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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641590/measles-elimination-and-immunisation-national-surveillance-trends-in-japan-2008-2015
#1
S Inaida, S Matsuno, F Kobune
Measles elimination relies on vaccination programmes. In Japan, a major outbreak started in 2007. In response, 5-year two-dose catch-up vaccination programme was initiated in April 2008 for children 13-16-years-old. In this study, we analysed the epidemic curves, incidence rates for each age group, virus genotype, vaccination coverage and ratio of measles gelatin particle agglutination (PA) antibody using surveillance data for 2008-2015. Monthly case counts markedly decreased as vaccination coverage increased...
June 23, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641049/a-study-of-physicians-experiences-with-recommending-hpv-vaccines-to-adolescent-boys
#2
Li Ping Wong, Zobaida Edib, Haridah Alias, Sharina M Mohamad Shakir, Raja N A Raja Muhammad Yusoff, I-Ching Sam, Gregory D Zimet
Assessing physicians' experiences in HPV vaccine recommendation and delivery to adolescent boys is essential to providing an understanding of the issues of vaccine acceptance and an insight for policymakers to enhance HPV vaccinations among adolescent boys. Between January and April 2014 a mail survey was conducted using physicians in Malaysia known to provide either one or both HPV vaccine (Gardasil and Cervarix) immunisation services. A total of 357 completed questionnaires were received (response rate 22...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637471/enhanced-humoural-and-cellular-immune-responses-to-influenza-h7n9-antigen-ha1-2-fused-with-flagellin-in-chickens
#3
Li Song, Dan Xiong, Maozhi Hu, Xilong Kang, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
BACKGROUND: Sudden increases in the number of human A (H7N9) cases reported during December and January have been observed in previous years. Most reported infection cases are due to prior exposure to live poultry or potentially contaminated environments. Low pathogenicity of influenza A (H7N9) virus in avian species complicates timely discovery of infected birds. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safe and effective anti-H7N9 vaccines for poultry to reduce the risk of human infection and prevent the emergence of novel mutated strains...
June 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634899/primary-prevention-of-food-allergy
#4
REVIEW
Rachel L Peters, Melanie R Neeland, Katrina J Allen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarises recent developments on the prevention of food allergy in terms of the 5 D's of the development of food allergy: dry skin, diet, dogs, dribble, and vitamin D. RECENT FINDINGS: While several advances have improved our understanding of the development of food allergy, few preventive strategies have been implemented beyond changes in infant feeding guidelines. These now state that the introduction of allergenic solids such as peanuts should occur in the first year of life...
August 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629979/nasal-vaccination-with-poly-%C3%AE-amino-ester-poly-d-l-lactide-co-glycolide-hybrid-nanoparticles
#5
Genada Sinani, Melike Sessevmez, M Koray Gök, Saadet Özgümüş, Alper Okyar, H Oya Alpar, Erdal Cevher
Mucosal vaccination stimulates both mucosal and systemic immunity. However, mucosal applications of vaccine antigens in their free form generally result in poor systemic immune responses and need adjuvantation. In this study, bovine serum albumin loaded, new hybridised poly(β-amino ester)-poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsion-solvent evaporation method, characterised and evaluated in vivo as nasal vaccine carriers. Cationic spherical particles with a mean size of 240nm, good physical stability and high encapsulation efficiency were obtained...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629671/oral-immunisation-with-taishan-pinus-massoniana-pollen-polysaccharide-adjuvant-with-recombinant-lactococcus-lactis-expressing-proteus-mirabilis-ompa-confers-optimal-protection-in-mice
#6
J Zhou, K Wei, C Wang, W Dong, N Ma, L Zhu, L P Hu, H Huang, R Zhu
BACKGROUND: Proteus mirabilis poses a critical burden on the breeding industry, but no efficient vaccine is available for animals. METHOD: A recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing the ompA of P. mirabilis was used to develop a vaccine. The mucosal and systemic immune responses of the recombinant vaccine were evaluated in mice after oral immunisation. The inhibition on P. mirabilis colonisation of vaccines was also determined. Moreover, Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharides (TPPPS) were used as adjuvants to examine the immunomodulatory effects...
June 16, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626902/haemophilus-influenzae-oral-vaccination-for-preventing-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-bronchitis-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
REVIEW
Edward Teo, Kathleen Lockhart, Sai Navya Purchuri, Jennifer Pushparajah, Allan W Cripps, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are serious conditions in which patients are predisposed to viral and bacterial infections resulting in potentially fatal acute exacerbations. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is defined as a lung disease characterised by obstruction to lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing. Antibiotic therapy has not been particularly useful in eradicating bacteria such as non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) because they are naturally occurring flora of the upper respiratory tract in many people...
June 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626810/human-papillomavirus-hpv-in-young-women-in-britain-population-based-evidence-of-the-effectiveness-of-the-bivalent-immunisation-programme-and-burden-of-quadrivalent-and-9-valent-vaccine-types
#8
Clare Tanton, David Mesher, Simon Beddows, Kate Soldan, Soazig Clifton, Kavita Panwar, Nigel Field, Catherine H Mercer, Anne M Johnson, Pam Sonnenberg
BACKGROUND: In 2008, the UK introduced an HPV immunisation programme in girls. Population-based prevalence estimates of bivalent (HPV-16/18), quadrivalent (HPV-6/11/16/18) and 9-valent (HPV-6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine types, and comparison over time, are needed to monitor impact, evaluate effectiveness and guide decision-making on vaccination strategies. METHODS: The third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) in 2010-12, tested urine for HPV from 2569 sexually-experienced women aged 16-44...
June 2017: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623957/developing-a-mathematical-model-for-the-evaluation-of-the-potential-impact-of-a-partially-efficacious-vaccine-on-the-transmission-dynamics-of-schistosoma-mansoni-in-human-communities
#9
Andria Stylianou, Christoforos Hadjichrysanthou, James E Truscott, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: There is currently no vaccine available to protect humans against infection with the schistosome digenean parasites, although candidate formulations for Schistosoma mansoni are under trial in animal models, including rodents and primates. Current strategies for the control of infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) targeted at school-aged children of age 5 to 14 years. This approach is unlikely to eliminate exposure to infection except in settings with very low levels of transmission...
June 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623367/bovine-antibodies-targeting-primary-and-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-disease-are-a-potent-antibiotic-alternative
#10
Melanie L Hutton, Bliss A Cunningham, Kate E Mackin, Shelley A Lyon, Meagan L James, Julian I Rood, Dena Lyras
The increased incidence of antibiotic resistant 'superbugs' has amplified the use of broad spectrum antibiotics worldwide. An unintended consequence of antimicrobial treatment is disruption of the gastrointestinal microbiota, resulting in susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. Paradoxically, treatment of C. difficile infections (CDI) also involves antibiotic use, leaving patients susceptible to re-infection. This serious health threat has led to an urgent call for the development of new therapeutics to reduce or replace the use of antibiotics to treat bacterial infections...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623146/an-update-of-the-global-burden-of-pertussis-in-children-younger-than-5-years-a-modelling-study
#11
Karene Hoi Ting Yeung, Philippe Duclos, E Anthony S Nelson, Raymond Christiaan W Hutubessy
BACKGROUND: Since the publication in 2003 of a model to estimate the disease burden of pertussis, new evidence of the protective effect of incomplete pertussis vaccination against severe pertussis has been reported. We revised the model to provide new estimates of regional and global pertussis cases and deaths for children younger than 5 years. METHODS: We developed a revised model with data from 2014 to estimate pertussis cases and deaths. Pertussis cases were defined according to the WHO clinical case definition, as a coughing illness lasting at least 2 weeks with paroxysms of coughing, inspiratory whooping, or post-tussive vomiting...
June 13, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617335/zno-nano-rod-devices-for-intradermal-delivery-and-immunization
#12
Tapas R Nayak, Hao Wang, Aakansha Pant, Minrui Zheng, Hans Junginger, Wei Jiang Goh, Choon Keong Lee, Shui Zou, Sylvie Alonso, Bertrand Czarny, Gert Storm, Chorng Haur Sow, Chengkuo Lee, Giorgia Pastorin
Intradermal delivery of antigens for vaccination is a very attractive approach since the skin provides a rich network of antigen presenting cells, which aid in stimulating an immune response. Numerous intradermal techniques have been developed to enhance penetration across the skin. However, these methods are invasive and/or affect the skin integrity. Hence, our group has devised zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-rods for non-destructive drug delivery. Chemical vapour deposition was used to fabricate aligned nano-rods on ZnO pre-coated silicon chips...
June 15, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615990/the-challenges-and-opportunities-of-translating-best-practice-immunisation-strategies-among-low-performing-general-practices-to-reduce-equity-gaps-in-childhood-immunisation-coverage-in-new-zealand
#13
Nikki M Turner, Nadia A Charania, Angela Chong, Joanna Stewart, Lynn Taylor
BACKGROUND: Immunisation coverage rates vary considerably at the local level across New Zealand and challenges remain with effectively translating best available research evidence into public health practice. This study aimed to translate best practices from high performing general practices into strategies to improve childhood immunisation coverage among low performing practices. METHODS: An intervention study was undertaken of general practices with low immunisation coverage rates and a high percentage of the enrolled population being of Māori ethnicity...
2017: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606591/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-the-rvsv%C3%A2-g-zebov-gp-ebola-virus-vaccine-candidate-in-healthy-adults-a-phase-1b-randomised-multicentre-double-blind-placebo-controlled-dose-response-study
#14
D Gray Heppner, Tracy L Kemp, Brian K Martin, William J Ramsey, Richard Nichols, Emily J Dasen, Charles J Link, Rituparna Das, Zhi Jin Xu, Eric A Sheldon, Teresa A Nowak, Thomas P Monath
BACKGROUND: The 2014 Zaire Ebola virus outbreak highlighted the need for a safe, effective vaccine with a rapid onset of protection. We report the safety and immunogenicity of the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein vaccine (rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP) across a 6 log10 dose range in two sequential cohorts. METHODS: In this phase 1b double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study we enrolled and randomly assigned healthy adults (aged 18-61 years) at eight study sites in the USA to receive a single injection of vaccine or placebo, administered by intramuscular injection...
June 9, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604777/risk-factors-and-short-term-projections-for-serotype-1-poliomyelitis-incidence-in-pakistan-a-spatiotemporal-analysis
#15
Natalie A Molodecky, Isobel M Blake, Kathleen M O'Reilly, Mufti Zubair Wadood, Rana M Safdar, Amy Wesolowski, Caroline O Buckee, Ananda S Bandyopadhyay, Hiromasa Okayasu, Nicholas C Grassly
BACKGROUND: Pakistan currently provides a substantial challenge to global polio eradication, having contributed to 73% of reported poliomyelitis in 2015 and 54% in 2016. A better understanding of the risk factors and movement patterns that contribute to poliovirus transmission across Pakistan would support evidence-based planning for mass vaccination campaigns. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We fit mixed-effects logistic regression models to routine surveillance data recording the presence of poliomyelitis associated with wild-type 1 poliovirus in districts of Pakistan over 6-month intervals between 2010 to 2016...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604142/rubella-antibodies-in-australian-immunoglobulin-products
#16
Megan K Young, Joseph Bertolini, Pushpa Kotharu, Darryl Maher, Allan W Cripps
Rubella antibodies are not routinely measured in immunoglobulin products and there is a lack of information on the titer in Australian products. To facilitate future studies of the effectiveness of passive immunisation for preventing rubella and congenital rubella syndrome, this study measured the concentration of rubella-specific antibodies in Australian intramuscular (IM) and intravenous (IV) human immunoglobulin products suitable for post-exposure prophylaxis using a chemiluminescent immunoassay. The GMT ± GSD for the IM product was 19 ± 1...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601289/anti-inflammatory-and-immunomodulatory-potential-of-human-immunoglobulin-applied-intrathecally-in-lewis-rat-experimental-autoimmune-neuritis
#17
Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Felix Kohle, Jeremias Motte, Oluwaseun Fatoba, Xiomara Pedreiturria, Ralf Gold, Min-Suk Yoon
Intravenous human immunoglobulins dominate in the treatment of autoimmune neuropathies. We introduce intrathecal application as a new option for experimental autoimmune neuritis in Lewis rats. After immunisation with neuritogenic P2 peptide, we show a therapeutic and preventive effect of intrathecal human immunoglobulins (5-40mg/kg) on clinical and electrophysiological neuritis signs. Histology corroborated a lower degree of inflammation, demyelination, ICAM-1-dependent blood-nerve-barrier permeability and complement activation in the sciatic nerve...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594619/managing-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children
#18
Bruce C Schuster, Clare Hoare, Atanu Mukherjee, Siba Prosad Paul
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs), including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), bronchiolitis, viral-induced wheeze and croup, account for more primary care consultations than any other illness group and are the most likely reason for a parent or carer to contact a health professional. The majority of RTIs in fully immunised children are usually self-limiting. However, in a small percentage of children RTIs may become life threatening and it is crucial that all front-line health professionals are able to recognise and identify these children who are at risk of deterioration...
June 8, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592303/assessing-the-efficiency-of-catch-up-campaigns-for-the-introduction-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-a-modelling-study-based-on-data-from-pcv10-introduction-in-kilifi-kenya
#19
Stefan Flasche, John Ojal, Olivier Le Polain de Waroux, Mark Otiende, Katherine L O'Brien, Moses Kiti, D James Nokes, W John Edmunds, J Anthony G Scott
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation recommends the use of catch-up campaigns as part of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) to accelerate herd protection and hence PCV impact. The value of a catch-up campaign is a trade-off between the costs of vaccinating additional age groups and the benefit of additional direct and indirect protection. There is a paucity of observational data, particularly from low- and middle-income countries, to quantify the optimal breadth of such catch-up campaigns...
June 7, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592273/research-on-subgroups-is-not-research-on-equity-attributes-evidence-from-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews-on-vaccination
#20
REVIEW
Xavier Bosch-Capblanch, Meike-Kathrin Zuske, Christian Auer
BACKGROUND: Equity remains a priority in the international health development agenda. However, major inequities in vaccination coverage jeopardise the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. We aim at comprehensively describing how research has addressed equity issues related to vaccination. METHODS: We carried out an overview of systematic reviews (SRs) that explicitly explored the effects of interventions to improve vaccination in any context; for any vaccine and, in any language...
June 7, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
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