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Respiratory disease

Ana Carolina Lima Cavaletti, Célia Pereira Caldas, Kenio Costa de Lima
OBJECTIVES: To identify the diseases that lead older persons to hospitalizations in the public health system in the state of Rio de Janeiro and, through a study of spatial distribution among hospitalization rates of the municipal districts, discuss the social contexts involved in the hospitalization of the elderly. METHODS: An ecological cross-sectional study using secondary data from the Brazilian hospital information system from the period 2009 to 2015 was performed...
March 12, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Carol Kelly, James D Chalmers, Iain Crossingham, Nicola Relph, Lambert M Felix, David J Evans, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation and distortion of the smaller airways. Bacterial colonisation of the damaged airways leads to chronic cough and sputum production, often with breathlessness and further structural damage to the airways. Long-term macrolide antibiotic therapy may suppress bacterial infection and reduce inflammation, leading to fewer exacerbations, fewer symptoms, improved lung function, and improved quality of life...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Nicola Cherry, Jeremy Beach, Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan, Igor Burstyn
A study of the respiratory health of grain farmers in Alberta, Canada was carried out in March 2002. Two populations were identified: members, in 1983, of a province-wide farm organisation, and grain farmers registered with the provincial agriculture department. A telephone interview addressed pesticide use (using pre-circulated trade names), chronic disease and respiratory symptoms. Pesticide ingredients were identified from provincial crop protection guides. Total years of use were calculated for seven chemical groups...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Karen L Wozniak
The fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii can cause life-threatening infections in immune compromised and immune competent hosts. These pathogens enter the host via inhalation, and respiratory tract innate immune cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) are one of the first host cells they encounter. The interactions between Cryptococcus and innate immune cells play a critical role in the progression of disease in the host. This review will focus specifically on the interactions between Cryptococcus and dendritic cells (DCs), including recognition/processing by DCs, effects of immune mediators on DC recruitment and activity, and the potential for DC vaccination against cryptococcosis...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Sophie Vincent, Nicholas Czuzoj-Shulman, Andrea R Spence, Haim A Abenhaim
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and neonatal respiratory-related outcomes among women who underwent an elective cesarean section (CS). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s 2009-2013 period linked birth/infant death dataset. Women who had elective CSs at term were categorized by their pre-pregnancy BMI as normal, overweight, obese or morbidly obese...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Rafael E de la Hoz, Jonathan Weber, Dongming Xu, John T Doucette, Xiaoyu Liu, Deborah A Carson, Juan C Celedón
We examined the chest CT scans of 1,453 WTC responders using the International Classification of High-resolution CT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases. Univariate and bivariate analyses of potential work-related pleural abnormalities were performed with pre-WTC and WTC-related occupational exposure data, spirometry, demographics and quantitative CT measurements. Logistic regression was used to evaluate occupational predictors of those abnormalities. Chest CT scans were performed first at a median of 6...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
Hadil Ak AlOtair, Abdulaziz H Alzeer, Mohammed A Abdou, Shaden O Qasrawi
Central alveolar hypoventilation is rarely encountered. This case report describes a young woman who was recently diagnosed with hypertension and ischemic heart disease. She presented to the emergency room with hypercapnic respiratory failure, for which she was mechanically ventilated. This was preceded by an acute upper respiratory tract infection. She was initially suspected to have Guillain-Barré syndrome, but further investigations ruled out neuromuscular or autoimmune disorders. Sleep-related hypoventilation was suspected after she experienced recurrent apneas at night that resulted in re-intubation...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Heather M Young, Fumin Guo, Rachel L Eddy, Geoffrey Maksym, Grace Parraga
Ventilation heterogeneity is a hallmark finding in obstructive lung disease and may be evaluated using a variety of methods including multiple-breath gas-washout and pulmonary imaging. Such methods provide an opportunity to better understand the relationships between structural and functional abnormalities in the lungs, and their relationships with important clinical outcomes. We measured ventilation heterogeneity and respiratory impedance in 100 subjects (50 asthmatics, 22 ex-smokers and 28 COPD), using oscillometry and hyperpolarized3 He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and determined their relationships with quality-of-life scores and disease control/exacerbations...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Qian Chen, Mengyang Liu, Haiyang Yu, Jian Li, Sijian Wang, Yi Zhang, Feng Qiu, Tao Wang
Scutellaria baicalensis has been reported to improve the lipid metabolism of high-fat diet-induced liver dysfunction, but direct evidence is rare. This study aimed to explore the effects and mechanisms of S. baicalensis and its major constituent baicalin on hepatic lipotoxicity. KK-Ay mice and orotic acid (OA)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rats were used to evaluate lipid metabolism regulatory effects. Sodium oleate-induced triglyceride-accumulated HepG2 cells were used for the mechanism study, pretreated with or without compound C or STO-609 or transfected with liver kinase B1 (LKB1) siRNA...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
Manisha R Sajnani, D Sudarsanam, Ramesh J Pandit, Tejas Oza, Ankit T Hinsu, Subhash J Jakhesara, Siddhardha Solosanc, Chaitanya G Joshi, Vaibhav D Bhatt
The incidence and severity of respiratory diseases in commercial broiler chicken flocks have increased recently in India because of intensification of the broiler industry. Viral population are predominant in respiratory tract infections and they pose continuous economic burden to poultry industry by causing severe economic losses through decreased productivity [1], [2]. To understand viral metagenome of poultry associated with respiratory infections, we performed DNA virome sequencing and data analysis of broilers from 8 districts of Gujarat State in India...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Israr Bin M Ibrahim, Ramana M Pidaparti, Kevin R Ward
Ventilation-induced lung injury is a common problem faced by patients with respiratory problems who require mechanical ventilation (MV). This injury may lead to a greater chance of developing or exacerbating the acute respiratory distress syndrome which further complicates the therapeutic use of MV. The chain of events begins with the MV initiating an immune response that leads to inflammation induced tissue material alteration (stiffening) and eventually the loss of lung resistance. It is clear from this sequence of events that the phenomenon of ventilation induced injury is multi-scale by nature and, hence, requires holistic analysis involving simulations and informatics...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Alireza Sadeghnia, Behzad Koorang Beheshti, Majid Mohammadizadeh
Background: Considering all the latest achievements in neonatal respiratory care, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is still among the most prevalent morbidity causes in premature infants. Involvement in this process results in longer period of hospitalization for the newborn and in the long run makes the living conditions more difficult. Taking the multifactorial pathogenesis into account, approaches to tackle chronic lung disease (CLD) are mainly focused on interventions and prevention procedures...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Ali Abdolahnejad, Negar Jafari, Amir Mohammadi, Mohammad Miri, Yaghoub Hajizadeh
Background: The presence of air pollutants such as CO, NO2 , SO2 , O3 , and PM in the ambient air mainly emitted from fossil fuels combustion has become a major health concern. The aims of this study were to estimate the attribution of NO2 , SO2 , and O3 in the premature deaths and prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in Isfahan in 2013-2014. Methods: In this study, short-term health effects (total mortality, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute myocardial infarction) of exposure NO2 , SO2 , and O3 on the population of Isfahan were assessed using AirQ 2...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Zhaoheng Liu, Wei Wang, Fang Cao, Shuo Liu, Xinxin Zou, Guodong Li, Haojie Yang, Yang Jiao
Air pollution is the main cause of respiratory diseases. Fine particulates with the diameter below 2.5  μ m can get into the alveoli and then enter the blood circulation through the lung tissue ventilation function and cause multiple systemic diseases especially the respiratory diseases. This study investigated the pathological mechanism of the lungs injury in rats induced by PM2.5 and the effect and mechanism of the Chinese herbal medicine number 2 Feibi Recipe (number 2 FBR) on lungs injury. In this experiment, Wistar rats were used...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Francesca Ciuffini, Colin F Robertson, David G Tingay
Chronic respiratory morbidity is a common complication of premature birth, generally defined by the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, both clinically and in trials of respiratory therapies. However, recent data have highlighted that bronchopulmonary dysplasia does not correlate with chronic respiratory morbidity in older children born preterm. Longitudinally evaluating pulmonary morbidity from early life through to childhood provides a more rational method of defining the continuum of chronic respiratory morbidity of prematurity, and offers new insights into the efficacy of neonatal respiratory interventions...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Christian Viniol, Claus F Vogelmeier
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide. While COPD is a mainly chronic disease, a substantial number of patients suffer from exacerbations. Severe exacerbations are related to a significantly worse survival outcome. This review summarises the current knowledge on the different aspects of COPD exacerbations. The impact of risk factors and triggers such as smoking, severe airflow limitation, bronchiectasis, bacterial and viral infections and comorbidities is discussed...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Jie Tong, Ying Yu, Linlin Zheng, Chong Zhang, Yabin Tu, Yonggang Liu, Jianan Wu, Hai Li, Shujie Wang, Chenggang Jiang, En-Min Zhou, Gang Wang, Xuehui Cai
BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) has been responsible for several viral attacks in the Asian porcine industry, since the first outbreak in China in 2006. During the early stages of the HP-PRRSV infection, high levels of proinflammatory cytokines are noted in the host peripheral blood, which are accompanied by severe lesions in the lungs and immune system organs; these are considered as the greatest contributors to the overall disease burden...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Arthur Bill Musk, Michael Hunter, Jennie Hui, Matthew W Knuiman, Mark Divitini, John P Beilby, Alan James
OBJECTIVE: To document the changing levels of tobacco smoking, respiratory symptoms, doctor-diagnosed asthma, and lung function in Busselton adults aged 46-65 years over the past 50 years. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Repeated cross-sectional population surveys (1966 to 2010-2015) of adults registered to vote in the Busselton shire, Western Australia, including a modified version of the British Medical Research Council questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: History of doctor-diagnosed asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tobacco smoking history, respiratory medications used, spirometry parameters (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC])...
March 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Carsten Schwarz, Patrick Vandeputte, Amandine Rougeron, Sandrine Giraud, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Ludovic Duvaux, Amandine Gastebois, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Maria Teresa Martín-Gomez, Estrella Martin Mazuelos, Amparo Sole, Josep Cano, Javier Pemán, Guillermo Quindos, Françoise Botterel, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Sharon Chen, Laurence Delhaès, Loïc Favennec, Stéphane Ranque, Ludwig Sedlacek, Joerg Steinmann, Jose Vazquez, Craig Williams, Wieland Meyer, Solène Le Gal, Gilles Nevez, Maxime Fleury, Nicolas Papon, Françoise Symoens, Jean-Philippe Bouchara
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the major genetic inherited disease in Caucasian populations. The respiratory tract of CF patients displays a sticky viscous mucus, which allows for the entrapment of airborne bacteria and fungal spores and provides a suitable environment for growth of microorganisms, including numerous yeast and filamentous fungal species. As a consequence, respiratory infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in this clinical context. Although bacteria remain the most common agents of these infections, fungal respiratory infections have emerged as an important cause of disease...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Geórgia Alcântara Alencar Melo, Andrea Bezerra Rodrigues, Mariana Alves Firmeza, Alex Sandro de Moura Grangeiro, Patrícia Peres de Oliveira, Joselany Áfio Caetano
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the therapeutic effect of music on anxiety and vital parameters in patients with chronic kidney disease when compared to patients receiving conventional care in hemodialysis clinics. METHOD: randomized clinical trial conducted in three renal replacement therapy clinics. Sixty people with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis were randomly allocated to an experimental group and a control group, 30 persons per group). State anxiety was evaluated in both groups by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory...
March 8, 2018: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
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