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Occipital epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166136/the-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-b-receptor-gabab-encephalitis-clinical-manifestations-and-response-to-immunotherapy
#1
Junzhao Cui, Hui Bu, Junying He, Zeyan Zhao, Weixin Han, Ruiping Gao, Xiaoqing Li, Qing Li, Xiaosu Guo, Yueli Zou
PURPOSE: We report 11 patients diagnosed with GABAB receptor (GABABR) antibodies encephalitis in China and aim to analyse the clinical characteristics, laboratory and imaging findings, therapeutic modalities and outcomes. METHODS: Clinical data from patients diagnosed with anti-GABAB receptor encephalitis in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University from February 2016 to October 2016 January were retrospectively collected and evaluated. RESULTS: Seven of the eleven patients were males, and a mean age at presentation of 63 years (range: 47-79 years)...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140463/anatomic-investigation-of-the-trajectory-for-stereotactic-laser-amygdalohippocampectomy
#2
Vanessa M Holanda, Abuzer Gungor, Serhat Baydin, Erik H Middlebrooks, Shabbar F Danish
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) has emerged as a promising treatment for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Surgeons must understand the relevant anatomy that is traversed by the catheter and affected by ablation. OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomic structures crossed by the LITT catheter until it reaches the amygdala. METHODS: Three human cadaveric heads were implanted with catheters using a frameless stereotactic technique...
November 11, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122895/migration-of-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-to-urethral-and-rectal-orifices
#3
Banan Osman, Stella Roushias, Rachel Hargest, Krishna Narahari
Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery remains the most widely used neurosurgical procedure for the management of hydrocephalus. However, shunt complications are common and may require multiple surgical procedures during a patient's lifetime. We report the case of a 29-year-old patient with a background of Dandy-Walker malformation, occipital encephalocele, recurrent hydrocephalus, spina bifida and epilepsy presented with VP shunt migration into urinary and gastrointestinal tracts. In absence of sepsis or peritonism from either bowel or bladder perforation, local control of stent extrusion was successful for several years, although surgery was eventually undertaken...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076788/relationship-between-cortical-resection-and-visual-function-after-occipital-lobe-epilepsy-surgery
#4
Won Heo, June Sic Kim, Chun Kee Chung, Sang Kun Lee
OBJECTIVE In this study, the authors investigated long-term clinical and visual outcomes of patients after occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) surgery and analyzed the relationship between visual cortical resection and visual function after OLE surgery. METHODS A total of 42 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with OLE and underwent occipital lobe resection between June 1995 and November 2013 were included. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological data were reviewed retrospectively. Seizure outcomes were categorized according to the Engel classification...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064616/gain-of-function-hcn2-variants-in-genetic-epilepsy
#5
Melody Li, Snezana Maljevic, A Marie Phillips, Slave Petrovski, Michael Hildebrand, Rosemary Burgess, Therese Mount, Federico Zara, Pasquale Striano, Julian Schubert, Holger Thiele, Peter Nürnberg, Michael Wong, Judith L Weisenberg, Liu Lin Thio, Holger Lerche, Ingrid E Scheffer, Samuel F Berkovic, Steven Petrou, Christopher A Reid
Genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) is a common epilepsy syndrome that encompasses seizure disorders characterized by spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs). Pacemaker hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (HCN) are considered integral to SWD genesis, making them an ideal gene candidate for GGE. We identified HCN2 missense variants from a large cohort of 585 GGE patients, recruited by the Epilepsy Phenome-Genome Project (EPGP), and performed functional analysis using two-electrode voltage clamp recordings from Xenopus oocytes...
October 24, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062689/occipital-dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumor-presenting-as-adult-onset-temporal-epilepsy
#6
Riddhi Patira, Cody Nathan, Sarah Zubkov, Camilo Gutierrez, Charles Munyon, Abir Mukherjee, Mercedes Jacobson
Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET) is a benign brain tumor which commonly presents as childhood-onset temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We present a case of histologically proven DNET with a clinical presentation and scalp EEG suggestive of adult-onset TLE. MRI showed an occipital lesion. PET showed abnormal metabolism of the occipital lesion and the ipsilateral temporal lobe; raising concern for an abnormal functional network reorganization. Intracranial EEG showed interictal spikes and seizures originating from the occipital lesion with no seizures emanating from the temporal lobe...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060677/localization-of-stereo-electroencephalography-signals-using-a-finite-difference-complete-electrode-model
#7
Damon E Hyde, Xavier Tomas-Fernandez, Scellig S Stone, Jurriaan Peters, Simon K Warfield
Surgical intervention in epilepsy aims to eliminate seizures in refractory patients by resecting the tissue responsible for seizure onset. Stereo-electroencephalography (sEEG) provides highly accurate but invasive electrophysiological measurements using narrow multi-contact electrodes implanted stereotactically through small holes in the skull. However, the three dimensional nature of sEEG measurements make observed seizure onsets difficult to associate with physical cortical regions. Three dimensional source localization from sEEG measurements can improve the interpretation of this data, but requires more accurate modeling as compared to localization from scalp EEG...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993753/electroencephalography-in-the-diagnosis-of-genetic-generalized-epilepsy-syndromes
#8
REVIEW
Udaya Seneviratne, Mark J Cook, Wendyl Jude D'Souza
Genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) consists of several syndromes diagnosed and classified on the basis of clinical features and electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities. The main EEG feature of GGE is bilateral, synchronous, symmetric, and generalized spike-wave complex. Other classic EEG abnormalities are polyspikes, epileptiform K-complexes and sleep spindles, polyspike-wave discharges, occipital intermittent rhythmic delta activity, eye-closure sensitivity, fixation-off sensitivity, and photoparoxysmal response...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963933/functional-surgery-in-pediatric-drug-resistant-posterior-cortex-epilepsy-electro-clinical-findings-cognitive-and-seizure-outcome
#9
A Sierra-Marcos, M C Fournier-Del Castillo, J Álvarez-Linera, M Budke, M García-Fernández, M A Pérez-Jiménez
PURPOSE: Epilepsies originated from the occipital, parietal and/or the posterior edge of the temporal lobe are grouped together into posterior cortex epilepsy (PCE). Our objective was firstly to describe electro-clinical and imaging findings in the presurgical evaluation of children with PCE, and secondly to identify potential factors associated with surgical and cognitive outcomes. METHOD: From the total of patients referred to the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit of 'Hospital Universitario Niño Jesús' from 2003 to 2016, 55 had drug-resistant PCE...
September 22, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929921/clinical-implications-of-interictal-epileptiform-discharges-in-cognitive-functioning-in-cec-syndrome-with-evolution-into-epileptic-encephalopathy
#10
Paolo Bonanni, Susanna Negrin, Lisa Antoniazzi, Martina Da Rold, Franco Fabbro, Anna Serafini
In epileptic encephalopathies (EE), interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) contribute to cognitive impairment. The EE process has been studied in a patient affected by epilepsy with occipital calcification and celiac disease (CEC syndrome) by combining the administration of brain area stimulus specific (visual and auditory) reaction times (RT) during continuous EEG monitoring with the off-line reconstruction of auditory and visual evoked potentials (EP). Visual RT and VEP were abnormal only if recorded concomitantly to the IEDs...
September 20, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918128/whole-network-temporal-and-parietal-lobe-contributions-to-the-earliest-phases-of-language-production
#11
Alessandro Principe, Marco Calabria, Adrià Tauste Campo, Josephine Cruzat, Gerardo Conesa, Albert Costa, Rodrigo Rocamora
We investigated whether it is possible to study the network dynamics and the anatomical regions involved in the earliest moments of picture naming by using invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) traces to predict naming errors. Four right-handed participants with focal epilepsy explored with extensive stereotactic implant montages that recorded temporal, parietal and occipital regions -in two patients of both hemispheres-named a total of 228 black and white pictures in three different sessions recorded in different days...
August 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891522/impairments-of-cingulated-cortex-in-the-generalized-tonic-clonic-seizure-epilepsy-by%C3%A2-combining-morphological-and-functional-connectivity-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#12
Ming Ke, Bixia Jin, Guangyao Liu, Xiaoping Yang
Previous studies suggested that the patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizure had structural abnormalities in the thalamus, cingulated cortex and some other specific brain regions. Concurrently, the abnormality in thalamocortical network and basal ganglia network has been found in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. The cingulated cortex, a nexus of information processing and regulation in human brain, is implicated in the propagation of generalized spike in IGE and the previous studies have suggested that the structural features and functional connectivity of the cingulated cortex have been changed...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837072/understanding-the-epilepsy-in-polg-related-disease
#13
REVIEW
Omar Hikmat, Tom Eichele, Charalampos Tzoulis, Laurence A Bindoff
Epilepsy is common in polymerase gamma (POLG) related disease and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Epileptiform discharges typically affect the occipital regions initially and focal seizures, commonly evolving to bilateral convulsive seizures which are the most common seizure types in both adults and children. Our work has shown that mtDNA depletion-i.e., the quantitative loss of mtDNA-in neurones is the earliest and most important factor of the subsequent development of cellular dysfunction...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836813/the-trip-of-a-lifetime-hallucinogen-persisting-perceptual-disorder
#14
Lauren Anderson, Hannah Lake, Mark Walterfang
OBJECTIVES: The differential diagnosis of psychotic symptoms is broad and extends beyond primary psychotic and affective disorders. We aim to illustrate that the chronology and phenomenological nature of hallucinatory symptoms may provide clues towards alternative diagnoses, such as hallucinogen persisting perceptual disorder (HPPD). We describe the resurgence of visual pseudo-hallucinations in a young woman in the context of previous substance-induced hallucinatory symptoms and a prior diagnosis of occipital lobe epilepsy...
August 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833053/a-distinct-clinicopathological-variant-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-iiid-characterized-by-loss-of-layer-4-in-the-occipital-lobe-in-12-children-with-remote-hypoxic-ischemic-injury
#15
Dan-Dan Wang, Yue-Shan Piao, Ingmar Blumcke, Roland Coras, Wen-Jing Zhou, Qiu-Ping Gui, Cui-Cui Liu, Jing-Xia Hu, Li-Zhen Cao, Guo-Jun Zhang, De-Hong Lu
OBJECTIVE: In 2011, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) proposed a consensus classification system of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) to distinguish clinicopathological subtypes, for example, "isolated" FCD type Ia-c and IIa-b, versus "associated" FCD type IIIa-d. The histopathological differentiation of FCD type I and III variants remains, however, a challenging issue in everyday practice. We present a unique histopathological pattern in patients with difficult-to-diagnose FCD, which highlights this dilemma, but also helps to refine the current ILAE classification scheme of FCD...
October 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832005/the-use-of-single-bipolar-scalp-derivation-for-the-detection-of-ictal-events-during-long-term-eeg-monitoring
#16
Frank C Bennis, Evelien E Geertsema, Demetrios N Velis, Elise Em Reus, Gerhard H Visser
Epilepsy is difficult to diagnose using routine EEG recordings of short duration in patients who have low seizure frequency. Long-term EEG may be useful but is impractical in an out-of-hospital setting. We investigated whether single-channel scalp EEG placed behind the earlobe is suitable for seizure identification during prolonged EEG monitoring. Scalp EEG samples were selected from subjects over 15 years of age, and comprised two segments of either background followed by seizure or background followed by background...
September 1, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828916/magnetoencephalographic-identification-of-epileptic-focus-in-children-with-generalized-electroencephalographic-eeg-features-but-focal-imaging-abnormalities
#17
Garima Shukla, Jin Kazutaka, Ajay Gupta, John Mosher, Stephen Jones, Andreas Alexopoulos, Richard C Burgess
PURPOSE: Children with generalized seizures are often excluded as epilepsy surgery candidates. This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the utility of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to refine the location of the "irritative zone" in children with single lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but with generalized ictal electroencephalographic (EEG) findings. METHODS: Patients admitted with refractory epilepsy with imaging studies showing focal or hemispheric abnormalities but scalp video EEG showing generalized or multiregional epileptiform abnormalities were included...
October 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774647/discrimination-of-a-medial-functional-module-within-the-temporal-lobe-using-an-effective-connectivity-model-a-ccep-study
#18
Julien Krieg, Laurent Koessler, Jacques Jonas, Sophie Colnat-Coulbois, Jean-Pierre Vignal, Christian G Bénar, Louis G Maillard
The temporal lobe is classically divided in two functional systems: the ventral visual pathway and the medial temporal memory system. However, their functional separation has been challenged by studies suggesting that the medial temporal lobe could be best understood as an extension of the hierarchically organized ventral visual pathway. Our purpose was to investigate (i) whether cerebral regions within the temporal lobe could be grouped into distinct functional assemblies, and (ii) which regions were central within these functional assemblies...
November 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752060/sleep-onset-uncovers-thalamic-abnormalities-in-patients-with-idiopathic-generalised-epilepsy
#19
Andrew P Bagshaw, Joanne R Hale, Brunno M Campos, David T Rollings, Rebecca S Wilson, Marina K M Alvim, Ana Carolina Coan, Fernando Cendes
The thalamus is crucial for sleep regulation and the pathophysiology of idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE), and may serve as the underlying basis for the links between the two. We investigated this using EEG-fMRI and a specific emphasis on the role and functional connectivity (FC) of the thalamus. We defined three types of thalamic FC: thalamocortical, inter-hemispheric thalamic, and intra-hemispheric thalamic. Patients and controls differed in all three measures, and during wakefulness and sleep, indicating disorder-dependent and state-dependent modification of thalamic FC...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741622/in-vivo-detection-of-cpp-115-target-engagement-in-human-brain
#20
Andrew P Prescot, Steven R Miller, Gary Ingenito, Rebekah S Huber, Douglas G Kondo, Perry F Renshaw
CPP-115, a next-generation γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-aminotransferase (AT) inhibitor, shows comparable pharmacokinetics, improved safety and tolerability, and a more favorable toxicity profile when compared to vigabatrin. The pharmacodynamic characteristics of CPP-115 remain to be evaluated. The present study employed state-of-the-art proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques to measure changes in brain GABA+ (the composite resonance of GABA, homocarnosine, and macromolecules) concentrations in healthy subjects receiving oral daily doses of CPP-115 or placebo...
July 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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