett, Micah B Hahn, Andrew J Monaghan, Vicki L Kramer, Robert S Lane, Maggi Kelly
Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls (Acari: Ixodidae), the primary vector of Lyme disease spirochetes to humans in the far-western United States, is broadly distributed across Pacific Coast states, but its distribution is not uniform within this large, ecologically diverse region. To identify areas of suitable habitat, we assembled records of locations throughout California where two or more I. pacificus were collected from vegetation from 1980 to 2014. We then employed ensemble species distribution modeling to identify suitable climatic conditions for the tick and restricted the results to land cover classes where these ticks are typically encountered (i...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Linda Vickers
Criticality accident detectors are required for all operations involving fissile materials in which a criticality accident can occur and cause personnel to receive unacceptable exposure to radiation (ANSI/ANS 8.3-R2012). Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex tested six criticality accident detectors and eight Portable Radiation Detection Instruments (PRDIs) to verify their performance under actual criticality conditions. The tests were performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory using the Godiva critical assembly located at the National Criticality Experiments Research Center at the U...
June 2018: Health Physics
Anthea B Mahesan Paul, Lary Simms, Andrew A Mahesan, Eric Charles Belanger
Illegal drug abuse, particularly prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States. Research on adolescent drug abuse is based on national self-reported data. Using local coroner data, quantitative prevalence of illegal substance toxicology and trends can be assessed to aid directed outreach and community-based prevention initiatives. Retrospective analysis was conducted on all cases aged 12-17 years referred to the Office of the Medical Examiner, Clark County from 2005 to 2015 (n = 526)...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Greg Yanke, Mohamed Y Rady, Joseph L Verheijde
In early 2017, Nevada amended its Uniform Determination of Death Act (UDDA), in order to clarify the neurologic criteria for the determination of death. The amendments stipulate that a determination of death is a clinical decision that does not require familial consent and that the appropriate standard for determining neurologic death is the American Academy of Neurology's (AAN) guidelines. Once a physician makes such a determination of death, the Nevada amendments require the withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment within twenty-four hours with limited exceptions...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
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