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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667151/ethical-and-legal-concerns-with-nevada-s-brain-death-amendments
#1
Greg Yanke, Mohamed Y Rady, Joseph L Verheijde
In early 2017, Nevada amended its Uniform Determination of Death Act (UDDA), in order to clarify the neurologic criteria for the determination of death. The amendments stipulate that a determination of death is a clinical decision that does not require familial consent and that the appropriate standard for determining neurologic death is the American Academy of Neurology's (AAN) guidelines. Once a physician makes such a determination of death, the Nevada amendments require the withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment within twenty-four hours with limited exceptions...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666233/integrating-effects-of-species-composition-and-soil-properties-to-predict-shifts-in-montane-forest-carbon-water-relations
#2
Toby M Maxwell, Lucas C R Silva, William R Horwath
This study was designed to address a major source of uncertainty pertaining to coupled carbon-water cycles in montane forest ecosystems. The Sierra Nevada of California was used as a model system to investigate connections between the physiological performance of trees and landscape patterns of forest carbon and water use. The intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE)-an index of CO2 fixed per unit of potential water lost via transpiration-of nine dominant species was determined in replicated transects along an ∼1,500-m elevation gradient, spanning a broad range of climatic conditions and soils derived from three different parent materials...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607028/use-of-field-portable-ultrasonography-reveals-differences-in-developmental-phenology-and-maternal-egg-provisioning-in-two-sympatric-viviparous-snakes
#3
Amanda M Sparkman, Kenneth R Chism, Anne M Bronikowski, Lilly J Brummett, Lucia L Combrink, Courtney L Davis, Kaitlyn G Holden, Nicole M Kabey, David A W Miller
A thorough understanding of the life cycles underlying the demography of wild species is limited by the difficulty of observing hidden life-history traits, such as embryonic development. Major aspects of embryonic development, such as the rate and timing of development, and maternal-fetal interactions can be critical features of early-life fitness and may impact population trends via effects on individual survival. While information on development in wild snakes and lizards is particularly limited, the repeated evolution of viviparity and diversity of reproductive mode in this clade make it a valuable subject of study...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579658/estimating-land-surface-variables-and-sensitivity-analysis-for-clm-and-vic-simulations-using-remote-sensing-products
#4
Muhammad Umair, Daeun Kim, Ram L Ray, Minha Choi
Assessment of Land Surface Models (LSMs) at heterogeneous terrain and climate regimes is essential for understanding complex hydrological and biophysical parameterization. This study utilized the two LSMs, Community Land Model (CLM 4.0) and three layer Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC-3L), to estimate the interaction between land surface and atmosphere by means of energy fluxes including net radiation (RN ), sensible heat flux (H), latent heat flux (LE), and ground heat flux (G). The modeled energy fluxes were analyzed at two sites: Freeman Ranch-2 (FR2) located in the lowland region of Texas (272m), and Providence 301 (P301) located on the mountains of Sierra Nevada in California (2015m) from 2003 to 2013...
March 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571538/efficacy-of-an-exercise-intervention-among-children-with-comorbid-asthma-and-obesity
#5
J A Lucas, S Moonie, M B Hogan, W N Evans
OBJECTIVES: Children with comorbid asthma and obesity present with more severe and harder-to-control disease than asthmatic children at healthy weight. Weight loss has been shown to improve asthma symptoms, yet physical activity may be difficult due to exercise-induced bronchospasm. Children with asthma have lower exercise rates than non-asthmatics. The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate attrition rates and program outcome measures (Body Mass Index [BMI] and maximum oxygen consumption [VO2 max]) among asthmatic and non-asthmatic participants...
March 21, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560062/executive-summary-from-the-2017-emergency-medicine-resident-wellness-consensus-summit
#6
Nicole Battaglioli, Felix Ankel, Christopher I Doty, Arlene Chung, Michelle Lin
Introduction: Physician wellness has recently become a popular topic of conversation and publication within the house of medicine and specifically within emergency medicine (EM). Through a joint collaboration involving Academic Life in Emergency Medicine's (ALiEM) Wellness Think Tank, Essentials of Emergency Medicine (EEM), and the Emergency Medicine Residents' Association (EMRA), a one-day Resident Wellness Consensus Summit (RWCS) was organized. Methods: The RWCS was held on May 15, 2017, as a pre-day event prior to the 2017 EEM conference in Las Vegas, Nevada...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560061/educator-toolkits-on-second-victim-syndrome-mindfulness-and-meditation-and-positive-psychology-the-2017-resident-wellness-consensus-summit
#7
Arlene S Chung, Jon Smart, Michael Zdradzinski, Sarah Roth, Alecia Gende, Kylie Conroy, Nicole Battaglioli
Introduction: Burnout, depression, and suicidality among residents of all specialties have become a critical focus of attention for the medical education community. Methods: As part of the 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit in Las Vegas, Nevada, resident participants from 31 programs collaborated in the Educator Toolkit workgroup. Over a seven-month period leading up to the summit, this workgroup convened virtually in the Wellness Think Tank, an online resident community, to perform a literature review and draft curricular plans on three core wellness topics...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557185/identifying-local-and-regional-groundwater-in-basins-chemical-and-stable-isotopic-attributes-of-multivariate-classification-of-hydrochemical-data-the-lower-virgin-river-basin-nevada-arizona-and-utah-u-s-a
#8
Joseph Asante, David K Kreamer
In the Basin and Range Province of the Southwestern U.S.A., deep carbonate groundwater has been suggested as a significant source to many overlying basin-fill alluvial aquifer systems. Notwithstanding, testing this hypothesis is limited by obtaining data from such considerable depths and complex geology. This study uses δ2 H and δ18 O data from springs, rivers, and wells tapping shallow basin-fill groundwater to test the hydrochemical interpretation of deep regional carbonate groundwater flow into the basin-fill aquifers...
March 20, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551325/smoking-attributable-mortality-by-state-in-2014-u-s
#9
Jiemin Ma, Rebecca L Siegel, Eric J Jacobs, Ahmedin Jemal
INTRODUCTION: Contemporary state-specific estimates of mortality caused by cigarette smoking are important for tobacco control advocacy and healthcare planning in the U.S., but are currently lacking. METHODS: The population-attributable fraction (i.e., proportion of deaths in the population caused by smoking), number of deaths, and number of years of potential life lost because of active cigarette smoking were estimated for each state based on state-specific smoking prevalence data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, recently updated relative risks of smoking, and numbers of deaths from smoking-attributable diseases...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545730/no-to-no-2-conversion-rate-analysis-and-implications-for-dispersion-model-chemistry-methods-using-las-vegas-nevada-near-road-field-measurements
#10
Sue Kimbrough, R Chris Owen, Michelle Snyder, Jennifer Richmond-Bryant
The nitrogen dioxide/oxides of nitrogen (NO2 /NOX ) ratio is an important surrogate for NO to NO2 chemistry in dispersion models when estimating NOX impacts in a near-road environment. Existing dispersion models use different techniques and assumptions to represent NO to NO2 conversion and do not fully characterize all of the important atmospheric chemical and mechanical processes. Thus, "real-world" ambient measurements must be analyzed to assess the behavior of NO2 /NOX ratios near roadways. An examination of NO2 /NOX ratio data from a field study conducted in Las Vegas, Nevada (NV), from mid-December, 2008 through mid-December, 2009 provides insights into the appropriateness of assumptions about the NO2 /NOX ratio included in dispersion models...
September 7, 2017: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522562/ancient-human-mitochondrial-dna-and-radiocarbon-analysis-of-archived-quids-from-the-mule-spring-rockshelter-nevada-usa
#11
Scott D Hamilton-Brehm, Lidia T Hristova, Susan R Edwards, Jeffrey R Wedding, Meradeth Snow, Brittany R Kruger, Duane P Moser
Chewed and expectorated quids, indigestible stringy fibers from the roasted inner pulp of agave or yucca root, have proven resilient over long periods of time in dry cave environments and correspondingly, although little studied, are common in archaeological archives. In the late 1960s, thousands of quids were recovered from Mule Spring Rockshelter (Nevada, USA) deposits and stored without consideration to DNA preservation in a museum collection, remaining unstudied for over fifty years. To assess the utility of these materials as repositories for genetic information about past inhabitants of the region and their movements, twenty-one quids were selected from arbitrary excavation depths for detailed analysis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518069/vital-signs-trends-in-emergency-department-visits-for-suspected-opioid-overdoses-united-states-july-2016-september-2017
#12
Alana M Vivolo-Kantor, Puja Seth, R Matthew Gladden, Christine L Mattson, Grant T Baldwin, Aaron Kite-Powell, Michael A Coletta
INTRODUCTION: From 2015 to 2016, opioid overdose deaths increased 27.7%, indicating a worsening of the opioid overdose epidemic and highlighting the importance of rapid data collection, analysis, and dissemination. METHODS: Emergency department (ED) syndromic and hospital billing data on opioid-involved overdoses during July 2016-September 2017 were examined. Temporal trends in opioid overdoses from 52 jurisdictions in 45 states were analyzed at the regional level and by demographic characteristics...
March 9, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508380/evaluating-micrometeorological-estimates-of-groundwater-discharge-from-great-basin-desert-playas
#13
Tracie R Jackson, Keith J Halford, Philip M Gardner
Groundwater availability studies in the arid southwestern United States traditionally have assumed that groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration (ETg ) from desert playas is a significant component of the groundwater budget. However, desert playa ETg rates are poorly constrained by Bowen Ratio energy budget (BREB) and eddy-covariance (EC) micrometeorological measurement approaches. Best attempts by previous studies to constrain ETg from desert playas have resulted in ETg rates that are within the measurement error of micrometeorological approaches...
March 6, 2018: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496541/pseudo-parallel-patterns-of-disjunctions-in-an-arctic-alpine-plant-lineage
#14
Rebecca L Stubbs, Ryan A Folk, Chun-Lei Xiang, Douglas E Soltis, Nico Cellinese
Disjunct distributions have intrigued biologists for centuries. Investigating these biogeographic patterns provides insight into speciation and biodiversity at multiple spatial and phylogenetic scales. Some disjunctions have been intensively studied, yet others have been largely overlooked and remain poorly understood. Among the lesser-known disjunction patterns is that between the mountain ranges of western North America. Flora and fauna endemic to the mountains of this region provide important systems for investigating causes and results of disjunctions, given the relatively recent geological formation of this area and the intense climatic fluctuations that have occurred since its formation...
February 26, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485628/holocene-geochemical-footprint-from-semi-arid-alpine-wetlands-in-southern-spain
#15
Antonio García-Alix, Francisco J Jiménez-Espejo, Gonzalo Jiménez-Moreno, Jaime L Toney, María J Ramos-Román, Jon Camuera, R Scott Anderson, Antonio Delgado-Huertas, Francisca Martínez-Ruiz, Ignasi Queralt
Here we provide the geochemical dataset that our research group has collected after 10 years of investigation in the Sierra Nevada National Park in southern Spain. These data come from Holocene sedimentary records from four alpine sites (ranging from ∼2500 to ∼3000 masl): two peatlands and two shallow lakes. Different kinds of organic and inorganic analyses have been conducted. The organic matter in the bulk sediment was characterised using elemental measurements and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS)...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471545/high-protein-distillers-dried-grains-with-solubles-produced-using-a-novel-front-end-back-end-fractionation-technology-has-greater-nutritional-value-than-conventional-distillers-dried-grains-with-solubles-when-fed-to-growing-pigs
#16
C D Espinosa, H H Stein
Two experiments were conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE, and DE and ME in conventional distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS-CV) and in a novel source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS-HP) produced by Lincolnway Energy (Nevada, IA). In Exp. 1, 18 barrows (initial BW: 72.47 ± 9.16 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were allotted to a completely randomized design with 3 diets and 6 replicate pigs per diet...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455231/impact-of-a-multicenter-mentored-quality-collaborative-on-hospital-associated-venous-thromboembolism
#17
Ian Jenkins, Tamra O'Bryan, Janet Holdych, Gregory Maynard
BACKGROUND: Reliable prophylaxis of hospitalassociated venous thromboembolism (HA-VTE) is not achieved in many hospitals. Efforts to improve prophylaxis have had uneven results. OBJECTIVE: To reduce HA-VTE with a scalable quality improvement collaborative. DESIGN: A prospective, unblinded, open-intervention study with historical controls. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: All adult inpatients at 35 community hospitals in California, Arizona, and Nevada...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443402/aspen-nutrition-science-and-practice-conference-las-vegas-nevada-january-22-25-2018-vars-candidates-trainee-awards-best-of-aspen-topic-awards-international-awards-abstracts-of-distinction-posters-of-distinction-and-other-abstracts
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441692/a-conservation-planning-tool-for-greater-sage-grouse-using-indices-of-species-distribution-resilience-and-resistance
#19
Mark A Ricca, Peter S Coates, K Benjamin Gustafson, Brianne E Brussee, Jeanne C Chambers, Shawn P Espinosa, Scott C Gardner, Sherri Lisius, Pilar Ziegler, David J Delehanty, Michael L Casazza
Managers require quantitative yet tractable tools that can identify areas for restoration yielding effective benefits for targeted wildlife species and the ecosystems they inhabit. As a contemporary example of high national significance for conservation, the persistence of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter 'sage-grouse') in the Great Basin ecoregion is compromised, in part, by strongly interacting stressors of conifer encroachment, annual grass invasion, and larger and more frequent wildfires occurring in sagebrush ecosystems...
February 14, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436775/the-effects-of-rodent-abundance-and-richness-on-cache-pilfering
#20
Jacob W Dittel, Stephen B Vander Wall
Scatter hoarding is a common behavioral strategy to conserve food during periods of scarcity, but this type of food storage is vulnerable to theft or pilferage. A variety of environmental factors and cache characteristics influence the rate of pilferage. Here we investigate two environmental factors, which heretofore have not received much attention: the abundance and species richness of scatter-hoarding animals in the vicinity of scatter-hoarded seeds. We measured the rate of cache pilferage at seven sites that differed in the number and species composition of granivorous rodents in western Nevada using local native seeds and sunflower seeds...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
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