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Marijuana use in women

Kristi E Gamarel, Larry Brown, Christopher W Kahler, M Isabel Fernandez, Douglas Bruce, Sharon Nichols
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to better understand the prevalence and correlates of substance use behaviors among HIV-infected adolescents in HIV care settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 2216 youth living with HIV (YLWH; ages 12-26) were recruited through the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV Interventions. Participants completed a one-time survey on sociodemographic factors, substance use and health behaviors. We used logistic regression models to understand the correlates of substance use outcomes...
October 11, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Megan E Patrick, Deborah D Kloska, Sara A Vasilenko, Stephanie T Lanza
Perceived social norms of substance use are commonly identified as a risk factor for use. How the strength of association between perceived friends' use and substance use may change across development has not yet been documented. The current analysis considers how the associations between perceived friends' marijuana use and participants' own use of any marijuana in the past year changes from ages 18 to 30 using longitudinal data from the United States national Monitoring the Future study from 1976 to 2014 (N = 30,794 people)...
October 13, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Tabia Henry-Akintobi, Nastassia Laster, Jennie Trotter, DeBran Jacobs, Tarita Johnson, Tandeca King Gordon, Assia Miller
African American women have among the highest HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C incidence rates in the United States, especially among those homeless or incarcerated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Health Enlightenment, Awareness and Living Intervention, designed to decrease HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and related risky behaviors. The thirteen-session intervention was implemented among homeless and formerly incarcerated low-income African American women, ages 18 to 55, in Atlanta, Georgia from 2006 to 2010...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mindy G Kohsman
Neonatal nurses frequently care for babies who have been exposed in utero to potentially harmful substances, both licit and illicit. The risks to the fetus from nicotine, marijuana, alcohol, and opiates are significant. Adverse effects from environmental factors may confound pharmacologic effects of substances. Nurses are called to shift the perception of substance use disorder from that of willful harm to the fetus to that of an opportunity to provide treatment assistance that can positively affect child health and development...
2016: Neonatal Network: NN
Shayna N Conner, Victoria Bedell, Kim Lipsey, George A Macones, Alison G Cahill, Methodius G Tuuli
OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether marijuana use in pregnancy increases risks for adverse neonatal outcomes and clarify if any increased risk is attributable to marijuana use itself or to confounding factors such as tobacco use. DATA SOURCES: Two authors performed a search of the data through August 2015 utilizing PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane reviews,, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We looked at observational studies that compared rates of prespecified adverse neonatal outcomes in women who used marijuana during pregnancy with women who did not...
October 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Michele R Decker, Lorie Benning, Kathleen M Weber, Susan G Sherman, Adebola Adedimeji, Tracey E Wilson, Jennifer Cohen, Michael W Plankey, Mardge H Cohen, Elizabeth T Golub
INTRODUCTION: Gender-based violence (GBV) threatens women's health and safety. Few prospective studies examine physical and sexual violence predictors. Baseline/index GBV history and polyvictimization (intimate partner violence, non-partner sexual assault, and childhood sexual abuse) were characterized. Predictors of physical and sexual violence were evaluated over follow-up. METHODS: HIV-infected and uninfected participants (n=2,838) in the Women's Interagency HIV Study provided GBV history; 2,669 participants contributed 26,363 person years of follow-up from 1994 to 2014...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Rebekah J Savage, Vinetra L King, C Brendan Clark, Karen L Cropsey
PURPOSE: Initiation of marijuana during adolescence is associated with negative outcomes and is more common among those with criminal justice involvement. We sought to determine demographics, psychosocial factors, mental health factors, and criminal outcomes associated with earlier age at first marijuana use in a criminal justice population. METHODS: Data from structured, in-person interviews of adults in a criminal corrections program were analyzed. Participants (689 men and women ages 19 and older) were recruited for a larger smoking cessation trial (2009-2013) as a volunteer sample by flyers at a community corrections site...
August 10, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Cindy L Ehlers, Corinne Kim, David A Gilder, Gina M Stouffer, Raul Caetano, Rachel Yehuda
Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs. Six hundred fourteen young adults (age 18-30 yrs) of Mexican American heritage, largely second generation, were recruited from the community and assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and an acculturation stress scale...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Kimberlei A Richardson, Allison K Hester, Gabrielle L McLemore
As more states and countries legalize medical and/or adult recreational marijuana use, the incidences of Prenatal Cannabis Exposure (PCE) will likely increase. While young people increasingly view marijuana as innocuous, marijuana preparations have been growing in potency in recent years, potentially creating global clinical, public health, and workforce concerns. Unlike fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, there is no phenotypic syndrome associated with PCE. There is also no preponderance of evidence that PCE causes lifelong cognitive, behavioral, or functional abnormalities, and/or susceptibility to subsequent addiction...
August 24, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Ariel Ketcherside, Jessica Baine, Francesca Filbey
BACKGROUND: Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the primary ingredient in marijuana, exerts its effects across several neurological and biological systems that interact with the endocrine system. Thus, differential effects of Δ(9)-THC are likely to exist based on sex and hormone levels. METHODS: We reviewed the existing literature to determine sex-based effects of Δ(9)-THC on neural structure and functioning. RESULTS: The literature demonstrates differences in male and female marijuana users on brain structure, reward processing, attention, motor coordination, and sensitivity to withdrawal...
2016: Current Addiction Reports
Kate Vallance, Eric Roth, Kara Thompson, Clifton Chow, Gina Martin
BACKGROUND: Heavy episodic drinking (HED) has negative consequences for both the individual and society. Research on HED has focused mainly on the general population while research into HED and other drug use among recreational drug using populations is less developed. OBJECTIVES: This study explores factors related to HED on a previous weekend among male and female recreational drug users. METHODS: Cross-sectional interviews were undertaken with those age 19+ who regularly use recreational drugs in a nightlife setting in two cities in Canada (n = 931) between 2008 and 2014...
November 9, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Natasha Slesnick, Jing Zhang
Family systems therapy has shown to be a powerful adjunct to substance use treatment for couples and for adolescent substance users (Rowe, 2012). However, studies including children (8-16 years of age) in the treatment of their substance using mothers have been overlooked and are essentially nonexistent. Addressing the quality of the mother-child relationship and communication through family systems therapy may prove to be a potent intervention focus for improving mothers' substance use outcomes and parent-child interaction...
September 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Anjali Sharma, Donald R Hoover, Qiuhu Shi, Susan Holman, Michael W Plankey, Amber L Wheeler, Kathleen Weber, Michelle Floris-Moore, Hector H Bolivar, David E Vance, Wendy J Mack, Elizabeth T Golub, Marcia McDonnell Holstad, Michael T Yin
BACKGROUND: To determine the frequency and risk factors for falls among middle-aged HIV+ and HIV- women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). METHODS: We quantified self-report of any and multiple (≥2 falls) in the prior 6 months among 1,412 HIV+ and 650 HIV- women with mean age 48 years. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations of demographics, behavioral factors, comorbid conditions, and medications with odds of any fall (vs. none) and multiple falls (vs...
July 18, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Naana Afua Jumah
The nature, impact, and treatment of substance use during pregnancy are well described for women living in urban settings. Less is known about pregnant substance-using women living in rural communities. The objective of this review is to describe the existing evidence for the management of substance use in pregnant women living in rural areas. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Lisa K Brents
Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles...
June 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Pritika C Kumar, Charles M Cleland, Marc N Gourevitch, John Rotrosen, Shiela Strauss, Linnea Russell, Jennifer McNeely
BACKGROUND: An Audio Computer-assisted Self Interview (ACASI) version of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) could reduce barriers to substance use screening and assessment in primary care settings. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of an ACASI ASSIST for identification of unhealthy substance use and substance use disorders (SUD). METHODS: 399 adult patients were consecutively recruited from an urban safety-net primary care clinic...
August 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Emeka W Dumbili
BACKGROUND: Alcohol misuse among young people is a global phenomenon. In many countries, young people engage in heavy drinking and this exacerbates risky sexual behaviour. In Nigeria, alcohol held multiple roles in the traditional era but was mainly consumed by adult males for pleasure. Adult females and young people were culturally constrained from drinking in most communities. In contemporary Nigeria, young people's drinking is increasing, and many engage in sexual intercourse under the influence of alcohol...
2016: BMC Public Health
Lisette P Irarrázabal, Lilian Ferrer, Natalia Villegas, Sebastián Sanhueza, Yerko Molina, Rosina Cianelli
INTRODUCTION: Women represent 15% of the people living with HIV in Chile. Risk behaviors for HIV are: multiple partners, unsafe sex, and exchange of sex for drugs/money. METHODOLOGY: A correlational design was used. A sample of 203 women who were sexually active and consumed substances within the last 3-months were selected for this study. RESULTS: The average age of the participants was 32.4 years (SD = 9.2) and 68.1% were housewives. The substance most commonly used was alcohol (95...
June 2016: Hispanic Health Care International: the Official Journal of the National Association of Hispanic Nurses
Deborah A Salani, Martin Zdanowicz, Laly Joseph
Heroin use has increased significantly in the United States over the past decade. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, heroin use has increased 63% between 2002 and 2013. Heroin-related overdose deaths have increased four-fold over the same time period. The National Center for Health Statistics reported heroin-related deaths were higher for men (N = 6,525) than women (N = 1,732). Traditionally, heroin users are men ages 18 to 25 with low incomes, but the demographics of heroin users have changed to include individuals with higher incomes and private insurance, as well as non-Hispanic White women...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Alexandra J White, Dale P Sandler, Aimee A D'Aloisio, Frank Stanczyk, Kristina W Whitworth, Donna D Baird, Hazel B Nichols
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate exposure to tobacco, marijuana, and indoor heating/cooking sources in relation to antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis in a sample of premenopausal women (n = 913) enrolled in the Sister Study cohort (n = 50,884). SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Women, ages 35-54 years at time of enrollment, with an archived serum sample and at least one intact ovary and classified as premenopausal...
September 1, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
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