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Respiratory disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161783/cancer-treatment-and-management-for-elderly-patients-80-years-of-age-or-older-with-malignant-solid-tumors
#1
Mao Matsubayashi, Fumihiro Oshita, Natsuki Kawata, Takafumi Yanagibashi, Satoshi Tanaka, Yoshiteru Hao, Yuichi Kurakami, Keisuke Iwabuchi, Yohsuke Kunishi, Mitsuyasu Ohta, Yuki Nakamura, Kohichiro Yoshie
We retrospectively analyzed the backgrounds, treatment and nursing care for 96 patients aged 80 years or more with malignant tumors. Twenty of them were hospitalized on an emergency basis. Sixty patients were male and 36 were female, with a median age of 83 years (range: 80-94 years). Twenty-seven had a PS of 3 or 4, and 41 were rated as not independent based on analysis of autonomy at hospitalization. Forty-seven patients had clinical stage III or IV malignancies. The proportions of patients with disease complications were 33...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161316/acute-exercise-alters-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-respiration-and-h2o2-emission-in-response-to-hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-clamp-in-middle-aged-obese-men
#2
Adam J Trewin, Itamar Levinger, Lewan Parker, Christopher S Shaw, Fabio R Serpiello, Mitchell J Anderson, Glenn K McConell, David L Hare, Nigel K Stepto
Obesity, sedentary lifestyle and aging are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity. Acute exercise increases insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle; however, whether mitochondria are involved in these processes remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of insulin stimulation at rest and after acute exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function (JO2) and hydrogen peroxide emission (JH2O2), and the associations with insulin sensitivity in obese, sedentary men...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161092/the-impact-of-diet-on-immunity-and-respiratory-diseases
#3
Tomasz P Wypych, Benjamin J Marsland, Niki D J Ubags
The Western world has witnessed a tremendous increase in the occurrence of allergy and autoimmunity in the second half of the 20th century. Extensive efforts have been made to explain this phenomenon and various hypotheses have been formulated. Among them, two concepts have attracted the most attention: the "hygiene hypothesis," identifying the reduced exposure to environmental microorganisms as a driving force behind the observed epidemiological trends; and the "diet hypotheses," pointing to the importance of changes in our dietary habits...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161076/obesity-and-metabolic-abnormalities-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
Emiel F M Wouters
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obesity are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and a relationship between COPD and obesity is increasingly recognized. The nature and underlying mechanisms of the link between obesity and COPD are still largely unknown. Obesity, and abdominal adiposity in particular, is linked to metabolic syndrome. Hypertension, hyperglycemia, and abdominal adiposity seem to be the most prevalent components of metabolic syndrome in COPD. Adipose tissues function as a source of a variety of signaling molecules in the pathobiology of respiratory diseases...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160737/community-singing-groups-for-people-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-participant-perspectives
#5
Ann Skingley, Stephen Clift, Sadie Hurley, Sonia Price, Lizzi Stephens
AIM: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health issue which is irreversible and progressive, but previous research suggests that singing may have beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to establish the views of participants with COPD taking part in a singing for better breathing programme. METHODS: This was a descriptive qualitative study nested within a single-cohort feasibility study which included measures of lung function and wellbeing...
November 1, 2017: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160197/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-group-b-streptococcus-from-laboratory-long-evans-rats-rattus-norvegicus-with-and-without-invasive-group-b-streptococcal-disease
#6
Caroline Bodi Winn, Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu, Michael Y Esmail, Yan Feng, JoAnn Dzink-Fox, Lauren Richey, Scott E Perkins, Eric K Nordberg, James G Fox
PURPOSE: Group B Streptococcus (S. agalactiae, GBS) is a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that inhabits the respiratory, urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. Maternal colonization of GBS is a risk factor for a spectrum of clinical diseases in humans and a principle cause of neonatal meningitis and septicaemia. METHODOLOGY: We describe polymicrobial sepsis including GBS in two gravid adult female Long-Evans rats experiencing acute mortality from a colony of long-term breeding pairs...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160128/hospital-utilization-for-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-in-saskatoon-canada
#7
Adrianna Gunton, Gregory Hansen, Kerri Lynn Schellenberg
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study reviewed hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in Saskatoon, Canada, between 2005 and 2017. The purpose was to understand hospital utilization and admission patterns for patients with ALS in the absence of coordinated multidisciplinary care. METHODS: Hospital/ICU admissions were detected at two hospitals in Saskatoon using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) coding for ALS...
November 21, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160099/safety-of-intradiaphragmatic-delivery-of-adeno-associated-virus-mediated-alpha-glucosidase-raav1-cmv-hgaa-gene-therapy-in-children-affected-by-pompe-disease
#8
Manuela Corti, Cristina Liberati, Barbara K Smith, Lee Ann Lawson, Ibrahim S Tuna, Thomas J Conlon, Kirsten E Erger, Saleem Islam, Roland Herzog, David D Fuller, Shelley Collins, Barry J Byrne
We conducted a first in human trial of diaphragmatic gene therapy (AAV1-CMV-GAA) to treat respiratory and neural dysfunction in early-onset Pompe disease. The primary objective of this study was to assess the safety of rAAV1-CMV-hGAA vector delivered to the diaphragm muscle of Pompe disease subjects with ventilatory insufficiency. Safety was assessed by measurement of change in serum chemistries and hematology, urinalysis, and immune response to GAA and AAV as well as change in level of health. Our data demonstrate that the AAV treatment was safe and there were no adverse events related to the study agent...
November 21, 2017: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159964/blocking-antibodies-induced-by-allergen-specific-immunotherapy-ameliorate-allergic-airway-disease-in-a-human-mouse-chimeric-model
#9
Caterina Vizzardelli, Miriam Gindl, Simone Roos, Christian Möbs, Birgit Nagl, Felix Zimmann, Veronika Sexl, Lukas Kenner, Alina Neunkirchner, Gerhard J Zlabinger, Winfried F Pickl, Wolfgang Pfützner, Barbara Bohle
BACKGROUND: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) induces specific blocking antibodies (Ab) which are claimed to prevent IgE-mediated reactions to allergens. Additionally, AIT modulates cellular responses to allergens, e.g. by desensitizing effector cells, inducing regulatory T and B lymphocytes and immune deviation. It is still enigmatic which of these mechanisms mediate(s) clinical tolerance. We sought to address the role of AIT-induced blocking Ab separately from cellular responses in a chimeric human/mouse model of respiratory allergy...
November 21, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159596/human-monoclonal-antibodies-as-candidate-therapeutics-against-emerging-viruses
#10
REVIEW
Yujia Jin, Cheng Lei, Dan Hu, Dimiter S Dimitrov, Tianlei Ying
The emergence of new pathogens, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Ebola virus, poses serious challenges to global public health and highlights the urgent need for novel antiviral approaches. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been successfully used to treat various diseases, particularly cancer and immunological disorders. Antigen-specific mAbs have been isolated using several different approaches, including hybridoma, transgenic mice, phage display, yeast display, and single B-cell isolation...
November 20, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159064/morphological-keys-to-advance-the-understanding-of-protostrongylid-biodiversity-in-caribou-rangifer-spp-at-high-latitudes
#11
Pratap Kafle, Lisa-Marie Leclerc, Morgan Anderson, Tracy Davison, Manigandan Lejeune, Susan Kutz
The Protostrongylidae is a diverse family of nematodes capable of causing significant respiratory and neuromuscular disease in their ungulate and lagomorph hosts. Establishing the species diversity and abundance of the protostrongylid fauna has been hindered because the first stage larvae, commonly referred as dorsal spined larvae (DSL), that are shed in the feces are morphologically very similar among several genera. We aimed to determine the protostrongylid diversity and distribution in caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus and R...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159034/hamman-rich-syndrome
#12
Arshiya Mastan, Nilaani Murugesu, Adil Hasnain, Terry O'Shaughnessy, Vladimir Macavei
INTRODUCTION: Acute interstitial pneumonia is a rare but important diagnosis, associated with a high mortality rate and important to identify early. CASE PRESENTATION: A 76 year-old individual presented to hospital with a two-week history of shortness of breath, fevers and a non-productive cough. Treatment initially was for lower respiratory tract infection but returned to hospital three days later as her shortness of breath and peripheral oedema was worsening despite diuretic treatment...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159031/solitary-fibrous-tumor-of-the-abdominal-wall-re-surfacing-as-unilateral-pleural-effusion-and-mass-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Xia Bi, Jixian Zhai, Carrie D Chun
Background: Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare fibroblastic mesenchymal neoplasms that were initially described in the pleura, but have been increasingly recognized to occur in other parts of the body. They have been traditionally regarded as indolent tumors that are rare to metastasize after surgical resection. Here, we describe a case of a Filipino female who initially presented with unilateral pleural effusion and mass, and was ultimately diagnosed with recurrent solitary fibrous tumor that originated from the abdominal wall...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159022/chinese-herbal-medicine-compound-yi-zhi-hao-pellet-inhibits-replication-of-influenza-virus-infection-through-activation-of-heme-oxygenase-1
#14
Jinqiu Yin, Linlin Ma, Huiqiang Wang, Haiyan Yan, Jin Hu, Wen Jiang, Yuhuan Li
As a leading cause of respiratory disease, influenza A virus (IAV) presents a pandemic threat in annual seasonal outbreaks. Given the limitation of existing anti-influenza therapies, there remains to be a requirement for new drugs. Compound Yi-Zhi-Hao pellet (CYZH) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used in the clinic, whose formula has been recorded in Complication of National Standard for Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat common cold. In this study, we found that CYZH exhibited a broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity and inhibited the expression of viral RNA and proteins in vitro...
November 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159009/myasthenia-gravis-induced-by-nivolumab-a-case-report
#15
Jeet J Mehta, Eamon Maloney, Sachin Srinivasan, Patrick Seitz, Michael Cannon
Nivolumab is a programmed cell death receptor (PD-1) inhibitor therapy for aggressive cancers; however, it poses a risk of immune-related adverse side effects. We present a 73-year-old male with renal cell carcinoma who developed myasthenia gravis (MG) after being treated with nivolumab, proven by acetylcholine receptor antibodies. Our patient presented with symptoms of fatigue and upper and lower extremity weakness, eventually resulting in respiratory failure as a result of MG. Nivolumab is an emerging therapy for advanced cancers but poses severe immune-related adverse events...
September 20, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158939/mediastinal-tracheostoma-for-treatment-of-tracheostenosis-after-tracheostomy-in-a-patient-with-mucopolysaccharidosis-induced-tracheomalacia
#16
Yasuhiro Chikaishi, Kenichi Kobayashi, Shuichi Shinohara, Akihiro Taira, Yusuke Nabe, Shinji Shinohara, Taiji Kuwata, Masaru Takenaka, Soichi Oka, Ayako Hirai, Kazue Yoneda, Koji Kuroda, Naoko Imanishi, Yoshinobu Ichiki, Fumihiro Tanaka
Background: Treatment of tracheostenosis after tracheostomy in pediatric patients is often difficult. Mucopolysaccharidosis is a lysosomal storage disease that may induce obstruction of the airways. Case Presentation: A 16-year-old male patient underwent long-term follow-up after postnatal diagnosis of type II mucopolysaccharidosis. At 11 years of age, tracheostomy was performed for mucopolysaccharidosis-induced laryngeal stenosis. One week prior to presentation, he was admitted to another hospital on an emergency basis for major dyspnea...
2017: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158922/hypoxemic-respiratory-failure-from-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-secondary-to-leptospirosis
#17
Shannon M Fernando, Pierre Cardinal, Peter G Brindley
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), characterized by hypoxemic respiratory failure, is associated with a mortality of 30-50% and is precipitated by both direct and indirect pulmonary insults. Treatment is largely supportive, consisting of lung protective ventilation and thereby necessitating Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. The most common precipitant is community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, but other putative pathogens include viruses and fungi. On rare occasions, ARDS can be secondary to tropical disease...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158824/dioscin-exerts-protective-effects-against-crystalline-silica-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-mice
#18
Chao Li, Yiping Lu, Sitong Du, Siyi Li, Yiting Zhang, Fangwei Liu, Ying Chen, Dong Weng, Jie Chen
Inhalation of crystalline silica particles leads to pulmonary fibrosis, eventually resulting in respiratory failure and death. There are few effective drugs that can delay the progression of this disease; thus, patients with silicosis are usually only offered supportive care. Dioscin, a steroidal saponin, exhibits many biological activities and health benefits including its protective effects against hepatic fibrosis. However, the effect of dioscin on silicosis is unknown. METHODS: We employed experimental mouse mode of silicosis...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157959/the-risk-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-following-influenza-virus-infection-a-systematic-and-narrative-review
#19
Ryan E Malosh, Emily T Martin, Justin R Ortiz, Arnold S Monto
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in young children and older adults. Influenza is known to cause severe disease but the risk of developing LRTI following influenza virus infection in various populations has not been systematically reviewed. Such data are important for estimating the impact specific influenza vaccine programs would have on LRTI outcomes in a community. We sought to review the published literature to determine the risk of developing LRTI following an influenza virus infection in individuals of any age...
November 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157813/anti-inflammatory-and-antiviral-activities-of-cynanversicoside-a-and-cynanversicoside-c-isolated-from-cynanchun-paniculatum-in-influenza-a-virus-infected-mice-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#20
Panying Wei, Tao Zhang, Hong Dong, Qiaohong Chen, Xiang Mu, Ge Hu
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of the influenza A virus (IAV) often occur in various avian and mammalian species, including humans, causing serious respiratory injury worldwide. Therapeutic actions are limited to vaccines and a few antiviral drugs. Combination antiviral compounds and anti-inflammatory modulators to control the propagation of viruses would be more efficient therapeutic strategies for infectious diseases. PURPOSE: This study was designed to isolate anti-inflammatory and antiviral compounds from Cynanchun paniculatum and elucidate their potential molecular mechanisms...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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