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Medical marijuana epidemiology

Nicholas Pintori, Barbara Loi, Maddalena Mereu
Spice drugs are herbal mixtures sprayed with synthetic cannabinoids designed to mimic the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana [Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC)] and synthesized by introducing modifications to the chemical structure of parental compounds aiming to circumvent legal regulations. Synthetic cannabinoid use/abuse can be devastating as toxicological effects and adverse reactions cannot be entirely predicted and may vary with the dose, route of administration, individual vulnerability and concomitant intake with other drugs...
July 7, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
Deborah S Hasin, Aaron L Sarvet, Magdalena Cerdá, Katherine M Keyes, Malka Stohl, Sandro Galea, Melanie M Wall
Importance: Over the last 25 years, illicit cannabis use and cannabis use disorders have increased among US adults, and 28 states have passed medical marijuana laws (MML). Little is known about MML and adult illicit cannabis use or cannabis use disorders considered over time. Objective: To present national data on state MML and degree of change in the prevalence of cannabis use and disorders. Design, Participants, and Setting: Differences in the degree of change between those living in MML states and other states were examined using 3 cross-sectional US adult surveys: the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey (NLAES; 1991-1992), the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; 2001-2002), and the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III; 2012-2013)...
June 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
Bryce Pardo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In the United States, overdose deaths attributed to opioid pain relievers (OPR) have quadrupled since 1999, prompting many states to adopt Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PMP). This study aimed to: (1) estimate the relationship of PMP strength with OPR overdose deaths across states and over time; (2) measure what threshold in PMP strength is associated with the greatest reduction in OPR overdose; and (3) assess the relationship of medical marijuana dispensaries with OPR overdose deaths...
December 23, 2016: Addiction
James C Anthony, Catalina Lopez-Quintero, Omayma Alshaarawy
BACKGROUND: Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis. OBJECTIVE: To review evidence from epidemiological research on cannabis, organized in relation to this field's five main rubrics: quantity, location, causes, mechanisms, and prevention/ control. METHOD: The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July 2016...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Chittaranjan Andrade
Psychosis is one of the most serious among the adverse effects associated with cannabis use. The association between cannabis use and psychosis has been variously explored in a series of recent meta-analyses. The results of these meta-analyses show that persons who develop psychosis experience onset of psychosis about 2-3 years earlier if they are cannabis users; this effect is not observed with alcohol or other substance use. Higher levels of cannabis use are associated with greater risk of psychosis. Current cannabis abuse or dependence (but not past use or lower levels of current use) increases the risk of transition into psychosis in persons at ultrahigh risk of psychosis...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Mark M Silvestri, Christopher J Correia
Recent epidemiological data indicate an increasing trend in the nonmedical use of prescription drugs among college students. The nonmedical use of prescription drugs involves using a prescription medication without a prescription, or using the medication in a manner inconsistent with a health care provider's instructions. Among college students, prescription stimulants have the highest ratio of nonmedical to medical use and the highest rate of illicit selling and trading on college campuses. The increased prevalence is accompanied by increased risk, as 18-25-year-olds have the highest rate of emergency department visits for nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS)...
2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Carlos Blanco, Deborah S Hasin, Melanie M Wall, Ludwing Flórez-Salamanca, Nicolas Hoertel, Shuai Wang, Bradley T Kerridge, Mark Olfson
IMPORTANCE: With rising rates of marijuana use in the general population and an increasing number of states legalizing recreational marijuana use and authorizing medical marijuana programs, there are renewed clinical and policy concerns regarding the mental health effects of cannabis use. OBJECTIVE: To examine prospective associations between cannabis use and risk of mental health and substance use disorders in the general adult population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A nationally representative sample of US adults aged 18 years or older was interviewed 3 years apart in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (wave 1, 2001-2002; wave 2, 2004-2005)...
April 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Timmen L Cermak
This article begins with a case vignette exemplifying the common clinical problem of heavy marijuana users. The epidemiology and basic science underlying cannabis dependence is outlined, followed by clinical strategies for basing a therapeutic alliance on known research findings and using motivational interviewing to deal with typical patterns of denial.
January 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Ivan Senta, Ivona Krizman, Marijan Ahel, Senka Terzic
Besides the common illicit drugs, such as cocaine, heroin, and marijuana, there is a growing concern about the use of modern "designer drugs" that have emerged in large numbers over the past few years. In this work, a sensitive and selective method for simultaneous determination of 25 synthetic amphetamine-like psychoactive compounds, including amphetamine, sympathomimetic substituted amphetamines, synthetic cathinones and ketamine, in raw wastewater (RW), secondary effluent (SE) and river water was developed...
December 18, 2015: Journal of Chromatography. A
Daryl Shorter, John Hsieh, Thomas R Kosten
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) frequently co-occur, and their combination can increase poor health outcomes as well as mortality. METHODS: Using PUBMED and the list of references from key publications, this review article covered the epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacotherapy of PTSD with comorbid alcohol, opiate, and cannabis use disorders. These SUD represent two with and one without FDA approved pharmacotherapies...
December 2015: American Journal on Addictions
Jessica A Kahn, Bret J Rudy, Jiahong Xu, Elizabeth A Secord, Bill G Kapogiannis, Sarah Thornton, Maura L Gillison
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the epidemiology or risk factors for oral human papillomavirus (HPV) in HIV-infected youth. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and correlates of oral HPV infection and to explore the association between HPV vaccination and oral infection in HIV-infected youth. METHODS: Youth 12 to 24 years of age with behaviorally acquired HIV were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Procedures involved medical chart review, survey, and collection of an oral rinse sample...
May 2015: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Michael D Stein, Debra S Herman, Genie L Bailey, John Straus, Bradley J Anderson, Lisa A Uebelacker, Risa B Weisberg
BACKGROUND: Pain and depression are each prevalent among opioid dependent patients receiving maintenance buprenorphine, but their interaction has not been studied in primary care patients. OBJECTIVE: We set out to examine the relationship between chronic pain, depression, and ongoing substance use, among persons maintained on buprenorphine in primary care settings. DESIGN: Between September 2012 and December 2013, we interviewed buprenorphine patients at three practice sites...
July 2015: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Scott E Hadland, John R Knight, Sion K Harris
Marijuana policy is rapidly evolving in the United States and elsewhere, with cannabis sales fully legalized and regulated in some jurisdictions and use of the drug for medicinal purposes permitted in many others. Amidst this political change, patients and families are increasingly asking whether cannabis and its derivatives may have therapeutic utility for a number of conditions, including developmental and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents. This review examines the epidemiology of cannabis use among children and adolescents, including those with developmental and behavioral diagnoses...
February 2015: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Seth Ammerman, Sheryl Ryan, William P Adelman
This technical report updates the 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics technical report on the legalization of marijuana. Current epidemiology of marijuana use is presented, as are definitions and biology of marijuana compounds, side effects of marijuana use, and effects of use on adolescent brain development. Issues concerning medical marijuana specifically are also addressed. Concerning legalization of marijuana, 4 different approaches in the United States are discussed: legalization of marijuana solely for medical purposes, decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana, legalization of recreational use of marijuana, and criminal prosecution of recreational (and medical) use of marijuana...
March 2015: Pediatrics
Randy A Sansone, Lori A Sansone
Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol)...
July 2014: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
A Martínez Monseny, L Martínez Sánchez, A Margarit Soler, V Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, C Luaces Cubells
INTRODUCTION: A medical visit for plant ingestion is rare in the pediatric emergency services but may involve a high toxicity. The botanical toxicology training of health staff is often very limited, and it can be difficult to make a diagnosis or decide on the appropriate treatment. OBJECTIVE: To study the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of poisoning due to plant ingestion in order to increase the knowledge of the health professional. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive retrospective study was conducted on patients seen in a pediatric emergency department after the ingestion of plant substances from January 2008 to December 2012...
May 2015: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Joseph Schuermeyer, Stacy Salomonsen-Sautel, Rumi Kato Price, Sundari Balan, Christian Thurstone, Sung-Joon Min, Joseph T Sakai
BACKGROUND: In 2009, policy changes were accompanied by a rapid increase in the number of medical marijuana cardholders in Colorado. Little published epidemiological work has tracked changes in the state around this time. METHODS: Using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we tested for temporal changes in marijuana attitudes and marijuana-use-related outcomes in Colorado (2003-11) and differences within-year between Colorado and thirty-four non-medical-marijuana states (NMMS)...
July 1, 2014: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
E Jennifer Edelman, Jeanette M Tetrault, David A Fiellin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Substance use may persist throughout the life course and has a substantial impact on health outcomes globally. As HIV-infected individuals are disproportionately impacted by substance use and living longer, it is critical that providers and researchers alike understand the impact of substance use on older, HIV-infected patients and potential treatment options. To this end, we conducted a review of the literature focusing on the most commonly used substances to outline the epidemiology, health consequences, treatment options and latest research relevant to older, HIV-infected patients...
July 2014: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Hong-Qiang Sun, Hong-Mei Chen, Fu-De Yang, Lin Lu, Thomas R Kosten
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) have quickly spread and been widely abused in many parts of the world, particularly in China. This review focuses on and describes the epidemiological trends and the advances of treatments of ATS in China. METHODS: A descriptive study based on literature identified from searches of the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979-2013), PubMed databases, hand-picked references, and online references with emphasis on epidemiology, treatment and traditional Chinese medicine...
May 2014: American Journal on Addictions
Mark J Neavyn, Eike Blohm, Kavita M Babu, Steven B Bird
Medical marijuana remains a highly debated treatment regimen despite removal of state penalties against care providers prescribing the drug and patients treated with the drug in many areas of the USA. The utility of marijuana in specific medical conditions has been studied at length, but its effects on driving performance and risk of motor vehicle collision remain unclear. As with other medications that affect psychomotor function, the healthcare provider should be informed of the potential risks of driver safety prior to prescribing this psychotropic drug to give appropriate anticipatory guidance for appropriate use...
September 2014: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
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